All cellular membranes are composed from a ____ with ____ facing the outside and interacting with ____.
lipid bilayer; charged residues; water molecules
The viral fusion domain is _____ within the viral protein.
folded and hidden
Upon receiving _______, the viral fusion domain is exposed and inserted into the target cell membrane.
a specific signal (like a change in pH),
Viral fusion proteins contain a _____ at the one end and a _____.
transmembrane domain; highly hydrophobic fusion domain
The formation of highly stable SNARE complex drives _______.
____ uses _____ to generate energy needed to disassemble the SNARE complex.
NSF; ATP hydrolysis
____ and _____ disassemble the SNARE complex.
VAMP is located in the _________.
Syntaxin and SNAP are located in ________.
the target membrane
Name 4 membrane bound organelles.
1) nucleus, 2) endosomes 3) lysosomes 4) mitochondria
What proteins help the transport vesicle to fuse with the target membrane?
intracellular vesicle transport
transport of proteins in and out of membrane bound organelles without compromising their identity
The _____ domain is inserted into the target cell membrane when a virus attacks.
Sec1 protein binds and changes ____ to refold the SNARE proteins back into the _________.
syntaxin; active conformation
Name 3 enveloped viruses.
1) HIV 2) ebola 3) influenza
____ and ____ are located in the target membrane.
A transport vesicle needs to be delivered to the ____ via help of _____ that move along ____ or microtubule tracks.
fusion site; molecular motor proteins; actin
What does NSF stand for?
N-ethyl-maleimide sensitive fusion protein
NSF uses ATP hydrolysis to _____ needed to disassemble the _____.
generate energy; SNARE complex
The membrane fusion thermodynamically is highly ______ event, since it needs to overcome the repulsive _____ and dissipate the _____ between two lipid bilayers.
inefficient; ionic forces; hydration
________ drives membrane fusion.
The formation of highly stable SNARE complex
What does VAMPs stand for?
vesicle associated membrane protein
NSF and αSNAP ______.
disassemble the SNARE complex
_____ protein binds and changes syntaxin to refold the _____ back into the active conformation.
Sec1; SNARE proteins
A ______ needs to be delivered to the fusion site via help of molecular motor proteins that move along actin or _____.
transport vesicle; microtubule tracks
What does αSNAP stand for?
soluble NSF attachment protein
____ is located in the transport vesicle.
What does SNAPs stand for?
synaptosome associated protein
What does SNAREs stand for?
soluble NSF attachment protein receptor
There are three main classes of SNAREs: _____, ______, and ______.
syntaxins, VAMPs, and SNAPs