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Flashcards in Approach to child Deck (53):
1

A useful standardised screening tool to
use for further evaluation in a GP setting, if there
are concerns regarding development, is the ____________

Denver- II Developmental Screening Test

2

Gross motor skills we want to see emerge
(12 months to 6 years)

• _______ —walking up stairs holding onto an adult
hand, and possibly attempting alternating feet with
each stair
• _______ —observing a child being able to jump
• _______ —starting to try and to use a tricycle
• _______ —weaning the trainer wheels off the bike
• _______ —skipping

2 years


2½ years

3 years

5–6 years

6 years

3

An easy way to remember the principles of fine
motor development is to think of the ________
in terms of whole-hand activity, and the _________ as individual digit activity

first 9 months


second
9 months (9–18 months of age)

4

Between 3 and 6 months, _______ (using consonants—that is, involving the tongue and lips to change sounds) will
appear.

babble

5

Receptive language usually precedes
expression, so at the________ check, even if a
child is not saying many words, his or her increasing
understanding of speech should be evident

18-month

6

Between ________, the combination
of words and small sentences and increasingly
reciprocal (back-and-forth) conversation expand
markedly

18 months and 3 years

7

Articulation also improves over this
time, with around 25% of articulation intelligible at
____ months, 50–75% intelligible at ______and 75–
100% at ______

18

2 years

3 years

8

At what month

includes grasping objects passed to the
child, looking at objects he or she is holding (‘object
regard’) and banging objects onto a surface, such as a
tray in a high chair

3–6 months

9

—banging objects together. By 9 months,
babies should be doing hand-to-hand transfers and
purposefully releasing objects

6–9 months

10

Pointing is an important milestone, and is often there by
______ and should be there by _____

12 months
18 months

11

At around ______of age, separation anxiety
will usually appear.

6 months

12

Separation anxiety often peaks
around ________ months and then decreases through
the preschool years.

14–18

13

Stranger anxiety, usually appearing around
_____months and reducing after months of age, is
similar in many ways to separation anxiety.

7–9

14

Tantrums, which are common between __________occur because the child lacks the skills to deal with an emotionally challenging event

18 months and 3 years (or older),

15

In the second year of life, two emerging skill
sets dominate social development: speech and
play, particularly _______

pretend play

16

Red flags for autism

• Lack of babbling or pointing by _______
• No sharing of interest in objects or activities with
another person
• No single words by _______, or no two-word
(non-echoed) phrases by ______
• Any loss of language or social skills at any age

12 months


16 months

24 months

17

Most (96%) Australian women initiate breastfeeding, but almost a third will have introduced formula or stopped
breastfeeding by ________

3 months

18

It is also recommended that the woman
continues to breastfeed while introducing appropriate
solid food until ______ of age and beyond

12 months

19

Exclusively
breastfed infants do not require additional fluids up
to________

6 months of age.

20

If formula is used, a _______ should be
used up until 12 months

cow’s milk-based type

21

postpartum women are vulnerable to
suggestions of lactation failure, which is a risk factor
for__________

postnatal depression

22

The only other fluid besides breast milk and
formulas suitable to be given to infants is_____

boiled and
cooled tap water (i.e. no bottled water, juice, cordial
or other beverages).

23

Honey
should be avoided because of the risk of______

botulism.

24

Hard, small, round (e.g. whole nuts) and/or sticky
foods are not recommended because of _______

choking and
aspiration risk

25

_________ should not be used
in the first 2 years of life, and soy and other milks
(e.g. goat’s milk, sheep’s milk, coconut milk, almond
milk) are inappropriate alternatives to breast or
formula or pasteurised whole cow’s milk

Low-fat milks

26

From _______, milk and other
drinks should be offered in a cup rather than a feeding
bottle

12 months

27

The ages by which most children are fully trained
are:

• daytime—between _______
• night-time—by __________

2½ and 4 years

8 years of age

28

On toilet training:

Nagging does not work; a __________
approach is far better. This can include reward
systems such as reward charts and stickers

positive-reinforcement

29

Indications that a child is ready to start
toilet training

1
2
3
4
5

• Interest in others going to the toilet
• Has a dry nappy for 1–2 hours or more
• Tells you when they have wet or soiled their
nappy or are about to go
• Doesn’t like wearing a nappy, especially when it is
wet or soiled
• Has the motor skills to pull training pants up and
down and get on and off the toilet (may need a
step) or potty

30

Arthralgia (lower limbs) + rash (buttocks,
legs) ± abdominal pain

HSP

31

Pallor + drowsiness + fever

Meningits

32

Pallor + abdominal pain (severe and
intermittent) + inactivity

intussusception

33

(<12 months): drowsiness + cough + wheezing

bronchiolitis

34

(<3 months, usually male): weakness +
weight loss + vomiting (severe, intermittent)

pyloric stenosis

35

vomiting (after first feeds) + drooling + abdominal distension

oesophageal or duodenal atresia

36

Malaise + pallor + bone pain

acute lymphatic leukaemia

37

Malaise + pallor + oral problems
(gingival hypertrophy, bleeding, ulceration)

acute myeloid leukaemia

38

Abdominal pain + pallor + a/n/v

acute appendicitis

39

Abdominal pain + malar flush + fever ± URTI

mesenteric adenitis

40

Drowsiness + tachypnoea + chest wall recession

pneumonia

41

Drowsiness + fever + purpuric rash

meningococcal infection

42

URTI + brassy cough + inspiratory stridor

croup

43

Coughing + wheezing + chest wall recession

asthma or aspirated foreign body

44

Fever + conjunctivitis + skin changes
(cracked red lips, maculopapular rash,
erythema of palms/soles, desquamation of
fingertips)

Kawasaki syndrome

45

Malaise + abdominal pain (vague) +
abnormal behaviour

lead poisoning

46

(<2 years): lethargy + irritability + pallor

iron deficiency anaemia

47

Fever + malaise (extreme) + a/n/v ± anaemia

neuroblastoma

48

Headache + a/n/v + ataxia

medulloblastoma

49

Speech communication skills +
poor socialisation + repetitive/obsessive
behaviour/restriction of interests

autism
spectrum disorder

50

Male): snorting, blinking, etc. + oral
noises (e.g. grunts, hisses) ± loud expletives

Tourette syndrome

51

Mid to low back pain/discomfort
+ inability to touch toes + kyphosis

Scheuermann disorder

52

Knee pain (after activity) + tender
knee ‘lump’ + pain on kneeling

Osgood–
Schlatter disorder

53

(Adolescent): limp + knee pain + hip pain

slipped capital femoral epiphysis