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Flashcards in Mastalgia Deck (30):
1

__________usually presents as a heaviness or
discomfort in the breast or as a pricking or stabbing
sensation.

Mastalgia

2

• The typical age span for mastalgia is _______

30–50 years.

3

There are four common clinical presentations of mastalgi

1 diffuse, bilateral cyclical mastalgia
2 diffuse, bilateral non-cyclical mastalgia
3 unilateral diffuse non-cyclical mastalgia
4 localised breast pain

4

The commonest type of mastalgia is_________

cyclical mastalgia.

5

Less than _______ of breast cancers present with
localised pain.

10%

6

Mastalgia

The problems, especially types _____ and _____are
difficult to alleviate.

2 and 3,

7

Cyclical mastalgia is the commonest diffuse breast
pain. It occurs in the _______

latter half of the menstrual cycle, especially in the premenstrual days, and subsides with the onset of menstruation

8

Cause of mastalgia

It obviously has a hormonal basis, which may be an abnormality in _________

prolactin secretion.

9

Non-cyclical mastalgia, which is pain that does
not vary within the menstrual cycle, is also quite
common and the cause is________

poorly understood

10

___________ which is a rare florid form of breast cancer found in young women, often during lactation, is red and hot but not invariably painful or tender

‘Mastitis carcinomatosa’,

11

Mastitis is common among nursing mothers. It
should be regarded as a serious and urgent problem
because a ________ can develop quickly

breast abscess

12

Drugs that can cause breast
discomfort include
1
2
3

oral contraceptives, HRT and
methylxanthine derivatives such as theophylline

13

Drugs that cause tender gynaecomastia (more
applicable to men) include
1
2
3
4

digoxin, cimetidine,
spironolactone and marijuana

14

When is UTZ not useful?

It is not so useful for the postmenopausal
breast, which is fatty and looks similar to cancer on
ultrasound.

15

_______ can be useful for an area of
localised pain, especially in the presence of a possible
mass.

FNA e xcision biopsy

16

Breast pain is uncommon in children, including
puberty, but it may be a presenting problem in the _______

late
teens

17

Breast pain is rare after the menopause but is
increasing with increased use of ________, where it tends to present as the diffuse bilateral type

HRT

18

If the problem is
related to the introduction of HRT, the _____ dose
should be reduced or an alternative preparation used.

oestrogen

19

Cyclical mastalgia

• the typical age is 30–40 years (mean 35)
• discomfort and sometimes pain are present
• usually bilateral but one breast can dominate
(usually _______

upper outer quadrant)

20

T or F

Cyclical mastalgia is rare after the menopause.

T

21

effectiveness of _____, _______ and _______ and showed that all provided significant
relief, but that all have the potential for severe
adverse effects.

danazol, bromocriptine and tamoxifen

22

The cause is often obscure, but the
costochondral junction may become strained in
patients with a persistent cough. The pain can appear
to be in the breast with intermittent radiation round
the chest wall and is initiated or aggravated by deep
breathing and coughing

Costochondritis (Tietze syndrome)

23

________is basically cellulitis of the interlobular
connective tissue of the breast

Mastitis

24

Infecting organisms in Mastitis

Staphylococcus aureus, or more rarely, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans.

25

___________infection usually causes severe
breast pain—a feeling like a hot knife or hot shooting
pains, especially during and after feeding. It may
occur after a course of antibiotics.

Candida

26

How to treat bacterial mastitis

resolution without progression to an
abscess will usually be prevented by antibiotics
di/(flu)cloxacillin 500 mg (o) 6 hourly for 10 days
or (if hypersensitive to penicillin) cephalexin
500 mg (o) 6 hourly for 10 days

27

How to Tx candidia mastitis

fluconazole 200–400 mg (o) daily for 2–4 weeks
second line—nystatin 500 000 U (o) tds

28

If tenderness and redness persist beyond ______
and an area of tense induration develops, then a
breast abscess has formed

48 hours

29

Breast abscess

Surgical drainage
may be required but should be avoided if possible
because _______

fistula formation is common.

30

The basis of management for benign mastalgia is
_______

firm reassurance