April 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in April 1 Deck (32):
1

Levels of what substance is elevated in pt with alkaptonuria and what occurs to the urine if it exposed to air for longer times?

Homogentisic acid

Urine will turn dark if exposed to air for extended period of time

2

The internal jugular is located _____ to the common carotid and _____ to the vagus nerve, within the carotid sheath.

Lateral
Anterior

3

80% of pts with RA are + for what autoantibody?

Anti-IgG

4

Which branchial arch contributes to the cartilage and muscle responsible for speaking?

4th-6th arches

"When at the restaurant of the golden arches, children tend to first chew (1), then smile (2), then swallow stylishly (3) or simply swallow (4), and then speak (6)"

5

What chromosome is affected with NF-2?

22q--loss of tumor suppressor gene
--Bilateral vestibular schwannomas

6

People who have had retinoblastomas are at increased risk for...

Soft tissue sarcomas
Osteosarcomas
Melanomas
Several types of brain cancers

7

What are the complications seen with Coarctation of the aorta?

HF
Increased risk of cerebral hemorrhage
Aortic rupture
Possible endocarditis

8

Chronic autoimmune gastritis affects the fundus and body of the stomach and is mediated by...

CD4+ t-cells reactive against gastric parietal cell components and Vit B12 deficiency can result

9

What is the function of the umbilical arteries?

Transport deoxygenated blood from the fetus to the placenta

Single vein transports oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus

10

What does prevalence measure?

# of existing cases/total # of ppl in popn

11

What does the endothelium of blood vessels release in order to prevent athroma formation?

prostacyclin and NO

12

What is the cause of Cri-du-chat syndrome and what is the presentation?

Congenital micro deletion of short arm of chromosome 5

findings:
-Microcephaly
-Miderate to severe intellectual disability
-High-pitched crying/mewing
-Epicanthal folds
-Cardiac abnormalities (VSD)

13

Where does the synthesis of Acetylcholine take place?

Basal nucleus of Meynert

14

What causes normal anion gap metabolic acidosis?

HARDASS

Hyperalimentation
Addison disease
Renal tubular acidosis
Diarrhea
Acetazolamide
Spironolactone
Saline infusion

15

Thyroglossal duct cyst presents as an anterior midline neck mass that moves with swallowing or protrusion of the tongue, where does the tissue develop from embryologically?

Primitive pharynx

16

Cerebellar lesions cause ______ deficits.

Ipsilateral

17

What structures pass through the diaphragm?

IVC
Esophagus
Vagus
Aorta
Thoracic duct
Azygos vein

I (IVC) ate (8) ten (10) eggs (esophagus) at (aorta) twelve (12)

18

What is the cause of Achondroplasia?

Autosomal dominant mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR3)

19

Flutamide and Leuprolide are used in combination for the tx of what?

Prostate cancer

Flutamide--Nonsteroidal competitive inhibitor at androgen receptor

Leuprolide--GnRH analog

20

Where do the majority of carcinoid GI tumors originate?

Midgut derived small bowel--beginning at distal duodenum and ending at mid-transverse colon

21

Why is 5-FU given IV?

To avoid formation of ulcerations within the GI mucosa

22

Name the spinal level being tested for each reflex

S1, 2 Buckle my shoe--Achilles
L3, 4 Kick the door--Patellar
C5, 6 Pick up sticks--Biceps
C 7, 8 lay them straight--Triceps

L1, 2--testicles move--cremaster
S3, 4--winks galore--anal wink reflex

23

What organism causes Tinea versicolor?

Malassezia spp.

24

What is the main mechanism by which N. gonorrhea becomes resistant to Ceftriaxone?

Mutation of the PBP

25

What polymerase makes rRNA?

RNA polymerase I

26

What polymerase makes mRNA?

RNA polymerase II

27

What polymerase makes tRNA?

RNA polymerase III

28

What substance inhibits RNA polymerase II and can cause severe hepatotoxicity if ingested?

a-amanitin--found in Amanita phalloides

29

What cancers are associated with H. pylori?

Gastric adenocarcinoma
MALT lymphoma

30

What substance accumulates with galactokinase deficiency?

Galactitol --if galactose is present in the diet

31

What is the enzyme absent with classic galactosemia?

Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase

Sym:
-Failure to thrive
-Jaundice
-Hepatomegaly
-Infantile cataracts
-Intellectual disability

32

What are the functions of Vit C?

Antioxidant
Facilitates iron absorption by reducing it to Fe2+
Hydroxylation of proline and lysine in collagen synthesis
DA B-hydroxylase--converting DA to NE