Flashcards in April 1 Deck (32):
Levels of what substance is elevated in pt with alkaptonuria and what occurs to the urine if it exposed to air for longer times?
Urine will turn dark if exposed to air for extended period of time
The internal jugular is located _____ to the common carotid and _____ to the vagus nerve, within the carotid sheath.
80% of pts with RA are + for what autoantibody?
Which branchial arch contributes to the cartilage and muscle responsible for speaking?
"When at the restaurant of the golden arches, children tend to first chew (1), then smile (2), then swallow stylishly (3) or simply swallow (4), and then speak (6)"
What chromosome is affected with NF-2?
22q--loss of tumor suppressor gene
--Bilateral vestibular schwannomas
People who have had retinoblastomas are at increased risk for...
Soft tissue sarcomas
Several types of brain cancers
What are the complications seen with Coarctation of the aorta?
Increased risk of cerebral hemorrhage
Chronic autoimmune gastritis affects the fundus and body of the stomach and is mediated by...
CD4+ t-cells reactive against gastric parietal cell components and Vit B12 deficiency can result
What is the function of the umbilical arteries?
Transport deoxygenated blood from the fetus to the placenta
Single vein transports oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus
What does prevalence measure?
# of existing cases/total # of ppl in popn
What does the endothelium of blood vessels release in order to prevent athroma formation?
prostacyclin and NO
What is the cause of Cri-du-chat syndrome and what is the presentation?
Congenital micro deletion of short arm of chromosome 5
-Miderate to severe intellectual disability
-Cardiac abnormalities (VSD)
Where does the synthesis of Acetylcholine take place?
Basal nucleus of Meynert
What causes normal anion gap metabolic acidosis?
Renal tubular acidosis
Thyroglossal duct cyst presents as an anterior midline neck mass that moves with swallowing or protrusion of the tongue, where does the tissue develop from embryologically?
Cerebellar lesions cause ______ deficits.
What structures pass through the diaphragm?
I (IVC) ate (8) ten (10) eggs (esophagus) at (aorta) twelve (12)
What is the cause of Achondroplasia?
Autosomal dominant mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR3)
Flutamide and Leuprolide are used in combination for the tx of what?
Flutamide--Nonsteroidal competitive inhibitor at androgen receptor
Where do the majority of carcinoid GI tumors originate?
Midgut derived small bowel--beginning at distal duodenum and ending at mid-transverse colon
Why is 5-FU given IV?
To avoid formation of ulcerations within the GI mucosa
Name the spinal level being tested for each reflex
S1, 2 Buckle my shoe--Achilles
L3, 4 Kick the door--Patellar
C5, 6 Pick up sticks--Biceps
C 7, 8 lay them straight--Triceps
L1, 2--testicles move--cremaster
S3, 4--winks galore--anal wink reflex
What organism causes Tinea versicolor?
What is the main mechanism by which N. gonorrhea becomes resistant to Ceftriaxone?
Mutation of the PBP
What polymerase makes rRNA?
RNA polymerase I
What polymerase makes mRNA?
RNA polymerase II
What polymerase makes tRNA?
RNA polymerase III
What substance inhibits RNA polymerase II and can cause severe hepatotoxicity if ingested?
a-amanitin--found in Amanita phalloides
What cancers are associated with H. pylori?
What substance accumulates with galactokinase deficiency?
Galactitol --if galactose is present in the diet
What is the enzyme absent with classic galactosemia?
-Failure to thrive