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Flashcards in APUSH 10-16 Terms Deck (31):

Abraham Lincoln

described as first "middle-class" president by Ralph Waldo Emerson


American Unions

some for miners in the 1890's to protect them from dangers of work like United Mine Workers of America, farmers gathered together to form these like Knights of Labor and American Federation of Labor, railroad workers in own group, also was Industrial Workers of the World



Erie was one of these, significance=Increased trade between east coast and NYC with the West; other canals were built; canal aged started to be replaced by the railroads in the 30s


Compromise of 1850

proposal by Henry Clay to settle debate over slavery in territories from Mexican War, sent through Congress by Stephen Douglas, California=free state, ended slave market in D.C., Fugitive Slave Law, postpones UT/NM slavery


Daniel Webster

-believed the nation was a union of ppl, not states
-pleaded for a strong definite union that no state should be allowed to undermine in Congress (1830)
-spokesperson for nationalism and the union


Dred Scott

slave demanding freedom based on living in free state and free territory w/his master, supreme court ruled against him, Taney (Chief Justice) said Scott’s rights didn’t need to be honored and territory not really free state b/c Missouri Compromise unconstitutional, Court returns Scott to slavery and rules that congress cannot prohibit slavery in any fed. territory under any circumstances


Frederick Douglass

former slave who became an effective abolitionist with an authenticity to his speeches unmatched by other antislavery voices


Ulysses S. Grant

Re-elected president in 1872, lead general of the Union during the civil war, nominated by Republicans, made effort to end Plains Indian war by creating series of reservations where tribes could maintain traditions


Henry Clay

senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times until his death in 1852, a strong supporter of the American System, Speaker of the House of Representatives, known as "The Great Compromiser", Outlined the Compromise of 1850


Horace Mann

reformer who led a crusade to improve public education in America as secretary of Mass. Board of Education, established minimum school terms, formalized teacher training, made curriculum more secular in subjects


John Brown

violent abolitionist who led revolt at Harper's ferry


John C. Calhoun

-chief spokesperson for states' rights
-VP for Adams
-1828: writes pamphlet arguing state CAN declare tariffs and fed. law null and void because since states have the authority to decide what was constitutional
-pro-slavery but also nationalist and supported the U.S. bank
-support for states causes rivalry b/t him and Jackson- source of nullification issue
-DID NOT support secession


Kansas-Nebraska Act

a compromise law in 1854 that suspended the Missouri Compromise and introduced pop. sovereignty w/in Kansas and Nebraska, controversial, supported by President Pierce and not supported by Douglass


Lincoln-Douglas Debates

A series of seven debates, argued the important issues of the day like popular sovereignty, the Lecompton Constitution and the Dred Scott decision. Douglas won these debates, but the Lincoln's position in these debates helped him win in the 1860 presidential election.


Manifest Destiny

set of ideas used to justify American expansion in the 1840's, weaving together the rhetoric of economic necessity, racial superiority and national security, implied inevitability of U.S. continental expansion


Mexican War

-Polk ordered Taylor to Louisiana-Texas Border during negotiations
==any mexican movement around Rio Grande=act of war
==Whigs oppose war
-most North mexico controlled by U.S.



mormon church founded by joseph smith in 1830 with headquarters in salt lake city, utah, religious group that emphasized moderation, saving, hard work, and risk-taking and encouraged polygamy


Nat Turner

Slave from VA that led group of slaves to kill their slaves holders, caught and executed, slave states have stricter control on slave population.



a philosophical system, chiefly associated with William James, that deemphasized abstraction and assessed ideas and culturalpractices



most important innovation of 19th century, effective transportation network, more direct routes, greater speed, larger volumes of traffic- Transcontinental Railroad- Union Pacific rail line from California and the Central Pacific line connected with Chicago, Hudson River/NY Railroad, Penn Railroad


Sam Houston

leader of the Texas revolutionaries, first president of Republic of Texas, later senator from Texas and ally of Andrew Jackson


Second Great Awakening

series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism, stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects, revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans, had effect on prison reform, the temperance movement, and abolitionism



united by community life, demanded celibacy (requirement that limited the community’s appeal and prevented increasing membership by childbirth)



made travel from Europe safe and speedy with the "perfection" of this means of transportation


Stephan A. Douglas

A moderate, who introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 and popularized the idea of popular sovereignty


Temperance movement

created by evangelical Protestants in 1826, they followed Lyman Beecher in demanding total abstinence from alcohol, denounced the evil of drinking and promoted the expulsion of drinkers from church


Texas Annexation

U.S. made Texas a state in 1845. Joint resolution - both houses of Congress supported annexation under Tyler, and he signed the bill shortly before leaving office.



to search for a direct experience with the divine



political party formed in 1832 as opposition to Andrew Jackson led by Henry Clay, opposed strong president and wanted to recharter National Bank, supported American system, broke apart over slavery issue in 1850's


William Lloyd Garrison

most prominent abolitionist leader of the Antebellum period; published the antislavery newspaper The Liberator and founded American Anti-Slavery Society


Zachary Taylor

military hero of Mexican war and the last Whig elected president (1848), death allowed supporters of Compromise of 1850 to pass through congress and Chester Arthur replaced him