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Flashcards in APUSH 16-20 Terms Deck (61):

Medicine Lodge Creek Treaty

1867 treaty b/t Comanches and U.S. army where Comanches agree to settle on a reservation
-right to hunt on plains in OK
-got govt. rations
-expected to still hunt but govt. didn’t know this


Bosque Redondo

-reservation in central NM where majority of Navajos and Mescalero Apaches confined during Civil War
-complete failure
-tribes didn’t cooperate


Ghost Dance

-1890 religious phenomenon/awakening in Lakota Sioux believing that if returned to traditional ways/ceremonies, whites would be driven from land
-frightened whites and army sent to Pine Ridge investigating


Homestead Act

law passed by congress providing 160 acres of land free to anyone who would live on plot and farm for 5 years


Grant's Peace Policy

effort to end Plains Indian war by creating series of reservations where tribes could maintain traditions


Dawes Act

-1887 law terminating tribal ownership of most reservation land and allocating some parcels to individual Indians while the remained was opened for white settlement
-divided reservations into 160-acre tracts to be assigned to each family
-could sell land like white neighbors
-owners became U.S. citizens
-pushed Indians to be farmers and join individualistic culture


Carlisle Indian School

boarding school for Native American children in Carlisle, PA to teach white ways and separate Indian children from tribal culture


Transcontinental Railroad

Union Pacific rail line from California and the Central Pacific line connected with Chicago and other eastern , first to allow train travel across all of the U.S.


Gilded Age

term applied to America in the late 1800’s that refers to the shallow display and worship of wealth characteristic of the period, named by Mark Twain


Panic of 1873

major economic downturn when Cooke went bankrupt making thousands lose jobs and took years to recover from damage


Horizontal integration

name of control over oil production and merger of competitors in the same industry


Vertical Integration

controlled all means of steel production from raw materials through sales, ownership of materials from ground up of a business and under one company



faction who wanted party to stay true to earlier support for Reconstruction in the South and less connected to big-business interests



crossover Reps who campaign for Dems



anti-jewish attacks that became common in Russia and govt. directed in tsarist russia, actively encouraged


Chinese Exclusion Act

a law passed byCongress in 1882 that prohibited Chinese immigration to the United States and was in effect until 1943


Melting pot

popular idea that immigrants quickly lost culture and language and “melted” into becoming just like other Americans



large factories that bring together hundreds of workers to sew at fast pace for long hours, unfair and treated cruelly


New South

-done apologizing for civil war and slavery
-wanted to be left alone about race relations
-ideology by elite southerners that was beginning of economic development


Niagara Movement

group organized in 1905 to promote racial integration, civil and political rights and equal access to economic opportunity- later helped create NAACP


Atlanta Compromise

A speech made by Washington in Atlanta that outlined the philosophy that blacks should focus on economic gains, go to school, learn skills, and work their way up the ladder and that Southern whites should help out to create an unresentful people.



National Association of Colored People- interracial organization founded in 1910 to restore African-American rights


The Grange

-national organization of farmers formed after civil war to promote rights and dignity of farmers
-gather in Grange Halls to celebrate work and foster community- banded together


Agricultural wheel

organization of farmers more militant than the Grange in order to advance farmer’s finances


Farmers' Alliance

broad mass movement in rural South and West encompassing several organizations and demanding reforms


Colored Farmers’ National Alliance and Cooperative Union

organization of Southern black farmers formed in Texas in 1886 and helped launch populist party


subtreasury system

proposal for unit in U.S. treasury dept. to own warehouses that would store farmer’s crops until prices rose


People's/Populist Party

founded at a convention in Cincinnati and formed to fight for rights of working people and regulation of railroads


The Knights of Labor

labor union founded in Philadelphia in 1869, included skilled and unskilled workers of any race and gender


American Foundation of Labor

labor org. formed in 1886 as federation of smaller elite craft unions- 50,000 members w/Samuel Gompers of cigar biz as head



May 4, 1886: 40,000-60,000 Chicago workers strike in Haymarket Square for 8 hour work day
-police went to end it but someone threw bomb harming 6 and killing 1 officer
-anarchists and socialists blamed


Coxey's Army

-Ohio businessman made plan to give work paving roads to unemployed
-Coxey insisted congress should pay $1.50 per hour on 8 -hour days to these ppl and if not, they should march and demand action
-Marched in May 1864 w/600 ppl. and were scattered by police


United Mine Workers of America

-new union in 1890 designed to bring together mine workers in Eastern half of U.S. in one org.
-PA mine owners hire Pinkertons to infiltrate union and battle broke out
-1899- miners blew up Bunker Hill Mine


Industrial Workers of the World

“Wobblies” organized in 1905 to make one “big union” to fight for different economic system favoring workers


Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

March 25, 1911- fire at factory and spread upwards but owners insisted everyone use one exit to prevent theft
-firefighters couldn’t reach higher floors so most jumped and fire escape collapsed


Bread and Roses strike

spontaneous strike of workers in mills of Lawrence, MA in 1912


Ludlow Massacre

1913- strike for better pay and hours lasted 14 months in coal mines in Ludlow, CO owned by Rockefeller- 30 ppl killed by militia troops


Single Tax Movement

-proposed 100% tax on any increase in the value of land or rents on land
-said this would reduce the value and cost of land→ allow workers to turn to farming, which would create a labor shortage that inevitably raises wages and improve factory conditions


Social Darwinism

dominant economic theory- the fittest and wealthiest survive/lead and the weak and poor deserve their fate and gov action is unable to alter this


Muckraking journalists

journalism exposing economic, social, and political evils


Tammany hall

Organization that ruled New York City's political machine in the 19th century that was headed by Richard Croker



procedure in which citizens can introduce a subject for legislation through a petition signed by a certain number of votes



submission of a law, proposed or already in effect, to a direct popular vote for approval or rejection



process of removing an official from office by popular vote, usually after using petitions to call for such a vote


Women's Christian Temperance Union

November 1874, 200 women from 17 states met in Cleveland, were determined to make temperance-abstinence from liquor-the key moral and political issue of the decade, empowered a generation of women who had been taught ladylike behavior meant quietly taking care of home and family and leaving politics to men


Social Gospel

based on the idea that improving society was both the right thing for religious people to do, and indeed, God’s will
application of religious ethics to industrial conditions and thereby alleviating poverty, slums, and labor exploitation


Sherman Antitrust Act

the first federal antitrust measure, passed in 1890; sought to promote economic competition by prohibiting business combinations in restraint of trade or commerce


Pendleton Act

a law of 1883 that reformed the spoils system by prohibiting govt workers from making political contributions and by creating the Civil Service Commission to oversee their appointment on the basis of merit rather than politics


New Freedom

Louis D. Brandeis, suggested that Wilson speak of a New Freedom, that would give people the greatest freedom by supply breaking up the great trusts and fostering competition at every level


Federal Trade Commission

mandate to limit the growth and power of monopolies


U.S. Imperialism

the economic, military and cultural influence of the United States on other countries.


"the Constitution follows the flag"

argument that the rights of U.S. citizens should be extended to any people living in a territory conquered by the united states


Roosevelt Corollary

policy asserting U.S. authority to intervene in the affairs of Latin American nations; an expansion of the Monroe Doctrine- to the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the U.S. had a right to intervene in any nation in the Americas that couldn’t manage it’s own affairs


Gentlemen's Agreement

A diplomatic agreement between U.S. and Japan curtailing, but not abolishing, Japanese immigration


Great White Fleet

a fleet of 16 battleships sent around the world to Tokyo Bay by T.R. to show American strength and to promote good will, The ships were white instead of navy grey


Dollar Diplomacy

the policy of using private investment in other nations to promote American diplomatic goals and business interests


Committee on Public Information

government agency during WWI that sought to shape public opinion in support of the war effort through newspapers, pamphlets, speeches, films, and other media


Sedition Act

broad law restricting criticism of America’s involvement in WWI or its govt, flag, military, taxes, or officials


Espionage Act

law whose vague prohibition against obstructing the nation’s war effort was used to stop dissent and criticism during WWI


Schenck v. United States

Justice Holmes' claim that Congress could restrict speech if the words "are used in such circumstances and are of such a nature as to create and clear and present danger" when Schenck was convicted for mailing pamphlets urging potential army inductees to resist conscription


Fourteen Points

proposed points outlining peace, American insisted on “open covenants of peace, openly arrived at”