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Flashcards in Period 3 Deck (42):

7 Year's War

Also known as the French and Indian War, Happened from 1754-1763, occurs after Period of Salutary Neglect in Britain where the country avoids enforcing laws of Parliament, Treaty of Paris in 1763 ends (French and Indian) war


1763 Treaty of Paris

France gives all territories in North America back and ends threat to colonies there, encourages split between Britain and Colonial America due to differing interests, colonists begin fighting for independence


Salutary Neglect

British policy before 1763 wherein Britain leaves the colonies alone to conduct their own internal affairs, abandoned after 1763



intellectual movement in Europe beginning in 1600’s where religious matters became superstitions


John Locke

justified revolution- govt. rests on natural rights of the governed, believed humans born free, agreed to social compact when it helps the people, said that when people didn’t agree monarchs didn’t deserve to rule, said people were supreme power


Ben Franklin

Created the Albany plan, turned against slavery after the Somerset Decision, thought achieving wealth was only good when it also benefited other people as well, favored voluntary associations over govt. institutions, defender of federalism, advocate for religious liberty


French Revolution

Social and political movement in France that introduces ideas of liberty, equality and fraternity and topples the monarchy; important b/c the United States did not get involved due to Washington's intuition for the mess it would become; argument of whether or not to get involved dominated Washington's second term; creates idea of overthrowing monarchy


Northeast America during early 1800's

Mainly aligned with Britain and agreed with their political involvement


Southeast America during early 1800's

Connected with France for most of this time


George Washington's Farewell Address

given in September 1796 6 months before he left office, suggested to avoid political parties and wanted to avoid foreign alliances


Common Sense

Written by Thomas Paine, shaped the public opinion by shaping the "common faith" of the new nation, emphasized the importance of the written word, read by lots because of increasing literacy rate due to people reading the bible


The Declaration of Independence

Richard Henry Lee proposes this in 1776 and the Committee of Five writes a draft just in case, signed July 3rd after sending a List of Grievances to King George and said that all men were "created equal", adopted on July 4th with Locke's ideas included, the Articles of Confederation are then created and adopted to govern the nation as a whole


Articles of Confederation

Written document setting up loose confederation of states; creates 1st national govt. from 1781-1788; 13 colonies declare themselves independent states; Congress can only raise money through taxes if each state agrees; created Northwest territory and sets up territorial govt.s which was their biggest success (land ordinances); helps determine education in these areas and where to place schools; slavery is outlawed in the Northwest


Northwest Ordinance of 1787

legislation passed by congress under the Articles of Confederation which provides for public schools, sale of govt. land and prohibits slavery in these territories; also promised to protect Indian land but nothing actually ever done with this intention


United States Constitution

After the constitutional convention, the 38 delegates send the draft to congress; in 1787, fight over whether should be ratified or not; ratified after reaches minimum number of states (9 out of 13)


Virginia Plan

1st proposal put forward at Constitutional convention, includes 2 houses of congress elected by proportional representation (population), and a national executive and judiciary (federal courts)


Constitutional Convention

Held in 1787 in Philadelphia to propose amendments to the Articles of Confederation but wasn't completely possible so instead, a constitution was created


separation of powers

key aspect of constitution where different parts of new national govt. would have authority that was always limited by the other parts



A system of govt. in which power is clearly divided b/t state govts and the national govt.


proportional representation

way of selecting representatives in congress based on the total population of a state


New Jersey Plan

proposal by New Jersey delegation to convention where both houses of Congress elected by states and each delegation size would be equal


The Great Compromise

Also known as the Connecticut Plan, proposed national bicameral legislature where all states equally represented in Senate and proportionally represented in the House, very important for final constitution


Electoral College

system in which state selects POTUS electors according to number of senators and reps in Congress in whatever method prefered and electors then select the president


three-fifths clause

compromise from the constitutional convention where slaves would be counted as 3/5ths of a person in order to create state representation under the proportional representation plan


Dartmouth College v. Woodward

John Marshall (federalist) reviews charter converting Dartmouth from private to state college; secures the idea that contracts are inviolable; gives Supreme Court the right to review actions of state legislatures and asserts inviolability of contracts


McCulloch v. Maryland

Maryland taxes the U.S. bank to try and drive its branch out of business; goes to Supreme Court where they assert thatCongress can charter a bank w/national interest in mind, Supreme Court declares that states can not interfere w/workings of fed. govt.


early nullification issues

Calhoun (VP) declares that states can declare tariffs/fed. laws null and void but DID NOT advocate secession; challenges previous statements made by Andrew Jackson (POTUS); Jackson was populist so would do whatever nation preferred such as opposing Tariff of Abominations


Tariff of Abominations

revised tax in imports that lowers tax on cotton products but raises it on many products made in mid-Atlantic states; causes much controversy especially w/in Planters in South Carolina


Federalist Papers

written by James Madison, John Jay and Alexander Hamilton in 1787 after the Constitutional Convention; tried to persuade ppl. to ratify constitution in order to create a strong national govt.; published in newspapers across the nation; some states would ratify IF given bill of rights



Structure of new govt. under constitution where the law of land=constitution; Thought fed govt. is stronger than state govt.; favored the ratification of the constitution


Separation of Powers

Montesquieu- created idea of having 3 branches and checks and balances; thought there should be system where Executive office/POTUS enforces laws, Supreme Court interprets laws and Congress passes/writes laws


Bill of Rights

Important to key founding fathers (Madison promised this) b/c if not written, fed govt. might not allow these things: Freedom of speech, Allowed to bear arms, Freedom of thought, Right to petition; originally amendments to constitution; some states would only ratify the constitution if these were created; total of 10 amendments in the end; made the govt. operate within clear limits


Causes of American Revolution

British impress young American men into their army; The Boston Massacre/Tea Party; Acts: Sugar, Currency, Stamp, Declaratory, Revenue, Tea, "Intolerable"; taxes caused by Britain trying to replenish debt by creating new taxes/acts


French and Spanish involvement in American Revolution

Helped the rebels win; wanted to embarrass British; wanted greater access to trade w/America; Franklin goes to Paris to form alliance w/France and they then officially declare war on Britain; Spain does the same and helps w/attacks along the Mississippi River; funds and efforts ease w/need for supplies


Women's Involvement in Revolution

Camp followers would provide water, feed troops, nurse wounded and sometimes fight in battles; patriot women raise $300,000 for the Continental Army; sewed and bought cloth for soldiers; harvested land for needy farmers w/out workers


1783 Treaty of Paris

British surrender in Yorktown; Parliament and British public don't want anymore war; 1780-peace relations made and British delegates surrender, The United States is declared independent from Britain- separate treaties w/France and Spain


Effects of the American Revolution

Hamilton creates the U.S. bank to get back debt caused by war; Shay's Rebellion of farmers against state taxes to pay off Revolution


Republican Motherhood

belief that women should have more rights and a better education to support husbands and raise sons who could actively participate in political affairs of society


The British victory in the French and Indian War was due largely to...

British soldiers financed by the British government


An American advantage in the war for independence was...

British reluctance to engage in full-scale war against the colonies


A major source of the new feeling of nationalism after the Revolutionary War was the...

common sacrifice by soldiers and civilians during the war


In your textbook's opinion, most American citizens in the 1780's gave their first loyalty to...

Their own statea