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Flashcards in Period 4 Deck (25):


basically first Democratic-Republicans; opposed ratifications of the constitution; they created the Bill of Rights to ensure creation of basic rights



most famous are John Adams and Alexander Hamilton; favored strong central govt. and loose interpretation, favor Britain, pro-military- just in case, Pro Business, favored U.S. National Bank and Tariffs, mainly in the NorthEast- sectionalism, support from businessman and large landowners, die out as result of War of 1812- Created Hartford Convention to secede from U.S, established a sound fiscal system during success


Democratic Republicans

Most famous was Thomas Jefferson, First anti-federalists
who wanted the Bill of Rights to make sure constitution included these rights- more skeptical; Strict constructionists- Everything must be in Constitution, Wanted weaker central federal govt., Wanted states to have rights , Didn’t like internal improvements (canals, roads, etc.), Favored France for foreign policy, Didn’t see reason for peacetime army, More farmers and factory workers=pro-agriculture in this party, couldn’t justify national bank, opposed tariffs on cotton, Plantation owners support this


Election of 1800

Tie w/Jefferson and Burr, Led to Constitutional amendment where POTUS and VPOTUS elected together, so things like Adams (Fed) as POTUS and Jefferson (Dem.-Rep) as VPOTUS doesn’t happen again


Whig Party

united b/c of Andrew Jackson (who was a democrat), want to get rid of “King Andrew” which unites them- he was too democratic and too much for the ppl. who vetoed a TON of laws, win election in 1840 w/William Henry Harrison but he dies in 30 days


John Marshall

Supreme justice of Supreme Court from 1800-1835; served on Washington’s staff during rev. war; Important b/c of Marbury vs. Madison


Marbury vs. Madison

Court now gets judicial review- they can interpret the laws and say whether constitutional; Determined in this court case; Federalists like this b/c cornerstone of American political science


Andrew Jackson

prepared himself for election by relying on military reputation; democrat who believed in local government, against monopolistic privilege & low tariffs; populist who did everything for the people


Webster and Hayne

two debaters who in 1830 focused on the doctrine of states' rights rather than national power


Peggy Eaton Controversy

Sharpened conflict b/t Jackson and Calhoun; b/c of social scandal w/ John Eaton, Secretary of War, stayed with the Timberlakes when in Washington, and there were rumors of his affair with Peggy Timberlake before her husband died in 1828; cabinet members & Mrs. Calhoun snubbed the socially unacceptable Mrs. Eaton; Jackson sided with Eatons; affair helped dissolve cabinet


Voluntary associations

third pillar of the emerging American middle class



Author of Democracy in America, saw Christianity as “democratic and republican religion”


William Henry Harrison

1840 POTUS nominee of the Whig Party and a former military hero


Elizabeth Cady Stanton

co-organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention and author of its Declaration of Sentiments


William Lloyd Garrison

best known for his activities in the cause of abolitionism, views on slavery were uncompromising


Susan B. Anthony

played a prominent role in the women's rights movement b/c she was the first to see the need for thorough organization


Southern cities

were not transformed by population growth


Ralph Waldo Emerson & Henry David Thoreau

objected to many of society's constraints on the individual


Important factor in encouraging growth of the women's rights movement

Female abolitionists' recognition that, like the slaves, they were born into the caste system which destined them for menial roles in society


No reform movement was more significant or ambiguous than...



Eli Whitney

invented the cotton gin and interchangeable parts for guns leading to mass weapon production


as POTUS, Thomas Jefferson...

Appointed only Republicans (Dem-Reps) in congress


Missouri Compromise

One of major compromises b4 Civil War
Missouri is admitted as slave state along w/Maine as free state (originally part of Massachusetts)
To keep balance in the Senate
Key Individual- Henry Clay
One of 1st as secretary of state but never become POTUS


Louisiana Purchase

Leads to Lewis and Clark
Hard for Jefferson b/c he was a strict constructionist but this was NOT in the constitution- not technically necessary and proper


2nd Great Awakening

Religious revival w/ppl taking more personal possession
More actively involved
Charles Finney (important), Lyman Beecher,
Methodists & Baptists rise up
Become strong during this time period