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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (36):

Manifest Destiny

-Term created by John L. O’Sullivan to describe how the U.S. had a mission to spread across the continent of North America and bring democracy and the Protestant faith to the inhabitants it conquered.
-Doctrine 1st expressed in 1845 in which it was declared that the expansion of white Americans across the continent was inevitable and allowed by God, used as way to spread Protestantism and Jacksonian Democracy to more ppl.


Texas controversy

-still loyal to Mexico
-however, in 1830- wanted protection from American govt.
-govt. 1st ok w/ this but opinion changes



person of Spanish descent living in California, after 1821, considered citizen of Mexico- deemed by Antonio Maria Osio


Stephen F. Austin

-established a colony in 1823 for Americans in Texas, a northern province of Mexico
-forbiddance of slavery and the required to become Roman Catholic



Spanish/Mexican ppl. born in Texas



-Austin is one of these
-agent who received land grant from Spanish/Mexican govt. in return for organizing settlements


Immigration in Mexico

1830- Mexican congress closes Texas to new American immigration and slave importation, insists trade must be through southern Mexico ports


Battle at the Alamo

-James Bowie and William Travis take command of Alamo
-Austin goes to Washington, Houston takes command of Texas’ temporary capital
-Mexican president, Santa Anna, sends army north to capture Alama and kill defenders
-killed all including Davy Crockett, Bowie and Travis
-Sends them also to 2nd garrison to make them surrender and execute those troops
-March 2, 1836- Texas declared independent and gets constitution
-April 1836- Santa Anna captured, forced to sign Treaty of Velasco (withdraws all Mexican troops from Texas, ends war and recognizes Texan independence)


Battle of San Jacinto

The capture of Mexico’s president Santa Anna led to the independence of Mexico in 1836


Baltimore Political Convention

Jackson and Van Buren create 1st national political convention held by major party in 1835
-Whigs vs. Democrats


Martin Van Buren

-dealt with the “rising voice of abolitionism” and the Panic of 1837
-continued Jacksonian policies, left nullification and abolition unresolved, supported his Souther supports w/gag rule
-inability of Van Buren to resolve the nation’s economic policies led to William Henry Harrison and John Tyler winning for the Whig Party in 1840.


Gag rule

-procedural rule passed in House of Reps. to prevent discussion of antislavery petitions from 1836 to 1844
-protests came to House and Senate (petitions)
--Adams undermined rule by introducing petitions at every session of Congress and interrupted members speaking


Panic of 1837

2 months after Van Buren’s inauguration- major economic downturn brought on by temporary excesses in international trade & inability of U.S. to control currency or make credit available after closing of 2nd U.S. Bank


specie circular

-issued by Jackson in 1836
-proclamation stipulating only gold or silver can be used as payment for public land
-made it so citizens didn’t trust bank notes either


William Henry Harrison

-Elected potus in 1840 w/Tyler as VP
-dies one month in


Webster-Ashburton Treaty

1842 treaty w/U.S. and Britain that settled boundary issues b/t U.S. and Canada, provides closer cooperation in suppressing African slave trade
Tyler supported this so he could deal w/Texas


John Tyler

-not a Whig
-main goals to annex Texas and get reelected
-1843, makes secret negotiations w/Texas
-1844, Calhoun (Sec. of State) presented treaty for annexation to senate
==justified for saying it would keep slavery alive w/o British interference
==Senate rejected treat
-1845, admitted Texas to U.S. and now an american state


Dark Horse candidate

presidential candidate who comes out of nowhere


Election of 1844

-Polk vs. Tyler (Polk Wins)


Polk's Campaign

wanted to focus on election of Manifest Destiny for the Catholic voters


Land dispute in Oregon

1846: The U.S. and Britain agreed to a compromise allowing the U.S. to acquire the Oregon territory up to the 49th parallel instead of the 54 40 parallel.


U.S. War w/Mexico

-Polk ordered Taylor to Louisiana-Texas Border during negotiations
==any mexican movement around Rio Grande=act of war
==Whigs oppose war
-most North mexico controlled by U.S.


Anti-war Figures

Lincoln (POTUS), Thoreau (Civil Disobedience) and Adams (Congress)


Bear Flag Revolt

Ft. Sutter- rebellion by recent american immigrants who temp. declared California an independent republic until U.S. forces took back control of territory
-created flag w/bear


March 1847 Mexico Defeat

-Scott troops land in Veracruz and march to Mexico city (surrender in sept. from the city)
-Polk removes Scott from command in 1847 and economy in Mexico devastated


New Mexico

captured by Kearney's forces in 1846


Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

treaty signed by Trist and Mexican commissioners in 1848 ending the U.S. war w/Mexico and granting U.S. control of all of Texas, New Mexico and California


Gadsden Purchase

final acquisition in continental U.S. in 1853, $10 million to Mexico for strip of land in current New Mexico and Arizona


Free Soil Party

-committed to ensuring all new territories free of slavery
-nominated Van Buren


Election of 1848

Whig Zach Taylor wins then dies
-VP Fillmore takes over


California Gold Rush

brought thousands of residents to California looking for gold, produces millions of dollars in new wealth for this region and the general U.S.


"Gold Rushers"

including Chinese, Californio, and Indian gold rushers


Importance of whaling

-Source of wealth for some Americans
-industry grows after War of 1812 and into Civil War of 1861
-Need for whale oil and whale bones
-Mainly older New English men and crews came from all over the world
-First Americans go to Japan- Pacific ports rival American ones


Kanagawa Treaty

-negotiated by Matthew Perry
-1853 agreement- (1st b/t U.S. and Japan) opens 2 Japanese ports to American commerce, protects shipwrecked American soldiers and ends Japan’s 200 years of isolation


San Francisco

becomes a vital port



Annexed in 1898