Chapter 14 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14 Deck (31):
1

Anaconda Plan

-idea of blocking South by the sea, taking control of Mississippi river and squeeze Confederacy into submission
-proposed by Winfield Scott

2

Battle of Bull Run

Confederates hold ground against tired Union troops
==let out rebel yell- frightening yell Confederates gave ==when entering battle that unnerved Northern troops
-Union flees- Confederacy wins
-confidence increases

3

Army of the Potomac

main union army led by series of generals until Ulysses S. Grant took command in 1863 and led to final victory in 1865

4

Jefferson Davis

Strategy=Survival and possible partnership with England
-President of the Confederate states of America

5

Iron clad ships

new weapons
New Confederate ships- Tredegar Iron Works, VA
==U.S.S. Merrimack renamed C.S.S. Virginia- iron ram and 10 guns
U.S. Navy new ships- John Ericsson
==iron-clad w/two 11-inch guns- named the Monitor

6

Confederate Army of N. Virginia

main Con. army led for most of war by Robert E. Lee, fought in VA, MA, and PA before surrendering at Appomattox court House in April 1865
-designed to protect Richmond, VA

7

Issues w/generals

Lincoln wants action while generals let the enemy retreat

8

Peninsular Campaign of 1862

McClellan lands troops on Virginia coast’s peninsula and win

9

Shenandoah

1862- Con. Gen. Stonewall Jackson defeats North in Shenandoah Valley, keeps Knoxville and east Tennessee
-kept winning to McClellan troops diverted to help captured troops

10

contrabands

slaves who fled to Union

11

colonialization

=plan to create colonies in Africa for former slaves to return to- not popular w/slaves
=Lincoln more interested in keeping Kentucky than emancipating slaves

12

Emancipation Proclamation

decree announced by Lincoln and formally issued Jan. 1, 1863 freeing slaves in all Confed. states still in rebellion
didn’t free anyone when 1st issued

13

Election of 1860 Candidates

North- Steven A. Douglas= against Congress interfering w/slavery
South- John Breckenridge= pro-slavery
Constitutional Union Party-John Bell=reconciliation platform
Republican- Abe Lincoln= opposes extension of slavery but defends domestic rights and protective tariffs/internal improvements

14

Richmond

capital of the confederacy

15

Battle of Antietam

=Led to Lincoln issuing emancipation proclamation
=British don't help south
=McClellan fired as general

16

Peace Democrats

1862- also called Copperheads, large part of Democratic party that advocates immediate peace w/Confederacy on terms that it would allow it to leave the union

17

Black Soldiers in the Union

-Gov. John Andrew organizes 54th and 55th Mass. regiments
-recruited free blacks across the North

18

Battle at fort Wagner

-54th loses half of its soldiers and white commander Robert Gould Shaw
-rescued white soldiers and won battle

19

Militia Act of 1862

-pay level is same as military laborers assuming that is where they would work
-54th and 55th refuse to accept pay until same as whites

20

Prisoner of war exchanges

May 1863: South refuses to send black soldiers in prisoner of war exchanges
-treated more harshly
-suspends trade (Lincoln) until 1865 when Confederacy agrees to resume trade

21

Inflation

-1862- wages increase by 55% and cost of living increases by 300%
-some areas literally starving after loss of railroads

22

Internal Revenue Service

-agency created by congress during civil war to collect fed. taxes in support of the war effort
-begin fed. income tax in 1861
-issued fed. notes w/govt. promise to redeem them
-authorized and declared legal tende

23

greenbacks

-called this b/c of green ink
-solid monetary system

24

NY draft riot

mostly Irish immigrant protest against military drafting in draft offices, black neighborhoods, Republican newspapers and govt. offices

25

Battle of Gettysburg

-Meade=new general
-Union stands ground and Confederacy retreats but Meade does not pursue during retreat

26

New roles for women

-Women begin nursing wounded and sick
-U.S. Sanitary Commission becomes powerful women’s volunteer org.

27

Elizabeth Blackwell

-1st American female M.D.
-organized Sanitary Commission in 1861

28

Lincoln wins election after...

-Sherman proposes cutting army loose from supply lines and Lincoln/Grant agree
-Sherman captures Atlanta

29

Appotmattox

-Lee recruits black soldiers after losing hope
-April 9, 1865- Lee ready to surrender and Grant meets w/him in Appomattox, VA
-Lee surrenders and Grant gets his soldiers rations

30

Lincoln passes 13th amendment

No more slavery across America

31

Politics after wartime

- Lincoln met w/cabinet and develops military districts/govt.s across South to avoid anarchy and go back to civilian rule