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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (24):

Andrew Jackson

-inaugurated 1829 March→ celebration of democracy
-didn’t care about big issues; promised to acquire land for the white settlement by forcing Indian tribes to move West of the Mississippi
-promised to undermine the Bank of the US and the power of northern economic elites
-opposed American System (Clay)
-wanted to keep taxes low and keep role of fed gov modest
• Destroying the national bank
• Forcing Indians out of lands desired by whites
• Leading a modest government


spoils system

-way of selecting poeple for the govt. jobs based on the idea that to the victor belongs the spoils
-supporters of Jackson's campaign received govt. jobs


kitchen cabinet

-longtime friends and advisors who worked closely with the president
-accomplish removing Indians from wanted lands; revoking the charter of the Second Bank of the US
-preserve authority of the federal union against radical supporters of state’s rights


five civilized tribes

• Stood in the way of white settlement
• Cherokees the most difficult to remove
• Sophistication of Cherokees
• Cherokees adopted white farming techniques
-Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole


Indian Removal Act

- issued 1830
-“protects” Cherokees from Georgia laws
-provided funds for removing and resettling easter Indians in the West
-if they stay in Georgia, they have to be subject to Georgia law (indians would not own property, vote, testify, or obtain credit)
-granted president the authority to use force if necessary
resulted in the involuntary transfer of 1000s of Native Americans to new homes in Oklahoma


Cherokees challenge removal act

• Jackson ignored the ruling of John Marshall
• This led to the tragic Trail of Tears in 1837
• 12,000 removed to Oklahoma


Second Bank of the United States

-national bank chartered by Congress in 1816
-William Astor and other rich men meet with Gallatin to load funds for new bank
-charter passed in 1816
-opposition from constructionists who say the Bank is not in the constitution
-seen as farmers’ enemy
-Jackson=populist (politically represents common people) so he opposed this bank made mainly for the elite


Trail of Tears

1838-1839: 12,000 Cherokees forced West to allotted -Native territory (Trail of Tears)
-from Georgia to Western Territory
-thousands die
-Chickasaws go willingly
-Florida Seminoles leave and stay, causing the 2nd Seminole War in 1842


Nicholas Biddle

-president of the Bank
-stabilizes economy
-expands credit
-allotts uneven wealth amongst the people
-attempts to renew charter in 1832 but Jackson vetoes it


Death of the U.S. Bank

Federal funds deposited in state ("pet") banks while money is continuously withdrawn from the U.S. bank without any being added back in


John C. Calhoun

-chief spokesperson for states' rights
-VP for Adams
-1828: writes pamphlet arguing state CAN declare tariffs and fed. law null and void because since states have the authority to decide what was constitutional
-pro-slavery but also nationalist and supported the U.S. bank
-support for states causes rivalry b/t him and Jackson- source of nullification issue
-DID NOT support secession


South Carolina Radicals

-Leaders of South Carolina were becoming fearful of the federal government
-Anti-federalists in Union who wanted to advocated for secession
-They advocated the rights of states to declare any federal law null and void or even secede from the Union→ reason: they feared for the future of slavery more than anyone else
-1830’s- word spreads Parliament is abolishing slavery and U.S. is afraid Congress will do the same
-Nullify Tariffs of 1828 and 1830 (Abominations)
-Clay later makes compromise


Tariff of Abominations

-1828 tariff
-called this b/c so uneven and unfair in the industries and regions it protected→ it passed in Congress
-SC planters saw the tariff as a hardship and unfair use of federal power so they want to nullify it- voted to do so


Daniel Webster

-believed the nation was a union of ppl, not states
-pleaded for a strong definite union that no state should be allowed to undermine in Congress (1830)


Charles Finney

-questioned whether true religious belief was consistent with his legal career
-left law practice, began to preach in churches, became one of the most influential preachers in US
-ordained a Presbyterian minister, spirit of revivalism
-traveled to upstate NY, led largest revival in Rochester, NY
-took religion more seriously, joined churches, participated in reform movements, and changed NY and American society (along Erie Canal)


Lyman Beecher

-one of the staunchest defenders of state support for Congregational churches in Connecticut
-supported revivals and voluntary associations for moral reform, after the churches lost government support
-created American Bible Society → distributed bibles, American Sunday School Union → provided curriculum materials for church-based Sunday schools
American Education Society → supported the education of ministers
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions → sent missionaries around the world
Goal: strengthen the moral sway of Congregational-Presbyterian Protestantism against individualism of Jacksonian Democrats, Catholics, and other Protestants


Women's Roles in the 2nd Great Awakening

-Encouraged to share voice
-3/4 of converts were women
-Weld: encouraged women to be active in religious communities, welcomed them as prayer leaders and preachers, those who became religious leaders in revivals became leaders in their communities


Reform Movements during 2nd Great Awakening

o Prisons – reform criminals to return as productive citizens
o Dorothea Dix – humane treatment of mentally ill
o The Shakers: a life of celibacy
o The Oneida Community: sex viewed as a gift to share
o Mormonism: Joseph Smith, founder, of an American born religion which represented a rebirth of true Christianity
o Brigham Young led his followers to the Mexican territory of Utah
o Mormonism’s controversy: Polygamy was allowed until 1890 – which delayed Utah statehood


Transcendentalist Movement

to search for a direct experience with the divine


Ralph Waldo Emerson

writings and this movement he helped launch reflected an impatience with “old ways” and a desire for direct and immediate experience of the divine that continued to impact American religious life


George Ripley

-A group called the Transcendental Club met at the home of George Ripley to discuss ideas and they created a theology that reflected a personal experience of life
-Under Ripley’s leadership, the club founded a utopian community in MA where the residents wanted to support themselves by manual labor and genders were equal but they did not know a lot about farming


Horace Mann

-helped pass the bill through the MA legislature that created a state Board of Education in which he became the secretary
-He advocated tighter state standards of education, more money for schools and teacher salaries, and a better education for children
-He also believed in the citizen’s duty to pay taxes to support the schools
-Jacksonian Democrats tried to abolish the Board of Education and the office of secretary
-Roman Catholics hated the growing influence and cost of the public system and believed they should not have to pay for their children to read the Protestant Bible


The McGuffey Reader

-first textbook
-offered lessons in reading and public speaking designed to create a unified, literate, and patriotic society and included patriotic speeches, ethical instruction and instruction in how to speak and present oneself
-portrayed U.S. as a white, middle class, hardworking, and willing to sacrifice for the common good bunch of ppl


Mount Holyoke College

founded to encourage women to become teachers