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Flashcards in Period 1 Deck (14):

Commercial Revolution in Europe

Rise of the towns and the merchant class; deposit banking and joint stock companies; Results of the Italian Renaissance(movable type printing, improved maps and instruments, caravel ships); the Division of Christianity due to the Reformation


The Plymouth Colony

1620, the Mayflower reached Cape Cod.
The Mayflower Compact: this document provided a precedent for later voluntary democratic compacts.
The Indians befriended the colonists. Squanto was an advisor and interpreter.
Governor: William Bradford wrote a history of the colony.
Town meetings is where political decisions were made.


encomienda system

established by Spain, land grant system given to Spanish settlers, natives worked the land as slaves


Columbian exchange

exchange of resources, food, cultures, disease between New World and Old World



social system from europe, social classes (nobles, warriors, middle class, lower class), social stratification



system where goal is to amass as much wealth as possibel


Ottoman Turks

severely hindered trade once they captured Constantinople. This encouraged Europeans to seek new ways to reach Asia. Prince Henry “the Navigator” of Portugal led this effort. The Portuguese routes would follow the coast of Africa and eventually Vasco de Gama reached India in 1498.


End of Chinese Exploration

1424- all Chinese sailing expeditions came to a halt and China would enter a period of isolation for the next 200 years. As a result, China would not be a participant in the exploration and settling of the Americas. This would not be the case with Spain as it prepared to unknowingly change the lives of millions beginning in 1492.


Decline of Central American societies

A period of armed conquest destroyed the Aztecs and the Incas by the 1530s. Cortes conquered the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan in 1521 and laid the foundation for a new capital, Mexico City, the capital of New Spain.
Francisco Pizarro conquered the Incas by 1532 due to the superiority of weapon technology. Significance of the role of small pox and other ailments.


Spanish colonization in north America

Ponce de Leon explored Florida and brought African slaves and Puerto Rican Indians with him.
The Spanish had a desire for greater exploration and expectations of finding wealth.
Francisco Coronado was met with hostility in the southwest and fled to parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas only to be disappointed in not finding any gold.
Juan Cabrillo found California a desirable place for settlement and even discovered Monterey Bay, but he found no gold.
Menendez de Aviles founded St. Augustine, Florida in 1565, which makes it the oldest European city in present-day United States.


French North America exploration

In 1524, the French commissioned the Italian sailor, Giovanni de Verrazano to explore the Atlantic Coast and mapped out land between North Carolina and Newfoundland.
Jacques Cartier explored the St. Lawrence River and established a long-lasting trade between the French and the Indians.


English North America exploration

In 1497 John Cabot explored the Newfoundland area.
In 1588 the defeat of the Spanish Armada allowed England to dominate the Atlantic Ocean. Licenses pirates assisted the cause. (Sir Francis Drake)
Sir Walter Raleigh attempted to establish a settlement in North Carolina called Roanoke in the 1580s. England’s first attempt at permanent settlement failed.


English protestant reformation

1517: Martin Luther posted his Ninety Five Theses resulting in the Protestant Reformation.
Protestantism rose with the rise of nation-states. Significance of the Treaty of Westphalia: rulers of each nation-state would choose what religion that state would follow, creating a sense of religious unity within each nation-state.


Treaty of Tordesillas

1494- The Spanish Pope divided the New World between the Spanish and the Portuguese.