Arm and Cubital Fossa Flashcards Preview

S1 Anatomy > Arm and Cubital Fossa > Flashcards

Flashcards in Arm and Cubital Fossa Deck (41):
1

humerus components

head
body
trochlea
capitulum
coronoid fossa
olecranon fossa
supracondylar ridges - medial and lateral

2

humeral head
-articulates with
-components

articulares with glenoid cavity of the scapula
components
-greater tubercle
-lesser tubercle
-intertubercular groove (sulcus)

3

humeral head
-anatomic vs. surgical neck

anatomical
-lies between head and the tubercles
surgical
-more likely region of breakage
-lies at beginning of body or shaft, distal to tubercles

4

humeral body
-location
-components and description of each

ends distally at expansions (medial and lateral epicondyles)
deltoid tuberosity
-anterolateral "bump" indicating insertion of deltoid muscle
radial groove (spiral groove)
-posterior aspect; position of radial nerve

5

trochlea of humerus
-function
-medial to trochlea...

articulates with ulna
medial to trochlea is a deep groove, sulcus for ulnar nerve - "funny bone"

6

capitulum
-function

articulates with radius

7

elbow articulations

humeroulnar
humeroradial
proximal radioulnar

8

elbow ligaments

radial collateral ligament
ulnar collalteral ligament
-anterior head
-posterior head
-oblique head
annular ligament of radius
-proximal radioulnar joint

9

muscles of the arm
-confined to

confined to anterior and posterior compartments

10

anterior and posterior compartments of arm -formed by...
-separating structures attached at...

medial and lateral intermuscular septa from fascia encircling arm
attached at
-medial and lateral supracondylar ridges of humerus

11

anconeus
-located primarily _____ due to...
-functions...

in forearm
due to insertion on ulna
functions along with medial head of triceps brachii
-anatomically is not always distinguishable

12

what must occur at the ulna during pronation?
-why
-what happens if this does not occur?
-what does this mean for the humeroulnar joint?

ulna must abduct
maintains position of hand (as in turning a screw driver)
pronation without abduction results in change in placement of hand during pronation
humero-ulnar joint is necessarily loose-packed

13

muscles of the cubital region
-primarily located where?
-where do they act

primarily located in forearm
action
-move forearm at elbow joint
-do not act on the hand or wrist

14

arm blood supply
-entirity comes from...
-majority of arteries have...

entirity comes from brachial artery (axillary artery after passing teres major)
majority of arteries have a matching paired set of veins

15

which veins are not matched to an artery?

cephalic
median cubital
median vein of forearm
basilic

16

brachial veins (paired to artery) do what?

anastomose with each other and the superficial veins

17

veins of the arm through the subclavian vein
-where are valves located
-number compared to LE
-size of vein compared to corresponding artery
-why this size?

valves located at the distal and proximal ends
not as many as LE
smaller than corresponding artery
-majority of venous return being handled by superficial venous plexus

18

muscular branches of artery
-for anterior compartment where do they come from
-for posterior compartment where do they come from

anterior
-brachial artery
posterior
-deep brachial artery

19

deep brachial artery
-splits into...
-what does it do around the lateral epicondyle

splits into anterior and posterior descending branches surrounding the lateral epicondyle of humerus to anastomose with collaterals from the brachial artery

20

profunda brachii (deep brachial artery)
-relation to brachial
-location

first and largest branch
branches and follows the radial nerve posteriorly around the radial groove to the posterior surface of the humerus

21

radial and ulnar arteries
-location
-formed from

found at the level of the cubital fossa
result of the brachial artery branching

22

recurrent branches
-created by...

radial artery
-one recurrent branch
ulnar artery
-anterior and posterior recurrent branches

23

anastomosis around the elbow
-formed from

anterior and posterior branches of deep brachial artery
radial recurrent artery
superior and inferior ulnar collaterals
anterior and posterior ulnar recurrent arteries

24

superior and inferior ulnar collateral arteries
-arise from
-superior follows...

arise from brachial artery proximal to division within cubital fossa
superior follows ulnar nerve

25

muscles of arm innervated by...

radial
musculocutaneous

26

median and ulnar nerves
-formed in...
-location
-function

formed in axilla
descend along brachial artery through arm to reach forearm
innervate muscles and skin of forearm

27

radial nerve
-size compared to other branches of posterior cord
-location
-function

largest
location
-curves posteriorly around the humerus in the radial groove (with deep brachial artery)
innervates
-triceps
-anconeus
-supinator
-brachioradialis
continues into forearm to innervate extensors of the wrist

28

musculocutaneous nerve
-formed from
-function
-continues into forearm as...

small branch of lateral cord
innervates
-muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm
continues into forearm as lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm

29

median and ulnar nerves
-location

travel down lateral and medial side of brachial artery, respectively

30

median nerve protected in cubital fossa by...

lying deep to bicipital tendon

31

ulnar nerve
-begins...
-where does it go?

begins in anterior muscular compartment
pierces the medial intermuscular septum to continue distally along the medial head of the triceps

32

cubital fossa
-borders

superior
-line crossing from medial to lateral epicondyles of humerus
medial
-pronator teres
lateral
-brachioradialis
floor
-brachialis
-supinator
roof
-deep fascia
-includes bicipital aponeurosis (covered by superficial fascia, loose CT, and skin)

33

cubital fossa
-contains

bicipital tendon
brachial artery
-its terminal radial and ulnar brahcnes
brachial veins
parts of median and radial nerves

34

median cubital vein in relation to cubital fossa

runs in loose CT superficial to deep fascia covering cubital fossa

35

radial nerve
-pressure may result in...

may result in temporary to long term paralysis or weakness of the extensors muscles of the wrist in the forearm
-called wrist drop

36

musculocutaneous nerve damage in the axilla
-results in...

weakened flexion and supination of forearm
anesthesia of lateral forearm also possible

37

damage to median nerve
-results in...

loss of sensation to lateral portion of palm
loss of
-pronation
-flexion of wrist and digits
-complex thumb movements

38

damage to ulnar nerve
-results in...
-effect on forearm flexors compared to median nerve damage

weakened
-flexion and adduction of wrist
vs. median nerve
-innervates less
-flexion less severely affected

39

sharp blow on medial side of elbow can result in...

tingling or anesthesia of the medial two digits if ulnar nerve is affected (in ulnar groove)
this is the funny bone

40

brachial/axillary artery damage
-can result in
-may lead to...

can result in loss of blood supply to forearm
-results in paralysis of deep flexors of wrist
permanent damage may occur
-produces a permanent flexion contracture due to atrophy and shortening of deep flexor muscles

41

anastomotic circulations and injury
-work best when...
-what will anastomotic circulations do if lack of perfusion is sudden and lasting

work best when
-"rerouting" of blood takes place over time
will allow minimal survival if lack of perfusion is sudden and lasting