Flashcards in Arm and Cubital Fossa Deck (41)
supracondylar ridges - medial and lateral
articulares with glenoid cavity of the scapula
-intertubercular groove (sulcus)
-anatomic vs. surgical neck
-lies between head and the tubercles
-more likely region of breakage
-lies at beginning of body or shaft, distal to tubercles
-components and description of each
ends distally at expansions (medial and lateral epicondyles)
-anterolateral "bump" indicating insertion of deltoid muscle
radial groove (spiral groove)
-posterior aspect; position of radial nerve
trochlea of humerus
-medial to trochlea...
articulates with ulna
medial to trochlea is a deep groove, sulcus for ulnar nerve - "funny bone"
articulates with radius
radial collateral ligament
ulnar collalteral ligament
annular ligament of radius
-proximal radioulnar joint
muscles of the arm
confined to anterior and posterior compartments
anterior and posterior compartments of arm -formed by...
-separating structures attached at...
medial and lateral intermuscular septa from fascia encircling arm
-medial and lateral supracondylar ridges of humerus
-located primarily _____ due to...
due to insertion on ulna
functions along with medial head of triceps brachii
-anatomically is not always distinguishable
what must occur at the ulna during pronation?
-what happens if this does not occur?
-what does this mean for the humeroulnar joint?
ulna must abduct
maintains position of hand (as in turning a screw driver)
pronation without abduction results in change in placement of hand during pronation
humero-ulnar joint is necessarily loose-packed
muscles of the cubital region
-primarily located where?
-where do they act
primarily located in forearm
-move forearm at elbow joint
-do not act on the hand or wrist
arm blood supply
-entirity comes from...
-majority of arteries have...
entirity comes from brachial artery (axillary artery after passing teres major)
majority of arteries have a matching paired set of veins
which veins are not matched to an artery?
median vein of forearm
brachial veins (paired to artery) do what?
anastomose with each other and the superficial veins
veins of the arm through the subclavian vein
-where are valves located
-number compared to LE
-size of vein compared to corresponding artery
-why this size?
valves located at the distal and proximal ends
not as many as LE
smaller than corresponding artery
-majority of venous return being handled by superficial venous plexus
muscular branches of artery
-for anterior compartment where do they come from
-for posterior compartment where do they come from
-deep brachial artery
deep brachial artery
-what does it do around the lateral epicondyle
splits into anterior and posterior descending branches surrounding the lateral epicondyle of humerus to anastomose with collaterals from the brachial artery
profunda brachii (deep brachial artery)
-relation to brachial
first and largest branch
branches and follows the radial nerve posteriorly around the radial groove to the posterior surface of the humerus
radial and ulnar arteries
found at the level of the cubital fossa
result of the brachial artery branching
-one recurrent branch
-anterior and posterior recurrent branches
anastomosis around the elbow
anterior and posterior branches of deep brachial artery
radial recurrent artery
superior and inferior ulnar collaterals
anterior and posterior ulnar recurrent arteries
superior and inferior ulnar collateral arteries
arise from brachial artery proximal to division within cubital fossa
superior follows ulnar nerve
muscles of arm innervated by...
median and ulnar nerves
formed in axilla
descend along brachial artery through arm to reach forearm
innervate muscles and skin of forearm
-size compared to other branches of posterior cord
-curves posteriorly around the humerus in the radial groove (with deep brachial artery)
continues into forearm to innervate extensors of the wrist
-continues into forearm as...
small branch of lateral cord
-muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm
continues into forearm as lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm
median and ulnar nerves
travel down lateral and medial side of brachial artery, respectively
median nerve protected in cubital fossa by...
lying deep to bicipital tendon
-where does it go?
begins in anterior muscular compartment
pierces the medial intermuscular septum to continue distally along the medial head of the triceps
-line crossing from medial to lateral epicondyles of humerus
-includes bicipital aponeurosis (covered by superficial fascia, loose CT, and skin)
-its terminal radial and ulnar brahcnes
parts of median and radial nerves
median cubital vein in relation to cubital fossa
runs in loose CT superficial to deep fascia covering cubital fossa
-pressure may result in...
may result in temporary to long term paralysis or weakness of the extensors muscles of the wrist in the forearm
-called wrist drop
musculocutaneous nerve damage in the axilla
weakened flexion and supination of forearm
anesthesia of lateral forearm also possible
damage to median nerve
loss of sensation to lateral portion of palm
-flexion of wrist and digits
-complex thumb movements
damage to ulnar nerve
-effect on forearm flexors compared to median nerve damage
-flexion and adduction of wrist
vs. median nerve
-flexion less severely affected
sharp blow on medial side of elbow can result in...
tingling or anesthesia of the medial two digits if ulnar nerve is affected (in ulnar groove)
this is the funny bone
brachial/axillary artery damage
-can result in
-may lead to...
can result in loss of blood supply to forearm
-results in paralysis of deep flexors of wrist
permanent damage may occur
-produces a permanent flexion contracture due to atrophy and shortening of deep flexor muscles