Leg and Popliteal Fossa Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Leg and Popliteal Fossa Deck (40):
1

crural fascia
-location
-integrated with what other structures?

location
-deep fascia of the leg
-continuous with the fascia lata (deep fascia of thigh)
-surrounds the leg
integration
-continuous with the periosteum of the tibia on its anterior and medial surface (surface you can palpate)

2

crural fascia
-important structures that arise from it

fascia thickens near distal end of thigh and is called the...
-superior and inferior extensor retinacula
anterior and posterior crural intermuscular septa

3

anterior and posterior crural intermuscular septa
-location
-purpose

location
-extend from the deep side of the fascia and attach to the lateral edge of the fibula
purpose
-separate and divide the three compartments of the leg

4

nerves of the leg
-branches of ___ nerve
-formed from _____
-main branches identified where

branches of the sciatic nerve
formed from ventral rami of spinal nerves L4-S3
two main branches identified in the popliteal fossa (even though they may have branched in gluteal region or thigh)

5

nerves of the leg
-names

tibial nerve
sural nerve
common fibular (peroneal) nerve
deep fibular (peroneal) nerve
superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve

6

tibial nerve
-formed from
-innervates which muscles
-where does this nerve turn into?

formed from ventral division of ventral rami of L4-S3
innervates muscles of posterior compartment of the leg
nerve becomes
-medial plantar nerve
-lateral plantar nerve

7

sural nerve
-formed from...
-function

formed from
-medial sural cutaneous nerve (part of tibial nerve)
-lateral sural cutaneous nerve (part of common fibular nerve)
function
-innervates the inferior lateral posterior part of the leg
-sole of the foot

8

common fibular nerve
-branches into...
-where does it travel after the popliteal fossa?
-where does it branch

branches into
-deep fibular
-superficial fibular
from popliteal fossa
-wraps laterally around the neck of the fibular
divides
-deep to the peroneus muscle

9

deep fibular nerve
-function
-where does it travel after branching off common fibular?

innervates the muscles of the anterior crural compartment
following branching
-pierces the anterior crural intermuscular septum to descend on the anterior surface of the interosseous membrame
-remains deep to extensor retinacula

10

superficial fibular
-function
-location

innervates the muscles of the lateral crural compartment
location
-descends posterolateral to the anterior crural intermusclar septum

11

femoral artery becomes...
-where does this occur?

become popliteal artery
occurs once it enters the popliteal fossa via the adductor hiatus

12

genicular anastomosis
-formed by which arteries

medial and lateral superior genicular arteries
middle genicular artery
medial and lateral inferior genicular arteries

13

other arteries that supply the leg

descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery
descending genicular branch (branch of femoral artery)
anterior and posterior recurrent tibial artery (branch of the anterior tibial artery)
circumflex fibular artery (branch of fibular artery)

14

popliteal artery
-has muscular branches to...
-branches into which arteries (known as the terminal branches)
-where does this occur?

has muscular branches to the gastroc
branches into
anterior tibial
-posterior tibial
seen deep to gastroc

15

anterior tibial artery
-route after branching off popliteal
-becomes which artery and where?
-function

penetrates the interosseous membrane to reach the anterior compartment of the leg
becomes
-dorsalis pedis artery on dorsal side of foot
function
-supplies the anterior muscle compartment

16

posterior tibial artery
-location

location
-posterior compartment positioned alongside the posterior tibial nerve
-NV bundle lies between the superficial and deep divisions of the posterior compartment of the leg

17

posterior tibial artery
-branches into

branches into fibular artery

18

posterior tibial artery
-route after branching
-ends as which arteries

goes around medial malleolus to end on the plantar surface of the foot as the medial and lateral plantar arteries

19

fibular artery
-begins...
-continues where...
-function

begins distal to popliteus muscle
descends along the fibula
function
-supplies blood to the lateral crural compartment (no major artery in the lateral compartment)

20

shin splints
-what is it?
-due to...

what
-inflammation or swelling of tibialis anterior causing pressure on encasing crural fascia
due to
-inadequate warm-up
-poor running technique

21

shin splints
-potential causes

1. tearing of the origin of tibialis anterior on the tibia
2. tibialis posterior (attached to interosseus membrane) is irritated with excess/forceful dorsiflexion
-this irritates the continuity of the periosteum of the tibia

22

foot drop
-due to
-which nerves can be involved?

loss of tibialis anterior function by damage to
-sciatic
-common peroneal
-deep peroneal
tib. anterior innervated by
-deep peroneal nerve

23

foot drop
-most common sites for damage that leads to this

sciatic nerve due to severe trauma in the
-gluteal region
-posterior thigh

24

foot drop
-why is the common fibular nerve a common location of injury?

close to the surface as it wraps around the neck of the fibula and can be damaged by blunt trauma

25

common fibular nerve
-becomes relatively protected after passing what location

after penetrating the anterior crural intermusclar septum

26

knee joint
-type of joint
-permits what movements?

hinge type synovial joint permitting some rotation
movements
-flexion and extension of the leg
-rotation of the leg while knee flexed

27

knee joint
-relation of femur and tibia when knee is locked out
-how is it unlocked (during closed and open chain?

femur is medially rotated on the tibia (closed chain)
unlock closed
-popliteus muscle laterally rotates the femur (tibia is fixed due to standing)
unlock open
-popliteus medially rotates the tibia on the femur

28

knee joint articular capsule
-what is it
-where is it thicker?

what
-thick fibrous capsule
thicker
-where there are ligament expansions (intrinsic capsular ligaments of knee)

29

capsular ligament names

lateral collateral ligament (LCL)
medial collateral ligament (MCL)
patellar ligament
oblique popliteal ligament
arcuate popliteal ligament

30

LCL
-description (3)

splits the tendons of insertion of the two heads of the biceps
overlies the origin of the popliteus
begins intrinsic, becomes external

31

MCL
-description (1)

medial fibers strongly attached to the medial meniscus (intrinsic)

32

patellar ligament
-extrinsic or intrinsic (complicated answer)

external as quad tendon and patellar ligament
there is an intrinsic part close to the patella as it approaches the articular surface

33

oblique popliteal ligament
-characteristic

tendon of semimembranosus
intrinsic - support of capsule

34

arcuate popliteal ligament
-characteristics (5)

branched ligament
from
-head of the fibula
to
-intercondylar space of the tibia
-lateral epicondyle of the femur
intrinsic - support of capsule

35

internal ligaments of the knee
-names
-how are they separated from the actual joint space

names
-anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
-posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)
-medial meniscus
-lateral meniscus
separated by synovial membranes

36

ACL
-function
-tight when...

function
-prevents posterior displacement of femur on tibia
tight when fully extended

37

PCL
-function
-tight when...

function
-prevents anterior displacement of femur on tibia
tight when fully flexed

38

medial and lateral menisci
-attached to tibia by

attached to tibia by coronary ligament

39

tibiofibular joint
-type of joint proximally
-type of joint distally
-ligaments

proximally
-synovial joint planar type
distally
-fibrous syndesmosis type
ligaments
-anterior and posterior tibiofibular ligament
-transverse tibiofibular ligament (deep part of the posterior tibiofibular ligament)

40

tibiofibular joint
-how is the synovial (proximal) joint supported?
-how is the syndesmosis (distal) joint anchored?

proximal
-supported by fibrous capsule surrounding joint
distal
-anchored by an interosseous membrane