Flashcards in Mediastinum and Heart Deck (42)
-where is it/what is it
central compartment of thoracic cavity
-connective walls that separate this central region from the pleural cavities on either side
-continuous anteriorly/posteriorly with...
-continuous superiorly with...
-attached inferiorly to...
-costal cartilages to the bodies of the vertebrae
inferior divisions of mediastinum separated by...
what are the thoracic viscera located within the mediastinal regions?
trachea and bifurcation to primary bronchii
origin of great vessels
-middle region of inferior part of mediastinum
consists of a CT sac that is made up of 2 layers
-tough outer layer of dense irregular CT
-inner serous layer of simple squamous epithelium (mesothelium)
fibrous pericardium continuous with...
tunica adventitia of great vessels
inner layer (mesothelium) of pericardium
-reflected onto heart as...
called parietal epicardium
reflected onto heart as visceral epicardium or outermost layer of heart
visceral epicardium adheres to...
muscular myocardium (heart muscle)
3 layers of heart tissue
-cardiac branched striated muscle
three layers continuous with three tunics of the vasculature
branched striated, similar to that of a skeletal muscle
why are differences in the type of muscle between the heart and muscles important
how do sarcomeres in the heart connect?
-why is this important
via modified z-lines (intercalated discs)
ensures contraction occurs in a widespread fashion rather than a strict linear fashion as seen in skeletal muscle
why are branched sarcomeres of the heart connected by gap junctions
allow direct sharing of cytoplasmic signals
in the heart, the sharing is of Ca++ to assure contraction
where in the heart is there a gross difference of appearance in terms to muscle (sarcomeres)
-is the myocardium different in these areas?
between atrium and ventricular walls
pectinate and trabeculae carneae
branched striated myocardium is similar
fibrous skeleton of heart
supports integrity of
-cusps of the valves
-opening of each transition from chamber to vessel and between chambers
"insulator" of electrical activity limiting the spread of contraction from the atria to the ventricles, directing the depolarizing wave to the atrioventricular node
heart conductive system function
designed to spread a depolarizing wave across the atria and ventricles
from sinoatrial node, wave goes to...
goes through both atria myogenically (through the muscle)
myogenic spread of signal through atria limited to atria by...
wave from SA node converges at...
-what is activated here
activates AV bundle (bundle of His)
-located in interventricular septum
-branches near apex of heart to spread through a right and left bundle branch
-right bundle branch supplies right ventricle
-left bundle branch supplies left ventricle
bundle branches end in...
-function of these
end in purkinje fibers
spread depolarization across walls of ventricles
function of papillary muscles from a timing standpoint
contract first in order to stabilize the two AV valves to resist prolapse and regurgitation of blood back into the atria
atrial and ventricular walls
-these are not found...
marked by multiple muscular fiber ridges
ridges not present on interatrial or interventricular septa
atrial and ventricular ridges
assist in complete contraction of the walls of the chambers
markings of thin vs. thick walled atria
-what are they
strong connective tissue attachments between papillary muscles of the ventricular system and the connective tissue edges of the cusps of the AV valves
myocardium perfused by...
two coronary arteries and their branches
where are the openings of the coronary arteries
behind the left and right cusps of the aortic valve