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Flashcards in Ankle and Foot Deck (35)
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deep fascia (of leg?)
-continues into...
-dorsal side characteristics
-plantar side characteristic and name

continuous with the deep fascia around talocrural joint (ankle)
dorsal surface
-thin and continuous with the inferior extensor retinaculum
plantar surface
-greatly thickened dense connective tissue
-spans entire plantar surface
-called the plantar aponeurosis


plantar aponeurosis
-travels to...

begins on the tuber calcaneus
fans out into five separate bands distally toward the toes
encases the flexor tendons of digits


plantar aponeurosis function

helps in supporting the longitudinal arches


plantar aponeurosis vertical septa

from deep side of plantar aponeurosis
divide the plantar side of the foot into medial, central, and lateral longitudinal compartments


what do the medial, central, and lateral longitudinal compartments of the foot contain? (general)



ankle (talocrural) joint
-joint type

hinge type synovial joint


what holds the tibia and fibula together at the ankle?

interosseus membrane (syndesmosis joint)
anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament
posterior inferior tibiofibular ligament


ankle movements

plantar flexion/dorsiflexion
rotation (especially during plantar flexion)


what is the closed packed position for the ankle?
-what is limited in this position

closed placked


deltoid ligament (of ankle)
-which side of ankle
-connects _____ to _____

medial side
connects tibia to
-anterior talus
-posterior talus


lateral ligaments of the ankle names

anterior talofibular
posterior talofibular


strength of talocrural ligaments may result in...

avulsion fractures of the lateral and/or medial malleolus during forced inversion or eversion


joints of the foot
-location of each
-function of each

subtalar joint
-between talus and calcaneus
-primary location of inversion/eversion
transverse tarsal joint
-combination of talocalcaneonavicular joint and calcaneocuboid joint
-facilitates inversion and eversion, pronation and supination


arches of the foot

longitudinal arch
-medial and lateral parts
transverse arch


longitudinal arch of the foot
-supported by which ligaments...

supported by
-plantar calcaneonavicular (spring) ligament
-long plantar ligament
-plantar aponeurosis
-short plantar ligament


transverse arch
-supported by...

tendon of peroneus longus muscle


digits of the foot
-numbered 1-5 in which direction
-how do we now define abduction/adduction

1-5 from medial to lateral
new axis running longitudinally from the calcaneus through toe 2


arteries of the ankle and foot

dorsalis pedis
medial plantar
lateral plantar


dorsalis pedis artery
-continuation of...
-when does the name change to dorsalis pedis?
-divides into the _____ and _____ near _____
-where can it be felt?

continuation of anterior tibial artery onto dorsum of foot
name changes once it passes deep to inferior extensor retinaculum
divides into deep plantar artery and arcuate artery near the MTP joint
can be felt over the navicular and cuneiform bones


dorsalis pedis artery
-clinical importance
-what does a lack of or diminished dorsalis pedis pulse indicate?

important in diagnosing vascular efficiency in the LE
lack of or diminished
-indicator of vascular insufficiency, possibly from atherosclerotic changes


deep plantar artery
-what does it join and how does it do it?

joins the deep plantar arterial arch by diving between the proximal phalanx bones of the hallux and second toe


arcuate artery
-what branches off of it and where do they go?

dorsal digital branches and perforating branches
reach the plantar surface of the foot


medial and lateral plantar arteries
-continuation of...
-run parallel to...

continuation of posterior tibial artery
run parallel to similarly named nerves


lateral plantar artery

runs anterolaterally to the base of the 5th metatarsal
branch runs medially to join the deep plantar branch from dorsalis pedis to form the deep plantar arterial arch
plantar digital branches then extend along the five digits


medial plantar artery

extends along the lateral border of the 1st metatarsal to reach the hallux
less consistent superficial plantar arch is present off this artery


anastomotic circulation of the foot and ankle
-comprised of...

anterior lateral malleolar network
posterior medial malleolar network from the anterior tibial and posterior tibial arteries
other smaller branches also contribute to the vascular network


nerves of the ankle and foot

medial plantar
lateral plantar
superficial fibular
deep fibular


tibial nerve
-where does it divide
-what does it divide into

divides posterior to medial malleolus into medial and lateral plantar nerves


medial and lateral plantar nerves
-division between the two in terms of what they supply is where

supply all the muscles on the plantar surface of the foot
division is roughly medial to the first lumbrical
-located between digits one and two


medial plantar nerve
-larger or small of the two branches?
-ends as...

-deep to abductor hallucis and runs anteriorly and medially
innervates the medial musculature on the plantar surface of the foot
ends as three cutaneous branches to medial three digits


lateral plantar nerve
-divides into...
-deep branch is entirely...
-superficial branch supplies...

-runs anterolateral between 1st and 2nd layer
divides into a superficial and deep branch
innervates the musculature on the lateral plantar side of the foot
deep branch is entirely muscular
superficial branch supplies muscles listed in table and cutaneous branches to lateral two digits


sural nerve
-usually arises from...

usually arises from branches of the tibial nerve and common peroneal nerve at the level of the popliteal fossa
supplies cutaneous innervation to
-posterior and lateral distal third of the leg
-skin over lateral margin of foot
-5th digit


saphenous nerve
-how does it begin?

divides off the femoral nerve in the femoral triangle
descends along with the femoral artery and vein through the adductor canal and popliteal fossa
supplies cutaneous innervation
-over the anterior and medial parts of the leg
-along the medial side of the foot


deep and superficial fibular nerve
-deep peroneal specifically innervates...

continuations of these nerves into the skin supply the dorsum of the foot
deep peroneal
-innervates the two short extensor muscles found on the dorsum of the foot


clinical testing (not sure what he's really wanting us to know from these 2 sentences, but they're here)

damage to superficial peroneal nerve at the level of the lateral compartment, at the level of the distal crural fascia
damage to deep peroneal nerve at the level of the anterior compartment, at the level of the distal crural fascia. Within the popliteal fossa at the level of the common peroneal nerve