Flashcards in Ankle and Foot Deck (35):
deep fascia (of leg?)
-dorsal side characteristics
-plantar side characteristic and name
continuous with the deep fascia around talocrural joint (ankle)
-thin and continuous with the inferior extensor retinaculum
-greatly thickened dense connective tissue
-spans entire plantar surface
-called the plantar aponeurosis
begins on the tuber calcaneus
fans out into five separate bands distally toward the toes
encases the flexor tendons of digits
plantar aponeurosis function
helps in supporting the longitudinal arches
plantar aponeurosis vertical septa
from deep side of plantar aponeurosis
divide the plantar side of the foot into medial, central, and lateral longitudinal compartments
what do the medial, central, and lateral longitudinal compartments of the foot contain? (general)
ankle (talocrural) joint
hinge type synovial joint
what holds the tibia and fibula together at the ankle?
interosseus membrane (syndesmosis joint)
anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament
posterior inferior tibiofibular ligament
rotation (especially during plantar flexion)
what is the closed packed position for the ankle?
-what is limited in this position
deltoid ligament (of ankle)
-which side of ankle
-connects _____ to _____
connects tibia to
lateral ligaments of the ankle names
strength of talocrural ligaments may result in...
avulsion fractures of the lateral and/or medial malleolus during forced inversion or eversion
joints of the foot
-location of each
-function of each
-between talus and calcaneus
-primary location of inversion/eversion
transverse tarsal joint
-combination of talocalcaneonavicular joint and calcaneocuboid joint
-facilitates inversion and eversion, pronation and supination
arches of the foot
-medial and lateral parts
longitudinal arch of the foot
-supported by which ligaments...
-plantar calcaneonavicular (spring) ligament
-long plantar ligament
-short plantar ligament
tendon of peroneus longus muscle
digits of the foot
-numbered 1-5 in which direction
-how do we now define abduction/adduction
1-5 from medial to lateral
new axis running longitudinally from the calcaneus through toe 2
arteries of the ankle and foot
dorsalis pedis artery
-when does the name change to dorsalis pedis?
-divides into the _____ and _____ near _____
-where can it be felt?
continuation of anterior tibial artery onto dorsum of foot
name changes once it passes deep to inferior extensor retinaculum
divides into deep plantar artery and arcuate artery near the MTP joint
can be felt over the navicular and cuneiform bones
dorsalis pedis artery
-what does a lack of or diminished dorsalis pedis pulse indicate?
important in diagnosing vascular efficiency in the LE
lack of or diminished
-indicator of vascular insufficiency, possibly from atherosclerotic changes
deep plantar artery
-what does it join and how does it do it?
joins the deep plantar arterial arch by diving between the proximal phalanx bones of the hallux and second toe
-what branches off of it and where do they go?
dorsal digital branches and perforating branches
reach the plantar surface of the foot
medial and lateral plantar arteries
-run parallel to...
continuation of posterior tibial artery
run parallel to similarly named nerves
lateral plantar artery
runs anterolaterally to the base of the 5th metatarsal
branch runs medially to join the deep plantar branch from dorsalis pedis to form the deep plantar arterial arch
plantar digital branches then extend along the five digits
medial plantar artery
extends along the lateral border of the 1st metatarsal to reach the hallux
less consistent superficial plantar arch is present off this artery
anastomotic circulation of the foot and ankle
anterior lateral malleolar network
posterior medial malleolar network from the anterior tibial and posterior tibial arteries
other smaller branches also contribute to the vascular network
nerves of the ankle and foot
-where does it divide
-what does it divide into
divides posterior to medial malleolus into medial and lateral plantar nerves
medial and lateral plantar nerves
-division between the two in terms of what they supply is where
supply all the muscles on the plantar surface of the foot
division is roughly medial to the first lumbrical
-located between digits one and two
medial plantar nerve
-larger or small of the two branches?
-deep to abductor hallucis and runs anteriorly and medially
innervates the medial musculature on the plantar surface of the foot
ends as three cutaneous branches to medial three digits
lateral plantar nerve
-deep branch is entirely...
-superficial branch supplies...
-runs anterolateral between 1st and 2nd layer
divides into a superficial and deep branch
innervates the musculature on the lateral plantar side of the foot
deep branch is entirely muscular
superficial branch supplies muscles listed in table and cutaneous branches to lateral two digits
-usually arises from...
usually arises from branches of the tibial nerve and common peroneal nerve at the level of the popliteal fossa
supplies cutaneous innervation to
-posterior and lateral distal third of the leg
-skin over lateral margin of foot
-how does it begin?
divides off the femoral nerve in the femoral triangle
descends along with the femoral artery and vein through the adductor canal and popliteal fossa
supplies cutaneous innervation
-over the anterior and medial parts of the leg
-along the medial side of the foot
deep and superficial fibular nerve
-deep peroneal specifically innervates...
continuations of these nerves into the skin supply the dorsum of the foot
-innervates the two short extensor muscles found on the dorsum of the foot