Axilla Flashcards Preview

S1 Anatomy > Axilla > Flashcards

Flashcards in Axilla Deck (43):
1

axilla
-shape
-location
-contents

shape
-pyramidal
location
-between upper thoracic wall and arm
contents
-axillary vessels (artery, vein, and branches)
-infraclavicular parts of brachial plexus and its branches
-lymph nodes and vessels
-loose adipose tissue

2

apex of axilla
-continues into...
-location

continues into root of neck between
-external border of the first rib
-superior scapular border
-posterior surface of clavicle
-medial aspect of coracoid process

3

base of axilla
-corresponds to...
-between
-covered with...

corresponds to
-skin
-thick layer of axillary fascia
between
-inferior borders of
--pec major anteriorly
--latissimus dorsi posteriorly
covered with hair in postpubertal persons

4

anterior wall of axilla
-formed by
--what do these cover?

formed by
pectoralis major
-covers majority of wall
pectoralis minor
-covers intermediate part of anterior wall
lateral part of clavicle and subclavius
-located near the apex

5

posterior wall
-covered by

covered by
-subscapularis superiorly
-teres major intermediate
-latissimus dorsi inferiorly

6

lateral wall
-anterior and posterior walls converge toward...

insertion of muscles of the intertubercular groove

7

medial wall
-what is it?
-covered by

thoracic cage
covered by serratus anterior

8

major arteries (2)

subclavian
axillary

9

subclavian artery
-branches off of...
-divided into...

branches off
-brachiocephalic trunk (R side)
-aortic arch (L side)
divided into three parts
-review from pectoral region notes

10

subclavian artery
-branches

vertebral artery
internal thoracic artery
thyrocervical trunk
dorsal scapular artery

11

vertebral artery
-function
-location

function
-blood supply to the CNS
location
-transverse foraminae of cervical vertebrae
-floor of suboccipital artery

12

internal thoracic artery
-also known as
-function
-anastomosis with...
-can be used in what surgery?

aka internal mammary artery
function
-blood to diaphragm
anastomosis with intercostal arteries
can be used in CABG surgery to anterior wall of heart

13

thyrocervical trunk
-location
-branches into...

usually from 1st part of subclavian
branches into
-inferior thyroid artery
-suprascapular artery
-superficial cervical artery
-transverse cervical artery

14

dorsal scapular artery
-location

arises from either
-3rd part of subclavian
-2nd part of subclavian
-thyrocervical trunk

15

what is the dorsal scapular artery called if it arises from the thyrocervical trunk

transverse cervical artery

16

axillary artery
-what is it?
-location
-divided into...
-divided by what

lateral continuation of subclavian artery
location
-past lateral border of 1st rib
divided into three parts by position of pec minor

17

axillary artery
-branches

thoracoacromial artery (trunk)
lateral thoracic artery
subscapular artery
anterior circumflex humeral artery
posterior circumflex humeral artery

18

thoracoacromial artery (trunk)
-branches

pectoral branch
acromial branch
clavicular branch
deltoid branch

19

thoracoacromial artery pectoral branch
-location
-function
-anastomosis with

between p. major and p. minor
function
-supplies p. major, p. minor, and superior thoracic
anastomosis with
-intercostal branches of internal thoracic and lateral thoracic arteries

20

thoracoacromial artery acromial branch
-location
-function
-anastomosis with

location
-crosses corocoid process under deltoid
function
-supplies deltoid
anastomosis with
-suprascapular artery
-deltoid branch of thoracoacromial artery
-posterior circumflex humeral artery

21

thoracoacromial artery clavicular branch
-function

supplies subclavius

22

thoracoacromial artery deltoid branch
-location
-function
-anastomotic with...

crosses p. minor
supplies p. minor and deltoid
anastomotic with
-thoracoacromial artery acromial branch

23

lateral thoracic artery
-large in...
-supplies...
-anastomosis with...

large in females w/ lateral mammary branches to the mammary gland
supplies p. minor, p. major, serratus anterior
anastomotic with
-internal thoracic
-subscapular
-intercostal arteries
-pectoral branches of thoracoacromial

24

subscapular artery
-branches off of....
-branches into...
-can be identified where...

branches off of 2nd part (usually) of axillary artery
branches into circumflex scapular artery
-can be identified in triangular space

25

subscapular artery
-anastomosis with...
-function
-what is the terminal branch and what is the function?

anastomosis with
-lateral thoracic
-intercostal arteries
-deep branch of transverse cervical (dorsal scapular)
blood supply to
-scapular muscles via scapular anastomosis (supra, infra, subscap, teres minor and major, posterior deltoid, lat, long head of tricep)
terminal branch is thoracodorsal artery to lat

26

anterior circumflex humeral artery
-location
-function
-anastomosis with

location
-lateral side of axillary artery (2nd to 3rd part)
-behind coracobrachialis and short head of biceps
supplies humeral head and glenohumeral joint
anastomosis with posterior circumflex humeral artery

27

posterior circumflex humeral artery
-location
-size compared to anterior circumflex humeral
-function

location
-from 3rd part of axillary
-moves posteriorly and goes around posterior side of humerus through quadrangular space
larger than anterior circumflex
supplies
-GH joint
-deltoid
-teres major and minor
-long and lateral heads of triceps

28

posterior circumflex humeral artery
-anastomosis with...

anterior circumflex humeral artery
branches of
-suprascapular
-thoracoacromial trunk (acromial and deltoid branches)
descending branches anastomose with branches of the brachial artery

29

superficial network of veins
-location
-names of most common ones found in dissection

location
-loose connective tissue below skin
names
-cephalic
-basilic
-median vein of the forearm
-

30

cephalic vein
-location
-medially directed branch: name and end point
-empties into... via...

location
-formed over anatomical snuff box
-ascends laterally to cubital fossa
-continues up lateral side of arm to empty into axillary vein through the deltopectoral groove (infraclavicular fossa) near the acromion
medially directed branch
-median cubital vein

31

median cubital vein
-common use

most common vein for venupuncture

32

basilic vein
-location
-becomes...

location
-begins medially on the dorsum of the hand
-ascends and wraps to a location on the anteromedial surface of the arm
becomes axillary vein by perforating deep fascia distal to axilla

33

median vein of forearm
-location
-common use

location
-ascends on medial (ulnar) side of forearm
-joins the basilic and median cubital veins on the distal end of the anteromedial surface of the arm
use
-second choice for blood donations
-smaller than median cubital vein

34

brachial plexus
-union of...
-brachial plexus separations labeled as... in what order?

union of
-C5-T1 primary ventral rami
-C4 and/or T2 rami sometimes contribute
brachial plexus gives rise to formation of
-roots
-trunks
-divisions
-cords
-named nerves or arm and forearm

35

brachial plexus roots
-what are they?
-location

ventral rami of C5-T1
located in the root of the neck (no the dorsal and ventral roots of the spinal cord)

36

brachial plexus trunks
-names of trunks
-formed by which roots?
-location

upper trunk
-C5, C6
middle trunk
-C7
lower trunk
-C8, T1
location
-superior and posterior to clavicle

37

divisions
-how are they created
-location
-division union forms...

each trunk divides into an anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) division
takes place at the level of the clavicle
union forms cords

38

cords
-names
-formed by
-location of each

lateral cord
-anterior divisions of upper and middle trunk
-lateral to axillary artery
medial cord
-continuation of anterior division of lower trunk
-descends behind and then medial to axillary artery
posterior cord
-posterior divisions of all 3 trunks
-behind axillary artery

39

named nerves from roots (supraclavicular)

phrenic nerve
dorsal scapular nerve
long thoracic nerve

40

named nerves from trunks (supraclavicular)

nerve to subclavius
suprascapular nerve

41

named nerves from lateral cord (infraclavicular)

lateral pectoral nerve
musculocutaneous nerve
lateral part of median nerve

42

named nerves from medial cord (infraclavicular)

medial pectoral nerve
medial cutaneous nerve of forearm
medial cutaneous nerve of arm
ulnar nerve
medial part of median nerve

43

named nerves from posterior cord (infraclavicular)

upper subscapular nerve
thoracodorsal nerve
lower subscapular nerve
axillary nerve
radial nerve