Cartilage and Bone Flashcards Preview

S1 Anatomy > Cartilage and Bone > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cartilage and Bone Deck (46):
1

what is cartilage?

specialized connective tissue
contains extracellular matrix enriched with
-glycosaminoglycans
-proteoglycans
these bind with collagen and elastic fibers

2

types of cartilage
-what determines differences?

hyaline cartilage
elastic cartilage
fibrocartilage
determination
-compositional differences

3

hyaline cartilage
-locations

epiphyseal plate
articular surfaces
walls of trachea

4

elastic cartilage
-locations

epiglottis
cuneiform cartilage
auricle

5

fibrocartilage
-locations

intervertebral disc
pubic symphysis
acetabular labrum

6

cartilage functions

shock absorber
provides smooth surface for sliding area of joints
development and growth of long bones

7

cartilage composition

cells (chondrocytes) with lacunae
extracellular matrix
-fibers
-ground substance

8

matrix composition of cartilage

collagen
hyaluronic acid
proteoglycans
"other" glycoproteins - chondronectin

9

what gives cartilage its stiffness?

hydrostatic bonds of the glycosaminoglycan chains of the proteoglycans

10

cartilage
-vascularity
-how does it obtain nutrients

cartilage is avascular
nutrients supplied by diffusion through the matrix
-either by vascularization within the Perichondrium
-or by synovial fluid (for articular (hyaline) cartilage)

11

what is the perichondrium

capsule of dense connective tissue surrounding the cartilage

12

hyaline cartilage
-what type of collagen?

collagen type II

13

perichondrium
-what type of tissue
-contains
-inner cellular layer (chondrogenic cells) becomes...

dense connective tissue (irregular)
contains type I collagen with fibroblasts
inner layer is adjacent to cartilage and becomes chondroblasts

14

chondroblasts become ___ when enclosed in cartilage

chondrocytes

15

chondrocytes
-appearance
-may be a number of chondrocytes in _____ due to mitotic activity

appearance
-elliptical at edge of developing cartilage
-round once fully enclosed in cartilage matrix
may be in lacunae

16

hyaline cartilage growth is dependent upon...

somatomedin C from the liver
produces as a result of somatotropin from the pituitary gland

17

how does growth occur in cartilage?

interstitial growth
appositional growth

18

interstitial growth
-characteristics

mitotic division of chondrocytes
evident developmentally - 1st formation
growth plate - increases length of bone
articular surfaces - due to lack of perichondrium

19

appositional growth
-what does it do?

increases girth

20

elastic cartilage
-location
-types of fibers
-abundant in ____ and they are ____ than in hyaline cartilage

location
-outer layer of perichondrium
fiber types
-type II collagen
-elastic fibers
more abundant in chondrocytes
-larger than in hyaline

21

fibrocartilage
-associated with...
-type of fibers
-perichondrium
-chondrocytes

associated with dense connective tissue
fibers
-collagen type I
no perichondrium
chondrocytes arranged in rows (isogenous groups)

22

bone
-functions

structural
-support and series of levers for movement
protection of vital organs
-skull, thoracic cage, vertebral column
storage pool for Ca2+ and PO4-

23

periosteum
-contains

outer dense connective tissue layer
inner cellular layer with osteoprogenitor cells

24

central cavity of bones
-contains

endosteum with osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts

25

bone matrix

glycoproteins and proteoglycans associated with collagen Type I
hydroxyapatite
-Ca2+
-PO4-
-H2O

26

bone cell types

osteoprogenitor cells
osteoblasts
osteocytes
osteoclasts

27

osteoprogenitor cells
-function

differentiate into osteoblasts (or chondrogenic cells)

28

osteoblasts
-location
-function
-connected via...

line surface of bone
secrete matrix (osteoid)
connected via gap junctions

29

osteocytes

formed from osteoblasts

30

osteoclasts
-origin
-function
-type of border
-what is the area of bone matrix that has been removed called?

hematopoietic in origin
function
-bone resorption
ruffled border
-irregular surface facing bone
removed bone matrix
-Howship's Lacunae

31

types of bone

compact
spongy (trabecular)

32

regions of a bone

diaphysis
-shaft
epiphysis
-articular ends
metaphsis
-area of spongy bone columns between epiphyseal plate and diaphysis

33

what separates epiphysis and diaphysis

epiphyseal plate

34

primary vs. secondary bone

primary
-formed embryologically (or as repair)
replaced by secondary bone

35

secondary bone characteristics when compared with primary bone

regular lamellae
more dense calcification over a more regular system of collagen fibers

36

osteon
-what is it?
-composed of

deep compact bone lying between inner and outer lamellae
composed of osteoblasts
-these are connected via caniliculi
these connected osteoblasts surround the central canal with the blood vessel
-this is called a Haversion canal

37

caniliculi
-function

connects osteoblasts in an osteon
gap junction between osteoblasts runs through here

38

Haversion canals (which run parallel to the bone's longitudinal axis) are connected laterally via...

Volkmann's canals

39

two types of bone growth

intramembranous
endochondral

40

intramembranous bone growth
-how does it occur?

osteoblasts secrete matrix that begins to form spicules

41

endochondral bone growth
-how does it occur?

hyaline cartilage model is encased by a subperiosteal bone collar (intramembranous)
-this bone collar deposits bone matrix

42

bone remodeling occurs as a result of...

growth and stresses on bone

43

bone repair requires...

adequate blood supply
proximity of opposing bone faces

44

mesenchymal cell
-what is it?

stem cell that has not committed to making any type of connective tissue

45

primary ossification site

shaft of bone - ossifies first

46

secondary ossification site

ends of bone