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Flashcards in Cartilage and Bone Deck (46)
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1

what is cartilage?

specialized connective tissue
contains extracellular matrix enriched with
-glycosaminoglycans
-proteoglycans
these bind with collagen and elastic fibers

2

types of cartilage
-what determines differences?

hyaline cartilage
elastic cartilage
fibrocartilage
determination
-compositional differences

3

hyaline cartilage
-locations

epiphyseal plate
articular surfaces
walls of trachea

4

elastic cartilage
-locations

epiglottis
cuneiform cartilage
auricle

5

fibrocartilage
-locations

intervertebral disc
pubic symphysis
acetabular labrum

6

cartilage functions

shock absorber
provides smooth surface for sliding area of joints
development and growth of long bones

7

cartilage composition

cells (chondrocytes) with lacunae
extracellular matrix
-fibers
-ground substance

8

matrix composition of cartilage

collagen
hyaluronic acid
proteoglycans
"other" glycoproteins - chondronectin

9

what gives cartilage its stiffness?

hydrostatic bonds of the glycosaminoglycan chains of the proteoglycans

10

cartilage
-vascularity
-how does it obtain nutrients

cartilage is avascular
nutrients supplied by diffusion through the matrix
-either by vascularization within the Perichondrium
-or by synovial fluid (for articular (hyaline) cartilage)

11

what is the perichondrium

capsule of dense connective tissue surrounding the cartilage

12

hyaline cartilage
-what type of collagen?

collagen type II

13

perichondrium
-what type of tissue
-contains
-inner cellular layer (chondrogenic cells) becomes...

dense connective tissue (irregular)
contains type I collagen with fibroblasts
inner layer is adjacent to cartilage and becomes chondroblasts

14

chondroblasts become ___ when enclosed in cartilage

chondrocytes

15

chondrocytes
-appearance
-may be a number of chondrocytes in _____ due to mitotic activity

appearance
-elliptical at edge of developing cartilage
-round once fully enclosed in cartilage matrix
may be in lacunae

16

hyaline cartilage growth is dependent upon...

somatomedin C from the liver
produces as a result of somatotropin from the pituitary gland

17

how does growth occur in cartilage?

interstitial growth
appositional growth

18

interstitial growth
-characteristics

mitotic division of chondrocytes
evident developmentally - 1st formation
growth plate - increases length of bone
articular surfaces - due to lack of perichondrium

19

appositional growth
-what does it do?

increases girth

20

elastic cartilage
-location
-types of fibers
-abundant in ____ and they are ____ than in hyaline cartilage

location
-outer layer of perichondrium
fiber types
-type II collagen
-elastic fibers
more abundant in chondrocytes
-larger than in hyaline

21

fibrocartilage
-associated with...
-type of fibers
-perichondrium
-chondrocytes

associated with dense connective tissue
fibers
-collagen type I
no perichondrium
chondrocytes arranged in rows (isogenous groups)

22

bone
-functions

structural
-support and series of levers for movement
protection of vital organs
-skull, thoracic cage, vertebral column
storage pool for Ca2+ and PO4-

23

periosteum
-contains

outer dense connective tissue layer
inner cellular layer with osteoprogenitor cells

24

central cavity of bones
-contains

endosteum with osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts

25

bone matrix

glycoproteins and proteoglycans associated with collagen Type I
hydroxyapatite
-Ca2+
-PO4-
-H2O

26

bone cell types

osteoprogenitor cells
osteoblasts
osteocytes
osteoclasts

27

osteoprogenitor cells
-function

differentiate into osteoblasts (or chondrogenic cells)

28

osteoblasts
-location
-function
-connected via...

line surface of bone
secrete matrix (osteoid)
connected via gap junctions

29

osteocytes

formed from osteoblasts

30

osteoclasts
-origin
-function
-type of border
-what is the area of bone matrix that has been removed called?

hematopoietic in origin
function
-bone resorption
ruffled border
-irregular surface facing bone
removed bone matrix
-Howship's Lacunae