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S1 Anatomy > Integumentary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Integumentary Deck (37):
1

skin
-layers
-general composition of each layer

epidermis
-epithelial layer (ectoderm)
dermis
-connective tissue (mesoderm)

2

dermis
-interdigitation properties

dermal papillae
-projections of dermis into epidermal base
epidermal ridges
-adjoining epidermal projections that correspond to dermis surface

3

interdigitations
-purpose
-take what type of configurations in thin vs. thick skin

purpose
-provide structural and morphological integrity between epidermis and dermis (in addition to cellular connections)
configuration in thin skin
-peg and socket
thick skin
-ridges and grooves

4

hypodermis
-location
-type of tissue
-contains
-how does it connect to skin?
-underlying tissue covered by...

location
-deep to dermis
tissue type
-subcutaneous loose connective tissue
contains adipocytes (fat cells)
not part of skin, but forms loose adhesion of skin to underlying tissue
underlying tissue covered by a fascia plane, which has a variable appearance

5

skin functions (4)

receptor organ
protection against impact and friction
protection against UV - pigment melanin
thermoregulation, body metabolism and excretion via glands, blood vessels, and adipose

6

epidermis
-type of tissues
-contains

type
-stratified squamous keratinized epithelium (named for most superficial strata of epidermis)
contains
-keratinocytes - keratinizing epidermal cells
-melanocytes
-langerhans cells - immune system
-merkel cells - sensory receptors?

7

skin thickness
-epidermis
-dermis + epidermis

epidermis
-75-150 um (micrometers) vs. 400-600 um
--no explanation of comparison in notes (different areas of the body?)
total
-up to 4 mm

8

types of skin
-characteristics

thick (glabrous)
-smooth, non-hairy
-some books use stratum lucidum as a marker for this type of skin
thin
-hairy

9

keratin producing cells (keratinocytes) in epidermis
-names of the layers (5)

stratum basale
stratum spinosum
stratum granulosum
stratum lucidum
stratum corneum

10

stratum basale
-superficial or deep?
-it is basophilic - explain
-single cell layer rests on...
-purpose of desmosomes and hemidesmosomes
-produce filaments called...
-highly mitotic - why?

deepest layer
basophilic
-abundant in rough ER (endoplasmic reticulum)
-these produce protein
single cell layer rests on basal lamina
desmosomes and hemidesmosomes attach stratum basale to underlying layer
produce filaments called cytokeratins
high mitotic
-partly responsible for constant renewal of overlying layers

11

stratum spinosum
-how many layers
-cell shapes
-mitotic or not
-tonofibrils
where is this layer thicker?

more than 1 layer
shapes
-variety: cuboidal, polygonal, "slightly" squamous
mitotic
tonofibrils
-tonofilament bundles that attach to the desmosomes interconnecting each cell
-give the spinous appearance in histological preparations
thicker in areas of greater abrasion

12

stratum granulosum
-how many layers
- what shape are the cells?
-stains dark due to...
-purpose
--what structures are responsible for this process?

3-5 layers
polygonal cells
stains dark due to...
-keratohyalin granules
purpose
-acts as extracellular cement
-purpose achieved due to lamellar granules
--lipid-rich product secreted by these cells to "seal" the skin

13

stratum lucidum
-more apparent in...
-appearance
-type of cell
-lacks what function...
-what structures are missing?
-densely packed with...
-what holds the cells together?

more apparent in thick skin
appearance
-extremely flattened
type of cell
-eosoniphilic
lacks protein synthesis
organelles and nuclei are gone
densely packed with cytokeratin filaments embedded in matrix
desmosomes present to hold cells together

14

stratum corneum
-appearance
-is there a nucleus?
-thickness
-filled with...
--this is embedded in

flattened cells
no nuclei
15-20 layers thick
filled with protein keratin
keratin is embedded in matrix from keratohyalin granules (from stratum granulosum)

15

other cells found in epidermal layers
-names
-primarily found in which layers?

melanocytes
langerhans cells
merkel's cells
primarily found in stratum basale and spinosum (2 deepest layers)

16

melanocytes
-origin
-location
-function

neural crest in origin
found in and beneath stratum basale
produce melanin

17

melanin
-purpose
-how do they accomplish this purpose?
-how does it get moved through the skin?

purpose
-encircle the nucleus of the keratinocytes to protect their genetic material from UV radiation
movement
-melanin is packaged into vesicles (through a series of changes that darken and condense) and then extruded and picked up by cells of the malpighian layer

18

sun tan
-what does it do to melanin

increases the "darkening" of melanin
speeds up release into the malpighian layer

19

what is the malpighian layer?

Wikipedia - both the stratum basale and stratum spinosum

20

langerhans cells
-what are they?
-purpose

bone marrow derived macrophages (mesoderm)
purpose
-bind antigens (function with immume system)

21

Merkel's cells
-location
-purpose

within thick skin
purpose
-may be sensory due to association with free nerve endings

22

where are the majority of sensory nerve endings in the skin?

dermal layer

23

dermis
-type of tissue
-layers
--characteristics of each layer

tissue type
-connective
-dense irregular
papillary layer
-dermal pegs
-lamina reticularis: reticular fibers that contribute to basement membrane
reticular layer
-dermatan sulfate elastic fiber newtork

24

dermis
-characteristics
-location of blood supply

encapsulated nerve endings
epithelial invaginations
rich blood supply
-deep to epidermis-dermis interdigitation

25

examples of epithelial invaginations

hair
sweat glands
sebaceous (oil-producing) glands

26

sebaceous glands
-type
-location
-function
-when do they begin to function?
-associated pathology

type
-acinar (alveolar) glands
location
-ducted into hair follicle
function
-produce sebum
begin to function at puberty
pathology
-acne if plugged

27

sebum
-what is it
-how is it secreted?

fat of the gland and remnant of dead secretory cells
secretion
-holocrine secretion (whole cell is secreted)

28

sweat glands
-types

eccrine
apocrine

29

eccrine
-another name
-location
-appearance
-function

also called merocrine
location
-open to skin surface
appearance
-simple coiled tubular glands
watery secretion produced in response to changes in body temperature

30

apocrine
-size compared to eccrine glands
-location
-open to...
-responsible for... why?

larger than eccrine
can extend to hypodermis from skin surface
open to hair follicles
responsible for body odor
-secretion is viscous and allows for bacterial decomposition, which leads to odor

31

hypodermis
-tissue type
-location
-function
-what accumulates there?

type
-subcutaneous
-loose connective tissue
beneath the dermis
loosely binds skin to underlying musculoskeletal system
adipocytes accumulate there

32

types of carcinomas

actinic keratosis
squamous cell carcinoma
basal cell carcinoma
malignant melanoma

33

actinic keratosis
-what is it?
-can turn into...
-also knows as...
--why

precancerous changes to corneal (most superficial) layer of epidermis
may turn into squamous cell carcinoma
also known as Solar keratoses because of...
-prevalence on exposed skin surfaces - arms, face, scalp (in those w/out a nice coif of hair

34

squamous cell carcinoma
-danger level

locally invasive
can metastasize

35

basal cell carcinoma
-how common is it?
-how destructive?

most common type of epidermal cancer
destructive to local tissue

36

malignant melanoma
-why is it malignant?

malignant because melanocytes migrate into the epidermal layers
as a result, they will readily leave the local tissue and travel throughout the body and invade all tissues and organs
this makes them a highly metastatic type of cancer

37

wound healing
-what predicts the type of epithelial and connective tissue response?
-stages of cutaneous wound healing

thickness of wound predicts response
stages
-immediate or hemostasis
-inflammation
-proliferation
-maturation