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Flashcards in Arthrology Deck (69):
1

What term is used to identify the study of joints?

Arthrology

2

What term is used to identify the study of ligaments?

Syndesmology

3

What are the three histological classifications of joints?

Fibrous
Cartilaginous
Synovial

4

What are the three classifications of joints based on movement potential?

Synarthrosis
Amphiarthrosis
Diarthrosis

5

Which classification of synarthrosis joints implies a bond condition?

Syndesmosis

6

What is the classification of a joint held together with cartilage?

Synchondrosis

7

What is the classification of a joint formed by a growth condition?

Symphysis

8

What is the name given to a condition in which bones are fused together by bone?

Synostosis

9

What is the condition in which teeth are abnormally aligned during closure of the mouth?

Malocclusion

10

What fibrous connective tissue classically fills the joint space of a syndesmosis?

Interosseous ligament

11

What are the classic examples of the less movable or "fixed" syndesmosis?

Tibia-fibula shaft articulation
Radio-ulnar shaft articulation
Coraco-clavicular joint
Tympano-stapedial joint

12

What are the examples of the typical syndesmosis from the vertebral column?

Most of the ligamentous joints of the vertebral column
Ligamentous sacro-iliac joints

13

What are the characteristics of the (amphiarthrosis) synchondrosis?

Primary cartilage joints
Temporary in longevity
Composed of hyaline cartilage
Form between ossification centers within a cartilage template

14

What are the examples of temporary cartilage joints?

Metaphysis
Neuro-central joint
Neural arch joint
Chondrocranium

15

What are the examples of a permanent (amphiarthrosis) synchondrosis?

Costochondral joints
First sternochondral joint

16

Which cartilage joint classification would be considered secondary?

(amphiarthrosis) symphysis

17

What type of cartilage is characteristic of the (amphiarthrosis) symphysis?

Fibrocartilage or fibrous cartilage

18

What are the characteristics of a (amphiarthrosis) symphysis?

Limited motion
Median plane location
Support anterior and posterior ligaments of a joint
Permanent in longevity
Occur between bones developing by endochondral ossification

19

What are the classic examples of a (amphiarthrosis) symphysis?

Intervertebral discs
Pubic symphysis
Sternal symphyses
Symphysis menti

20

Which examples of a (amphiarthrosis) symphysis is temporary?

Symphysis menti

21

What are the four consistent features of synovial (diarthrosis) joints?

Articular or fibrous capsule
Synovial membrane
Articular cartilage
Synovial fluid

22

Thickening of the fibrous capsule connective tissue will form the___.

Capsular ligament

23

What generic accessory ligaments may accompany and support the capsular ligament?

Intracapsular ligament
Extracapsular ligament

24

What are the characteristics of the Type I articular receptors?

Located in the superficial layer of the fibrous capsule
Resemble Ruffini endings
Most numerous in cervical zygapophyses
Monitor joint at "rest"

25

What are the characteristics of Type III articular receptors?

Present in collateral and intrinsic ligaments
Resembles Golgi tendon organs
Not initially observed along the vertebral column
Monitor extreme joint motion

26

What is the function of Type IV articular receptors?

Nociceptive (pain monitors)

27

Type IVa articular receptors would be present in what locations?

Fibrous capsule
Articular fat pads
Adventitia of blood vessels

28

Type IVb articular receptors would be present in what locations?

Accessory ligaments in general
Dense in posterior longitudinal ligament of spine

29

Type IV articular receptors would be absent in what parts of the synovial (diarthrosis) joint?

Synovial membrane
Articular cartilage
Synovial menisci or intra-articular discs

30

What are the three modifications of articular synovial membrane?

Synovial villi
Articular fat pads (Haversian glands)
Synovial menisci
Intra-articular discs

31

What is the generic function of modifications of articular synovial membrane?

Aid in spreading synovial fluid

32

What is the apparent function of synovial villi?

Increase the surface of synovial membrane available for secretion - absorption phenomena

33

Where are the articular fat pads located?

In the fibrous layer of synovial membrane
Absent from articular cartilage, synovial menisci, and intra-articular discs

34

Articular fat pads are most numerous in what location along the vertebral column?

Lumbar zygapophyses

35

Intra-articular discs are a feature of what joint examples?

Temporomandibular joint
Sternoclavicular joint
Acromioclavicular joint
Radio-ulnar joint

36

Synovial menisci are a feature of what joint examples?

Femur-tibia articulation
Cervical zygapophyses
Lumbar zygapophyses

37

What are the layers of the synovial membrane?

Outer fibrous layer
Inner (lumenal) cellular layer (synovial lamina intima)

38

What are the specific functions of Type A synovial cells?

Phagocytic

39

What is the specific function of Type B synovial cells?

Secrete proteinaceous substances and hyaluronic acid

40

What are the primary constituents of articular cartilage?

Water
Cells
Collagen Type II fibers
Proteogylan gel

41

What is the primary function of bound glycosaminoglycans in articular cartilage?

Form a network for water retention

42

What is implied when cartilage is said to have elastic properties?

Cartilage can deform and returns to original volume rapidly, a time independent property

43

What is implied when cartilage is said to have viscoelastic properties?

Cartilage can deform but returns to original volume slowly, a time dependent property

44

Which theory of joint lubrication implies a loss of fluid from the cartilage into the joint space during compression results in increased viscosity of the synovial fluid?

Weeping theory

45

Which theory of joint lubrication implies water loss from the synovial fluid increases viscosity of the remaining synovial fluid?

Boosted theory

46

Which theory of joint lubrication implies an absorption of lubricant onto cartilage surfaces is responsible for the low-friction observed during movement?

Boundary theory

47

What are the properties of synovial fluid?

Yellow-white
Viscous
Slightly alkaline
Tastes salty

48

Which substance in synovial fluid was first thought to be responsible for its viscosity and lubricating behavior?

Hyaluronate

49

What substance of synovial fluid has been proposed to be responsible for its viscosity and lubricating behavior?

Lubricin

50

What is a simple synovial joint (diarthrosis)?

Only one pair of articulating surfaces are observed

51

What is a compound synovial joint (diarthrosis)?

More than two articulating surfaces are present in the same synovial joint

52

What is a complex synovial joint (diarthrosis)?

Within the simple joint or the compound joint
The articulating surfaces are separated by an articular disc (intra-articular disc) or meniscus

53

What are the classifications of synovial joints (diarthrosis) based on type of movement?

Nonaxial
Uniaxial
Biaxial
Multiaxial

54

What movements are accommodated of synovial joints is classified as nonaxial?

Translational movement
Plane gliding or gliding movement

55

What morphological classification of synovial joints is classified as nonaxial?

Plane (diarthrosis arthroidal)

56

What movements are accommodated by uniaxial synovial joints?

Single combination of movements relative to a single axis: flexion, extension or medial rotation, lateral rotation

57

What morphological classifications of synovial joints would be classified as uniaxial?

Hinge (diarthrosis ginglymus)
Pivot (diarthrosis trochoid)

58

What movements are accommodated by biaxial synovial joints?

Movement in two independent planes at right angles to each other: flexion, extension combined with abduction, adduction

59

What morphological classifications of synovial joints would be classified as biaxial?

Bicondylar (diarthrosis)
Condylar (diarthrosis)
Ellipsoidal (diarthrosis)
Saddle (diarthrosis sellar)

60

What morphological classification of synovial joints would be classified as multiaxial?

Ball and socket (diarthrosis enarthrosis, spheroidal, cotyloid)

61

What are examples of synovial plane (diarthrosis arthroidal) joints?

Most zygapophyses of the vertebral column
Intercarpal, carpometacarpal, intermetacarpal hand joints
Intercuneiform, tarsometatarsal, intermetatarsal foot joints

62

What are examples of synovial hinge (diarthrosis ginglymus) joints?

Humero-ulnar joint of elbow
Interphalangeal joints of fingers and toes

63

what are the examples of synovial pivot (diarthrosis trochoid) joints?

Median atlanto-axial joint
Proximal radio-ulnar joint

64

What is the shared morphological characteristic of diarthrosis trochoid joints?

Osseous pivot point
Osteo-ligamentous ring

65

What are examples of diarthrosis condylar or diarthrosis bicondylar joints?

Temporomandibular joint
Femur-tibia joint of knees

66

What are examples of diarthrosis ellipsoidal joints?

Radiocarpal joint of the wrist
Metacarpo-phalangeal joints of the hand
Metatarsal-phalangeal joints of the foot
Atlanto-occipital joint of the vertebral column

67

Which synovial joint classifications are now often interchanged in textbooks?

Ellipsoidal synovial joint
Condylar synovial joint

68

What are examples of synovial saddle (diarthrosis sellar) joints?

Carpometacarpal joint of thumb
Talocrural joint of ankle
Calcaneocuboid joint of foot

69

What are examples of diarthrosis cotyloid joints?

Femur-acetabulum of the innominate articulation at hip
Humerus-glenoid cavity of scapula articulation of shoulder