Flashcards in Arthrology Deck (69):
What term is used to identify the study of joints?
What term is used to identify the study of ligaments?
What are the three histological classifications of joints?
What are the three classifications of joints based on movement potential?
Which classification of synarthrosis joints implies a bond condition?
What is the classification of a joint held together with cartilage?
What is the classification of a joint formed by a growth condition?
What is the name given to a condition in which bones are fused together by bone?
What is the condition in which teeth are abnormally aligned during closure of the mouth?
What fibrous connective tissue classically fills the joint space of a syndesmosis?
What are the classic examples of the less movable or "fixed" syndesmosis?
Tibia-fibula shaft articulation
Radio-ulnar shaft articulation
What are the examples of the typical syndesmosis from the vertebral column?
Most of the ligamentous joints of the vertebral column
Ligamentous sacro-iliac joints
What are the characteristics of the (amphiarthrosis) synchondrosis?
Primary cartilage joints
Temporary in longevity
Composed of hyaline cartilage
Form between ossification centers within a cartilage template
What are the examples of temporary cartilage joints?
Neural arch joint
What are the examples of a permanent (amphiarthrosis) synchondrosis?
First sternochondral joint
Which cartilage joint classification would be considered secondary?
What type of cartilage is characteristic of the (amphiarthrosis) symphysis?
Fibrocartilage or fibrous cartilage
What are the characteristics of a (amphiarthrosis) symphysis?
Median plane location
Support anterior and posterior ligaments of a joint
Permanent in longevity
Occur between bones developing by endochondral ossification
What are the classic examples of a (amphiarthrosis) symphysis?
Which examples of a (amphiarthrosis) symphysis is temporary?
What are the four consistent features of synovial (diarthrosis) joints?
Articular or fibrous capsule
Thickening of the fibrous capsule connective tissue will form the___.
What generic accessory ligaments may accompany and support the capsular ligament?
What are the characteristics of the Type I articular receptors?
Located in the superficial layer of the fibrous capsule
Resemble Ruffini endings
Most numerous in cervical zygapophyses
Monitor joint at "rest"
What are the characteristics of Type III articular receptors?
Present in collateral and intrinsic ligaments
Resembles Golgi tendon organs
Not initially observed along the vertebral column
Monitor extreme joint motion
What is the function of Type IV articular receptors?
Nociceptive (pain monitors)
Type IVa articular receptors would be present in what locations?
Articular fat pads
Adventitia of blood vessels
Type IVb articular receptors would be present in what locations?
Accessory ligaments in general
Dense in posterior longitudinal ligament of spine
Type IV articular receptors would be absent in what parts of the synovial (diarthrosis) joint?
Synovial menisci or intra-articular discs
What are the three modifications of articular synovial membrane?
Articular fat pads (Haversian glands)
What is the generic function of modifications of articular synovial membrane?
Aid in spreading synovial fluid
What is the apparent function of synovial villi?
Increase the surface of synovial membrane available for secretion - absorption phenomena
Where are the articular fat pads located?
In the fibrous layer of synovial membrane
Absent from articular cartilage, synovial menisci, and intra-articular discs
Articular fat pads are most numerous in what location along the vertebral column?
Intra-articular discs are a feature of what joint examples?
Synovial menisci are a feature of what joint examples?
What are the layers of the synovial membrane?
Outer fibrous layer
Inner (lumenal) cellular layer (synovial lamina intima)
What are the specific functions of Type A synovial cells?
What is the specific function of Type B synovial cells?
Secrete proteinaceous substances and hyaluronic acid
What are the primary constituents of articular cartilage?
Collagen Type II fibers
What is the primary function of bound glycosaminoglycans in articular cartilage?
Form a network for water retention
What is implied when cartilage is said to have elastic properties?
Cartilage can deform and returns to original volume rapidly, a time independent property
What is implied when cartilage is said to have viscoelastic properties?
Cartilage can deform but returns to original volume slowly, a time dependent property
Which theory of joint lubrication implies a loss of fluid from the cartilage into the joint space during compression results in increased viscosity of the synovial fluid?
Which theory of joint lubrication implies water loss from the synovial fluid increases viscosity of the remaining synovial fluid?
Which theory of joint lubrication implies an absorption of lubricant onto cartilage surfaces is responsible for the low-friction observed during movement?
What are the properties of synovial fluid?
Which substance in synovial fluid was first thought to be responsible for its viscosity and lubricating behavior?
What substance of synovial fluid has been proposed to be responsible for its viscosity and lubricating behavior?
What is a simple synovial joint (diarthrosis)?
Only one pair of articulating surfaces are observed
What is a compound synovial joint (diarthrosis)?
More than two articulating surfaces are present in the same synovial joint
What is a complex synovial joint (diarthrosis)?
Within the simple joint or the compound joint
The articulating surfaces are separated by an articular disc (intra-articular disc) or meniscus
What are the classifications of synovial joints (diarthrosis) based on type of movement?
What movements are accommodated of synovial joints is classified as nonaxial?
Plane gliding or gliding movement
What morphological classification of synovial joints is classified as nonaxial?
Plane (diarthrosis arthroidal)
What movements are accommodated by uniaxial synovial joints?
Single combination of movements relative to a single axis: flexion, extension or medial rotation, lateral rotation
What morphological classifications of synovial joints would be classified as uniaxial?
Hinge (diarthrosis ginglymus)
Pivot (diarthrosis trochoid)
What movements are accommodated by biaxial synovial joints?
Movement in two independent planes at right angles to each other: flexion, extension combined with abduction, adduction
What morphological classifications of synovial joints would be classified as biaxial?
Saddle (diarthrosis sellar)
What morphological classification of synovial joints would be classified as multiaxial?
Ball and socket (diarthrosis enarthrosis, spheroidal, cotyloid)
What are examples of synovial plane (diarthrosis arthroidal) joints?
Most zygapophyses of the vertebral column
Intercarpal, carpometacarpal, intermetacarpal hand joints
Intercuneiform, tarsometatarsal, intermetatarsal foot joints
What are examples of synovial hinge (diarthrosis ginglymus) joints?
Humero-ulnar joint of elbow
Interphalangeal joints of fingers and toes
what are the examples of synovial pivot (diarthrosis trochoid) joints?
Median atlanto-axial joint
Proximal radio-ulnar joint
What is the shared morphological characteristic of diarthrosis trochoid joints?
Osseous pivot point
What are examples of diarthrosis condylar or diarthrosis bicondylar joints?
Femur-tibia joint of knees
What are examples of diarthrosis ellipsoidal joints?
Radiocarpal joint of the wrist
Metacarpo-phalangeal joints of the hand
Metatarsal-phalangeal joints of the foot
Atlanto-occipital joint of the vertebral column
Which synovial joint classifications are now often interchanged in textbooks?
Ellipsoidal synovial joint
Condylar synovial joint
What are examples of synovial saddle (diarthrosis sellar) joints?
Carpometacarpal joint of thumb
Talocrural joint of ankle
Calcaneocuboid joint of foot