Vertebral Column/ Spinal Column Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vertebral Column/ Spinal Column Deck (145):
1

What is the number of vertebrae in a typical adolescent?

33 segments

2

What is the number of vertebrae in a typical adult?

26 segments

3

What constitutes the spine?

24 presacral segments
Cervical, thoracic, lumbar vertebrae

4

How many segments unite to form the typical sacrum?

5 segments

5

How many segments unite to form the typical coccyx?

4 segments

6

Which mammals do not have seven cervical vertebrae?

Two-toed sloth
Manatee
Ant bear
Three-toed sloth

7

Which mammals have more than seven cervical vertebrae?

Ant bear
Three-toed sloth

8

Which mammals have less than seven cervical vertebrae?

Manatee
Two-toed sloth

9

What does the term "cervical" refer to?

Region of the neck

10

What does the term "thoracic" refer to?

Breast plate or chest
Referred to the armor bearing region of the torso

11

What other term is often used to identify the vertebral segments of the chest?

Dorsal segments
Dorsals

12

What is the typical number of segments in the dorsal or thoracic region?

12 segments

13

What does the term "lumbar" refer to?

The loin
Region between the rib and hip

14

What is the typical number of segments in the lumbar region?

5 segments

15

What does the term "sacrum" refer to?

Holy bone or holy region

16

What does the term "coccyx" refer to?

Cuckoo bird's bill or beak

17

What is the length of a typical male spinal column?

About 70 centimeters or 28 inches

18

What is the length of a typical female spinal column?

About 60 centimeters or 25 inches

19

What is the length difference between a typical male and typical female spinal column?

About 3 inches

20

What is the length of the male cervical region (both measurements)?

About 12 centimeters or 5 inches

21

What is the length of the male thoracic region (both measurements)?

About 28 centimeters or 11 inches

22

What is the length of a male lumbar region (both measurements)?

About 18 centimeters or 7 inches

23

What is the length of the male sacrum (both measurements)?

About 12 centimeters or 5 inches

24

Based on the numbers for individual regions of the vertebral column, what is the length of the male spine (both measurements)?

About 58 centimeters or 23 inches

25

What levels of the vertebral column specifically accommodate weight-bearing transfer?

S1-S3 at the auricular surface

26

What is specifically responsible for shape and position of the human frame?

Comparative anterior vs. posterior height of the vertebral body
Comparative anterior vs. posterior height of the intervertebral discs

27

What organ(s) is (are) specifically associated with the horizontal axis of the skull?

The eye
Vestibular apparatus of the inner ear

28

When does the embryonic disc form?

Second week in utero

29

When does gastrulation occur or a 3-layered embryo form?

Third week in utero

30

Invagination of ectoderm along the primitive streak gives rise to what embryonic structure?

Notochord

31

What is the name given tot he mesoderm that will give rise to the vertebral column?

Paraxial mesoderm

32

What embryonic structure gives rise tot he somites?

Paraxial mesoderm

33

Name the areas of cellular differentiation formed within the somite?

Sclerotome
Mytome
Dermatome

34

What are the names of the successive vertebral columns formed during development?

Membranous
Cartilaginous
Skeletal or osseous

35

Migration of a somite pair to surround the notochord forms what developmental feature?

Perichordal blastema

36

The perichordal blastema gives rise to what processes?

Neural processes
Costal processes

37

What is the name of the artery located between adjacent perichordal blastemae?

Intersegmental artery

38

What forms between the sclerotomites of a perichordal blastema?

Intersclerotomal fissure (fissure of von Ebner)

39

The intrasclerotomal fissure (fissure of von Ebner) gives rise to what developmental feature?

Perichordal disc

40

The union of a dense caudal sclerotomite and a loose cranial sclerotomite from adjacent perichordal blastemae gives rise to what feature?

Vertebral blastema

41

What vessel will be identified adjacent to the vertebral blastema?

Segmental artery

42

When will cartilage first form in the membranous vertebral blastema?

Beginning in the 6th embryonic week

43

What is the name given to the replacement of mesoderm by cartilage?

Chondrification

44

What are the names given to the centers of chondrification within the vertebral blastema?

Centrum center
Neural arch center
Transverse process center

45

How many centers of chondrification typically appear in the vertebral blastema?

Six: 2 form centrum, 2 for neural arches, 2 for each transverse process

46

What is the earliest that the centers of ossification appear in the cartilaginous vertebrae?

During the 7th embryonic week

47

What is the name given to centers of ossification based on time of appearance?

Primary centers appear in utero
Secondary centers appear after birth

48

What is the ratio of primary to secondary centers of ossification for a typical vertebrae?

3 primary centers: 5 secondary

49

What are the names of the primary centers of ossification for a typical vertebrae?

Centrum centers
Neural arch centers

50

What are the names/locations of the five secondary centers of ossification for a typical vertebrae?

Tip of the transverse process
Tip of the spinous prcocess
Epiphyseal plate centers

51

What is the range of appearance for secondary centers of ossification of a typical vertebrae?

During puberty (typically 11-16 years old)

52

What are the three basic osseous parts of a vertebrae?

Vertebral body
Vertebral arch
Apophyseal regions

53

What is the general shape of the vertebral body at each region of the spine?

Cervical = rectangular
Thoracic = triangular
Lumbar = reniform

54

What is the name given to the compact bone at the superior and inferior surfaces of the vertebral body?

Superior epiphyseal rim
Inferior epiphyseal rim

55

What is the name given to the cartilage found at the superior and inferior surface of a developing vertebral body?

Superior epiphyseal plate
Inferior epiphyseal plate

56

What are the names of the openings found around the margins of the vertebral body?

Nutrient foramina or vascular foramina

57

What large opening is usually observed at the back of the vertebral body?

Basivertebral venous foramen

58

What is the name given to the anterior part of the vertebral arch?

Pedicle

59

What is the name of the feature located at the upper and lower surfaces of the pedicle?

Superior vertebral notch or superior vertebral incisure
Inferior vertebral notch or inferior vertebral incisure

60

What is the generic orientation of the pedicle at each region of the spine?

Cervical = posterolateral
Thoracic = posterior, slight lateral
Lumbar = posterior

61

All lamina are oriented in what direction?

Posterior and median

62

What ligament will attach to the lamina?

Ligamentum flavum

63

What is the name given to abnormal bone at the attachment site of the ligamentum flavum?

Para-articular process

64

What classification of bone will para-articular processes represent?

Accessory bone

65

What is the name given to the overlap of laminae on x-ray?

Shingling

66

What is the name given to the lamina-pedicle junction at each region of the spine?

Cervical = articular pillar
Thoracic and lumbar = pars interarticularis

67

What is the name given to the junction of the vertebral arch-spinous process on lateral x-ray?

Spinolaminar junction

68

What is the name given to the tubular bone growth regions of the vertebral arch?

Apophyseal regions

69

What names may be given to each apophysis of the spine?

Transverse apophysis or transverse process
Articular apophysis or articular process
Spinous apophysis or spinous process

70

What is the generic orientation of the transverse process or transverse apophysis at each region of the spine?

Cervical = anterolateral
Thoracic = posterolateral
Lumbar = lateral

71

All non-rib bearing vertebra of the spine retain what equivalent structure?

Costal element

72

What is the name given to the rounded elevation at the end of the transverse apophysis or transverse process?

Transverse tubercle

73

What will cause the transverse process/ transverse apophysis to alter its initial direction in the cervical region?

Cervical spinal nerves are pulled forward to form the cervical and brachial nerve plexuses thus remodeling the transverse processes to accommodate their new position

74

What will cause the transverse processes/ transverse apophysis to alter its initial direction in the thoracic region?

Growth of the lungs remodel the shape of the ribs which in turn push the transverse processes backward

75

What will the articular process/ articular apophysis support?

The articular facet

76

What is the name given to the joint formed between articular facets of a vertebral couple?

Zygapophysis

77

What is the name given to the bone surface at the front of a zygapophysis?

Superior articular facet

78

What is the name given to the bone surface at the back of a zygapophysis?

Inferior articular facet

79

What names are given to the part of the vertebra which supports the front of the zygapophysis?

Superior articular apophysis
Superior articular process
Pre-zygapophysis

80

What names are given to the part of the vertebra which supports the back the zygapophysis?

Inferior articular apophysis
Inferior articular process
Post-zygaophysis

81

What is the name given to the part of the vertebra forming the pre-zygapophysis?

Superior articular process or superior articular apaophysis

82

What is the name given to the part of the vertebra forming the post-zygapophysis?

Inferior articular process or inferior articular apaophysis

83

What will form the posterior boundary of a typical intervertebral foramen?

Inferior articular process/ post-zygapophysis
Superior articular process/ pre-zygapophysis
Capsular ligament
Ligamentum flavum

84

What will form the superior boundary of a typical intervertebral foramen?

Inferior vertebral notch or inferior vertebral incisure

85

What will form the inferior boundary of a typical intervertebral incisure?

Superior vertebral notch or superior vertebral incisure

86

What will form the anterior boundary of a typical intervertebral foramen?

Vertebral body of the segment above
Vertebral body of the segment below
Intervertebral disc
Posterior longitudinal ligament

87

What is the method of calculating the angle of the spinous process/ spinous apophysis?

Calculate the angle formed between the undersurface of a spinous process and the horizontal plate

88

What is the name given to the normal overlap of spinous processes/ spinous apophyses as seen on X-ray?

Imbrication

89

What is the name given to the rounded elevation at the tip of the spinous process/ spinous apophysis?

Spinous tubercle

90

What is the orientation of the spinous process/ spinous apophysis at each region of the spine?

Cervical = slight angle inferiorly
Thoracic = noticeable angle inferiorly
Lumbar = no inferior angle

91

What is the typical shape/ outline of the vertebral foramen at each region of the spinal column/ vertebral column?

Cervical = triangular
Thoracic = oval
Lumbar = triangular
Sacrum = triangular

92

At what vertebral level will the spinal cord typically terminate?

L1

93

At what vertebral level will the dural sac typically terminate?

S2

94

What are the segmental arteries?

Arteries whose branches supply the vertebra or segment

95

Identify the segmental arteries.

Vertebral
Ascending cervical
Deep cervical
Superior (highest) intercostal
Posterior intercostal
Subcostal
LumbarI
liolumbar
Lateral sacral
Medial (middle) sacral

96

What are the segmental arteries of the cervical spine?

Vertebral artery
Ascending cervical artery
Deep cervical artery

97

What are the segmental arteries of the thoracic spine?

Deep cervical artery
Superior (highest) intercostal artery
Posterior intercostal artery
Subcostal artery

98

What are the semental arteries of the lumbar spine?

Lumbar arteries
Iliolumbar artiery
Lateral sacral artery
Median (middle) sacral artery

99

What segmental levels are supplied by the vertebral artery?

C1-C6

100

What segmental levels are supplied by the ascending cervical artery?

C1-C6

101

What segmental levels are supplied by the deep cervical artery?

C7-T1

102

What segmenal levels are supplied by the superior (highest) intercostal artery?

T1-T2

103

What segmental levels are supplied by the posterior intercostal artery?

T3-T11

104

What segmental level(s) is/are supplied by the subcostal artery?

T12

105

What segmental levels are supplied by the lumbar arteries?

L1-L4

106

What segmental levels are supplied by the median (middle) sacral artery?

L5, S1-S5 and coccyx

107

What segmental levels are supplied by the iliolumbar artery?

L5, S1-S5 and coccyx

108

Which branches of the spinal artery supply the contents of the epidural space?

Osseous arteries
Anterior spinal canal artery
Posterior spinal canal artery

109

What arteries are observed in the epidural space near the posterior longitudinal ligament?

Anterior spinal canal artery
Plexus

110

What arteries are observed in the epidural space near the ligamentum flavum?

Posterior spinal canal artery
Plexus

111

Which branches of the spinal artery supply the contents of the subarachnoid space?

Anterior radicular artery
Posterior radicular artery
Anterior medullary feeder artery
Posterior medullary feeder artery

112

Which vessel will supply the ventral/ anterior nerve rootlet and nerve root?

Anterior radicular artery

113

Which vessel will supply the dorsal/ posterior nerve rootlet and nerve root ganglion?

Posterior radicular artery

114

What is the name given to the artery that lies in front of the spinal cord along its length?

Anterior spinal artery

115

The anterior spinal artery is a branch of which artery?

Vertebral artery

116

Is the anterior spinal artery a single, continuous artery along the spinal cord?

No

117

As the anterior spinal artery continues along the spinal cord, which arteries unite along its length to give the appearance of a single continuous vessel?

Anterior medullary feeder arteries

118

The posterior spinal artery is a branch of which artery?

Posterior inferior cerebellar artery

119

Which is the position of the posterior spinal artery relative to the spinal cord?

It lies in the posterolateral sulcus along the spinal cord

120

Is the posteior spinal artery a single, continuous artery along the spinal cord?

No

121

As the posterior spinal artery continues along the spinal cord, which arteries unite long its length to give the appearance of a single continuous vessel?

Posterior medullary feeder arteries

122

What changes to the arterial vasa corona occur between C3 and C6?

Right and left anterior spinal arteries fuse to become a single median anterior spinal artery, the right and left posterior spinal arteries are unchanged, and the 4 communicating arteries are reduced to 3 communicating arteries

123

What arterial vasa corona branches supply gray matter the most of the spinal cord?

Ventral/cenral/sulcal perforating arteries

124

What intermedullary branches supply about one third of the spinal cord?

Pial perforating arteries

125

What is the primary artery supplementing the arterial vasa corona?

Anterior medullary feeders
Posterior medullary feeders

126

What vessels drain the spinal cord?

Pial veins

127

Which vessels will drain the venous vasa corona?

Anterior medullary veins
Posterior medullary veins

128

Which vessels will drain the ventral/ anterior nerve roots?

Anterior radicular veins

129

Which vessels will drain the dorsal/ posterior nerve roots?

Posterior radicular veins

130

What vessel will drain the dorsal/ posterior nerve root ganglion?

Posterior radicular veins

131

What veins are observed in the epidural space near the ligamentum flavum?

Posterior internal vertebral venous plexus

132

What veins will lie in the subarachnoid space?

Pial veins
Venous vasa corona
Anterior longitudinal veins
Posterior longitudinal veins
Communicating veins
Anterior medullary veins
Posterior medullary veins
Anterior radicular veins
Posterior radicular veins

133

What veins are observed in the epidural space near the posterior longitudinal ligament?

Anterior internal vertebral venous plexus
Basivertebral vein

134

What venous vessels are identified in the intervertebral foramen?

Intervertebral veins

135

Identify the meninges of the spinal cord (spinal medulla or medulla spinalis) and the commonly accepted meaning of each.

Dura mater = tough mother
Arachnoid mater = spider mother
Pia mater = tender or delicate mother

136

Name and locate each space formed between the osseous vertebral foramen and the spinal cord (spinal medulla or medullaspinalis).

Epidural space = between the vertebral foramen and the dura mater
Subdural space = between the dura mater and the arachnoid mater
Subarachnoid space = between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater

137

What is the name given to the fluid within the epidural space?

Interstitial fluid

138

What are the contents of the epidural space?

Anterior & posterior spinal canal artery & plexus
Anterior &posterior internal vertebral venous plexus
Basivertebral vein
Recurrent meningeal nerve
Hofmann/ meningealvertebral ligaments
Ligamentum flavum
Posterior longitudinal ligament

139

Which of the contents of the epidural space will be found near the vertebral body?

Anterior spinal canal artery & plexus
Anterior internal vertebral venous plexus
Basivertebral vein
Recurrent meningeal nerve
Posterior longitudinal ligament
Hofmann/ meningealvertebral ligaments

140

Which of the contents of the epidural space are more likely located near or around the posterior longitudinal ligament?

Anterior spinal canal artery & plexus
Anterior internal vertebral venous plexus
Basivertebral vein
Recurrent meningeal nerve
Hofmann/ meningealvertebral ligaments

141

Which of the contents of the epidural space will be found near the lamina?

Posterior spinal canal artery & plexus
Posterior internal vertebral venous plexus
Ligamentum flavum

142

What contents of the subarachnoid space are changed below the level C6?

Arterial vasa corona consists of 1 anterior spinal artery, 2 posterior spinal arteries, 3 communicating arteries

143

What is the name given to the fluid with the subarachnoid space?

Cerebrospinal fluid

144

What is the name given to the lateral extension of pia mater along the spinal cord?

Dentate (denticulate) ligament

145

What is the unique feature of veins along the spinal cord?

They lack the bicuspid valve of typical veins