Lumbar Vertebra Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lumbar Vertebra Deck (83):
1

Which segments of the spine are more prone to variation in morphology?

L1 & L5

2

What parts of the vertebra may be used to distinguish L1-L4 from L5?

Vertebral body
Pedicle
Articular process
Transverse process
Spinous process

3

What is the generic shape of the typical lumbar vertebral body from the cranial view?

Reniform or kidney-shaped

4

What would be the direction of the lumbar curve based on osseous features?

Anterior (lordotic)

5

What accounts for the direction of the lumbar curve?

Vertebral body and intervertebral disc have a greater anterior height than posterior height

6

What is the effect of aging on the vertebral body of a lumbar vertebra?

Decrease in height & increase in circumference

7

How many fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint surfaces are on a typical lumbar vertebral body?

4

8

How many joint surfaces are present on a vertebral body of a typical lumbar?

6

9

How many synovial joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of a typical lumbar?

None

10

How many cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis joint surfaces are on a typical lumbar vertebral body?

2

11

How many fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint surfaces are on a typical lumbar vertebral body?

4

12

What muscles may attach to the first lumbar vertebral body?

Psoas major
Psoas minor

13

What muscle may attach from the second down to the fourth lumbar vertebral body?

Psoas major

14

Psoas minor will only attach to the vertebral body of which segments?

T12
L1

15

What is the name given to ligaments that attach the vertebral body to articular process?

Transforaminal ligaments

16

What ligaments attach the vertebral body to the transverse process?

Corporotransverse ligaments

17

What corporotransverse ligaments are identified?

Superior corporotransverse
Inferior corporotransverse

18

What are the types of Hofmann ligaments?

Anterior
Posterior
Lateral
Proximal root sleeve

19

Hofmann ligaments are identified in which regions along the vertebral column?

Cervical - upper thoracics
Lumbars

20

Cervical - upper thoracic Hofmann ligaments will attach what structures together?

Dura mater to segments above

21

What is the highest level known to demonstrate Hofmann ligaments?

C6

22

What is the proposed function of the cervical-upper thoracic Hoffmann ligaments?

Resist caudal movement of the dural sac
Resist gravitational forces on the dura and cord

23

Lumbar Hofmann ligaments will attach what structures together?

Dura mater to lower segmental levels

24

What is the proposed function of the lumbar Hofmann ligaments?

Resist cranial movement of the dural sac during flexion

25

What is the proposed function of the proximal root sleeve ligament?

Resist displacement of the peripheral nerve system in the intervertebral foramen

26

What is the orientation of the pedicle of a typical lumbar?

Posterior

27

The pedicle attaches at what location on vertebral body of a typical lumbar?

Upper third or half of the vertebral body

28

What ligament attaches to the lamina of a typical lumbar?

Ligamentum flavum

29

What joint classification will be associated with the ligamentum flavum attachment?

Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis

30

What osseous conditions of lumbar vertebrae facilitate a spinal tap in this region?

Overlap of the laminae - shingling - diminishes
Overlap of spinous processes - imbrication - diminishes

31

What is the outline of the vertebral foramen of a typical lumbar vertebra?

Triangular

32

Which is the greatest diameter of the vertebral foramen of typical lumbars?

Transverse

33

How does the size of the vertebral foramen differ along the spine?

Cervicals have the greatest size, lumbars next, thoracics smallest

34

What part of the central nervous system is present in the lumbar spine?

Conus medullaris is typically present in the vertebral foramen of L1

35

What part of the peripheral nervous system is present in the lumbar spine?

Cauda equina is typically present in the vertebral foramina of L2-L4

36

Beginning with the L1 transverse process, what is the generic direction and relative length of each succeeding lumbar transverse process?

Each transverse process is directed straight lateral and increases in length from L1-L3. L4 then begins to decrease in length

37

What is the name of the elevation near the origin of the lumbar transverse process?

Accessory process

38

A styloid process occurs with what frequency and as a result of what condition?

7% occurrence as a result of congenital elongation of the lumbar accessory process

39

What ligament will attach to the lumbar accessory process?

Mammillo-accessory ligament

40

What parts of the vertebra are attached via the mammillo-accessory ligament?

Mammillary process and accessory process of the same ligament

41

What was believed to be entrapped by the mammillo-accessory ligament?

Medial branch of the dorsal ramus of a lumbar spinal nerve

42

What muscles attach to the lumbar accessory process?

Longissimus thoracis
Intertransversarii

43

What muscles mat attach to the trasnverse process of a typical lumbar vertebra?

Psoas major
Quadratus lumborum
Longissimus thoracis
Rotator brevis
Rotator longus
Intertransversarii

44

What ligaments attach to the transverse process of a typical lumbar vertebra?

Lumbocostal
Mammillo-accessory
Intertransverse

45

What joint classifications are present at the transverse process of a typical lumbar?

Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis

46

What are the posterior elements of the vertebra?

Zygapophysis
Lamina
Spinous process

47

What are the anterior elements of the vertebra?

Vertebral body
Pedicle

48

What is the orientation of the typical lumbar superior articular facet?

Backward, upward, medial (BUM)
Typically concave

49

What is the orientation of the typical lumbar inferior articular facet?

Forward, lateral, downward (FoLD)
Significant convexity

50

What muscles will attach to the mammillary process?

Multifidis
Intertransversarii

51

What ligament will attach to the lumbar superior process and transverse process?

Mammillo-accessory ligament

52

What was believed to be entrapped by the mammillo-accessory ligament?

Medial branch of the dorsal ramus of a lumbar spinal nerve

53

What additional ligaments are said to attach to lumbar articular process?

Transforaminal ligaments

54

What is the joint classification for the typical lumbar zygapophysis?

Synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia)

55

How many synovial joints are present on a typical lumbar vertebra?

4

56

What is the position of the lumbar zygapophysis in children?

Lies in the coronal plane

57

What is the position of the lumbar zygapophysis in the adult?

Sagittal plane for L1/L2, L2/L3, and L3/L4
Coronal plane for L4/L5 and L5/S1

58

What is the name given to the zygapophysis between vertebral couples that lie in the same plane?

Joint symmetry

59

What names are given tot eh condition in which one zygapophysis of a vertebral couple lies in the coronal plane or position and the other zygapophysis lies in the sagittal plane or position?

Joint asymmetry or joint tropism

60

Define or describe joint tropism

Condition in which one zygapophysis of a vertebral couple lies in the coronal plane or position and the other zygapophysis lies in the sagittal plane or position

61

What is the name of the condition in which the typical lumbar spinous process increases in length due to the aging process?

Baastrup's syndrome or "kissing spines"

62

What muscles will attach to the typical lumbar spinous process?

Latissimus dorsi
Serratus posterior inferior
Iliocostalis lumborum
Longissimus thoracis
Spinalis thoracis
Multifidis
Rotator longus
Rotator brevis
Interspinalis

63

What is the appearance of the fifth lumbar vertebral body from the lateral view?

Anterior height is greater than the posterior height by several millimeters; it appears to form a wedge on a lateral X-ray view

64

How many synovial joint surfaces are present at the fifth lumbar vertebral body?

None

65

How many fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint surfaces are present on the L5 vertebral body?

4

66

How many joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of the fifth lumbar?

6

67

How mnay cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of L5?

2

68

What muscle will attach to the fifth lumbar vertebral body?

Psoas major

69

What are the attachment sites of the superior corporotransverse ligaments at the L4-L5 intervertebral foramen?

L4 vertebral body and L4-L5 intervertebral disc to the transverse process of L5

70

What are the attachment sites of the inferior corporotransverse ligaments at the L4-L5 intervertebral foramen?

L5 vertebral body and L5-S1 intervertebral disc to the transverse process of L5

71

What characteristic of the L1-L4 pedicle mat be used to differentiate it from the L5 segment?

On cranial view, the lateral surface of the pedicle is apparent on a L1-L4 segment. At L5 the transverse process originates from the vertebral body, pedicle and lamina-pedicle region

72

What is the generic direction and length of the fifth lumbar transverse process?

It is directed straight lateral and is the shortest of all lumbar transverse plane

73

What accounts for the shortness of the L5 transverse process?

The innominate bones diminish the available space in the transverse plane

74

What parts of the lumbar transverse are homologus to the cervical transverse process parts?

L transverse tubercle = C anterior tubercle
L transverse process = C costal element
L accessory process = C posterior tubercle
L transverse process origin = C true transverse process

75

What muscles may attach to the transverse process of the fifth thoracic vertebra?

Psoas major
Quadratus lumborum
Longissimus thoracis
Rotator brevis
Rotator longus
Intertrasnversarii

76

What ligaments traditionally attach to the transverse process of the fifth lumbar vertebra?

Lumbosacral
Iliolumbar
Mammillo-accessory

77

What is the orientation of the fifth lumbar superior articular facet?

Backward, upward, medial (BUM)
Typically concave

78

What is the orientation of the fifth lumbar inferior articular facet?

Forward, lateral, downward (FoLD)
Significant convexity

79

What is the name given to the congenital condition in which the fifth lumbar spinous process is elongated, the sacrum exhibits spina bifida, and dorsiflexion produces pain?

Knife Clasp Syndrome

80

What muscles will attach to the fifth lumbar spinous process?

Latissimus dorsi
Iliocostalis lumborum
Longissimus thoracis
Multifidis
Rotator longus
Rotator brevis
Interspinalis

81

How many synovial joints are maximally observed at each lumbar vertebra?

L1-L5 = 4 each

82

How many joints are traditionally observed at each lumbar vertebral body?

L1-L5 = 6 each

83

What is the inferior articular facet orientation at each lumbar vertebra?

L1-L5 = forward, downward, lateral (FoLD)