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Flashcards in Arts During the Second Industrial Revolution Deck (29)

What was Romanticism?

Romanticism was a rejection of what was viewed as the cold rationalism of eighteenth century Neoclassicism and instead placed a much higher value on the primacy of emotions and feeling.


Who inspired Romanticism?

The writings of Jean-Jaques Rousseau and his novel Emile inspired the Romanticist movement, in which he proposed an educational program in which the education was derived from nature and not rote memorization of facts.


What were traits of Romanticist authors?

They extolled both the beauty and mystery of nature. They also exhibited interest in the supernatural. They explored folklore and traditional peasant life, who were seen as living closer to nature. They also broke with the traditional style of the past. They were political liberals, although they were fascinated with the Middle Ages. The Romantic movement also rejected traditional literary and artistic styles as well as the traditional political order.


Who were famous Romanticist authors?

Goethe and his work Faust were important in dealing with the mystery of the supernatural. William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge ignored rules of punctuation in Lyrical Ballads, rejecting classical poetic forms. Sir Walter Scott and Victor Hugo wrote about the Middle Ages, with Hugo's books being Ivanhoe and The Hunchback of Notre Dame. Percy Bysshe Shelley rebelled against conservative values in England in Prometheus Unbound. Lord Byron challenged the status quo and died fighting the Ottomans in Greece. Amandine-Aurore Dupin wrote under the male pen name George Sand, writing about women and embracing traditional male roles in her actual life.


Who was the most famous early Romantic writer?

Wolfgang von Goethe wrote Sorrows of Young Werthe, which tells of a young Werthe who kills himself after unrequited love.


What was the generation of Romantic writers in Germany called?

It was called the Sturm and Drang, in which German Romantic writers gained increasing prominence and recognition.


Who was the most famous Romantic musician? How did he break from traditional classical forms?

Ludwig van Beethoven adjusted earlier classical forms by putting a vocal soloist in the last movement of a composition. He was able to break from tradition because he was the first composer to earn his living directly with proceeds form compositions and performances and did not have to rely on aristocratic patrons.


Who were other innovative composers?

Franz Schubert invented the lied, or a solo voice performing a melody to piano accompaniment. Hector Berlioz wrote pieces for the first time to tell a story without singers when he wrote music for Goethe's Faust. Frederic Chopin was influenced by Polish peasant music, while Franz List wrote wrote music based on gypsy music. Igor Stravinsky's Rite of Spring was an utter rejection of every element of classical ballet.


What were characteristics of Romantic artists?

They were fascinated by what they deemed to be exotic and traveled to North Africa and the Middle East for subjects. They generally rejected the political order in their works. Photography was also developed.


Who was famous Romantic artist?

Eugene Delacroix was a famous Romantic artist who captured the stirring events of the revolution in the streets of Paris against Charles X.


Who were famous photographers?

Louis Daguerre discovered the daguerrotype, where an image was placed on a plate. George Eastman introduced flexible film and the first box camera, which introduced them to the masses.


How did realism develop? What did they believe in?

Realism developed after the advent of the photograph, which lessened the demand for realistic landscapes and portraits. Realists were those who sought to paint the world around them without any illusions.


Who were famous realists?

Gustave Courbet painted works like The Stone-Breakers that rejected romantic notions and showed peasantry in its grim reality. Jean-Francois Millet painted The Sowers, which showed peasants growing out of the earth an showed that they were neither idealistic nor happy. Finally, Honore Daumier drew cartoons that mocked corrupt politicians and the legal system in the July Monarchy of France. He painted The Third Class Carriage, which showed peasants in distress in the railcar.


How was realism expressed in literature?

Realist writers also tried to express the world in the actual conditions of those on the bottom of the social order.


Who was Charles Dickens?

He was a realist author and used his experience in the factory as a way to critique industrialized society. He write Hard Times, in which a working class individual suffers many hardships. He introduced the hardships of working class life to middle class individuals.


Who was Mary Ann Evans/George Eliot (pen name)?

She was a realist author and was a famous realist author who focused on the barrenness of middle-class domestic life and the institution of marriage. Her work Middlemarch deals with provincial life on the eve of the Great Reform Bill where she shows frustrations over inability to improve living conditions.


Who was Gustave Flaubert?

He was a realist author and wrote Madame Bovary, in which he argues against the institution of marriage by showing its emptiness.


Who was Leo Tolstoy?

He a realist author and wrote Anna Karenina, which emphasized the failure of marriage by showing a woman who engages in an affair that meets disastrous results.


Who was Fyodor Dostoyevsky?

He was a realist author and a Russian who was pushed in the conservative direction. He dealt on the psychological and moral obligations of man in his novels Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov.


Who was Emile Zola?

He was a realist author who used scientific techniques and wrote a series of novels about a family showing how environment and heredity were critical factors in explaining their moral and physical degradation. He also defended Alfred Dreyfus with his open letter entitled J'accuse.


Who was Edouard Manet?

He was a painter who tried to push his techniques in a new direction from realism. Some of his most famous works were Luncheon on the Grass. He broke from the use of single-point perspective.


What was impressionism?

it was an art style that embraced the shimmering effect of light and made it appear as if one had only had a brief glimpse of the scene.


Where could impressionist writers show their work?

Napoleon III established the Salon des Refuses for works rejected by the committee's harsh guidelines.


Who were other famous impressionists?

Claude Monet, Auguste Renoir, and Edgar Degas were famous impressionists.


How did perception of impressionism change over time?

Impressionism was widely accepted by the end of the 1880s.


Who was Paul Cezanne?

Cezanne challenged traditional perspective, composition, and the use of color. He is referred to as the "father of modern art." He applied abstract technique of his landscape and applied it to still-lifes of fruit.


Who was Vincent van Gogh?

He was a Dutch painter who put his deepest emotions on the canvas. He painted his most famous works using bright colors and broad brush strokes to provide them with deep emotional intensity.


Who were other artists who sought to express intense emotion?

Edvard Munch and Gustave Klimt saw themselves of rejecting the values of mass society and proceeded to ind ways to shock their viewers through the vibrant use of color or by showing classical images in strange, unfamiliar ways.


Who was Pablo Picasso?

He made an irreparable break with single-point perspective. Picasso later became famous as the co-founder of cubism with Georges Braque.