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Flashcards in ati infection control/ isolation Deck (25)
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1

chain of infection

- sequence of necessary pieces for in infection to occur
- includes an infectious agent, reservior, portal of exit, mode of trasmission, portal of entry, and suceptible host

2

infectious agent

contains bacteria, fungi, virus, parasite, or prion

3

reservoir

habitat of the infectious agent and is where it lives, grows, and reproduces itself or replications

4

portal of entry

any body orifice (ears, nose, mouth) or can be through the skin, and it provides a place for infectious agent to replicate or for the toxin to act

5

portal of exit

means by which the infectious agent can leave the reservoir

6

susceptible host

required for the infectious agent to take hold and become a reservoir for infection. Not everyone who is exposed to an infectious agent gets sick

7

modes of transmission

contact
droplet
airborne

8

contact

occurs when microorganisms move from an infected person to another person

9

droplet

occurs when airborne droplets from the respiratory tract of a client travel through the air and into the mucosa of a host

10

airborne

occurs when small particles move into the airspace of another person

11

two types of contact transmission

direct and indirect

12

direct

when microorganisms are directly moved from the infected person to another person without having a contaminated object or person between the two

13

indirect

contact transmission occurs when microorganisms are moved from the infected person to another infected person with a contaminated object or person between the two

14

non specific immunity

refers to neutrophils and macrophages and their work as phagocytes

15

phagocytes

eat and destroy microorganism, thereby helping to protect the body from harm

16

neutrophils and macrophages

released during inflammatory response

17

specific immunity

refers to work of antibodies (immunoglobulins) and lymphypocytes. Antibodies bind to infectious agents and call to the white blood cells and complement to destroy them

18

inflammatory response

1. pattern receptors on the surface of cells recognize harmful stimuli
2. inflammatory pathways are activated
3. inflammatory markers are released
4. inflammatory cells are recruited

19

stages on infection

1. incubation: infection enters host and begins to multiply
2. prodromal: client has symptoms
3. acute illness: manifestations of specific infectious disease process are obvious and may become severe
4. decline: manifestations begin to wane as the degree of infectious disease decreases
5. Convalescence: client returns to normal or new normal state of health

20

local infections

confined to one area of the body. local infections can be treated with topical antibiotics and oral antibiotics

21

systemic infections

start as local infections and then spread to the bloodstream to infect the entire body

22

hand hygiene

cover any type of cleaning of the hands, may be using soap and water to wash hands as in normal hand washing, alcohol based hand sanitizers, using an antiseptic hadnwash or hand rub, and surgical hand antisepsis

23

medical asepsis

term used to define the elimination of an absence of disease-causing microorganisms

24

standard precautions

describe the infection prevention practices applied to all clients, whether or not they are known to have an infectious agent

25

4 majors healthcare associated infections

1. central-line associated bloodstream infections
2. catheter associated urinary tract infections
3. surgical site infections
4. ventilator-assisted pneumonias