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Flashcards in pt. safety and infection control Deck (44)
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1

medical and surgical asepsis

- medical asepsis refers to use the use of precise practices to reduce the number, growth and spread of micro-organisms ("clean technique")
- it applies to administering oral medication, managing nasogastric tubes, providing personal hygiene and performing many other common nursing tasks

2

what should healthcare providers do before beginning any task that requires an aseptic technique?

- check for latex allergies

3

practices that promote medical asepsis

hand hygiene
protective clothing
physical environment

4

practices that maintain a sterile field

- prolonged exposure to airborne mircro-organisms can make sterile items non sterile
- only sterile items can be in a sterile field

5

equipment

- select a clean area above waist level in the client's environment to set up the sterile field
- check that all sterile packages are dry and intact and have a future expiration date
- any chemical tape must show the appropriate color change
- make sure an appropriate waste receptacle is nearby

6

sterile field setup

- open the covering of the package per the manufactures directions, slipping the package onto the center of the workspace with the top flap
- grasp the tip of the top flap of the package, and with arm positioned away from the sterile field, unfold the top flap away from the body
- next open the slide flaps, using the right hand for the right flap and the left hand for the left flap

7

additional sterile packages

- open next to the sterile feild by holding the bottom edge with one hand and pulling back on the top flap with the other hand
- place the packages that will be used last furtherest from the sterile field; open these first
- add them directly to the sterile field. Lift the package from the dry surface, holding it 15cm above the sterile field, pulling the two surfaces apart, and dropping in into the sterile field

8

pour sterile solutions

- remove bottle cap
- hold the bottle with the label in the plan of the hand so that the solution does not run down the label
- pour the solution onto the dressing or site without touching the bottle to the site
- sterile solutions expire 24 hr after opening and recapping in some facilities

9

when does infection occur

when the presence of a pathogen leads to a chain of events cause infections

10

bacteria

staphylococcus aureus
escherichia coli
mycobacterium tuberculosis

11

viruses

organsims that use the host genetic machinery to reproduce
hiv
hepatitis
herpes zoster
herpes simplex virus

12

fungi

molds and yeasts
candid albicans
aspergillus

13

parasites

protozoa (malaria, toxoplasmosis)
helminths (worms, flatworms, roundworms, flukes

14

virulence

is the ability of a pathogen to invade and injure a host

15

herpes zoster

common viral infection that erupts years after exposure to chickenpox and invades a specific never tract

16

mode of transmission

contact
droplet
airbone
vector borne

17

contact

- direct physical contact: person to person
- indirect contact with an inanimate object
- fecal-oral transmission: handling food after using a restroom and failing to wash hands

18

droplet

sneezing, coughing, talking

19

airborne

sneezing and coughing

20

vector borne

animals or insects as intermediaries (ticks transmit lyme disease; mosquitoes transmit west nile and malaria

21

antigens

- substances the body recognizes as foreign that elicit an immune response
- most are composed of protein

22

antibodies

immune globulins produced by lympoctes in response to antigens

23

active immunity

allows the body to make antibodies in response to antigens that go into the body

24

active natural

antibodies in response to live pathogen

25

active artifical

antibodies in response to the vaccine
- giving a client a vaccine causes the production of antibodies that prevent illness
- vaccines are made from live or weakened virus

26

diagnostic procedures

identify pathogenic micro-organisms

27

the most definitive way to identify microorganism is to examine

blood
body fluids
tissue samples

28

treament can not begin untill

pathogen is identified

29

immunizations

- tetanus, diptheria booster
- measles, mumps, and rebulla vaccine
- varicella vaccine
- pneumococcal vaccine
- hepatitis a,b
- influenza vaccine
- meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV4) and meningococcal 4- valent conjugate (MenACWY) vaccine
- human papilloma virus HPV2, HPV4, HPV9
- zoster vaccine

30

isolation precautions

- group of actions that include hand hygiene and the use of barrier precautions
- precautions apply to every client
- clients in isolation are at a higher risk for depression and loneliness
- assist the client and their family to understand the reason for isolation and provide sensory stimulation