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Flashcards in pain Deck (19)
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1

pain is caused when

stimulus caused electrical impulses to travel from periphery to the spinal cord. if the tissue is injured, can also release chemicals that excite or activate the nerve endings, causing pain

2

acute pain

is pain that lasts seconds to less than 6 months

3

chronic

is pain that 6 months or longer and can be intermittent or continuous

4

subjective indicators

asses characteristic of pain:
- location
- duration
- quantity
- quality
- chronology
- aggravating factor
- relieving factor
- associated phenomenon

5

objective indicators of pain

- vital signs
- muscle tension
- rigidity
- pallor
- pain becomes more severe, there is a decrease in blood pressure and heart rate
- nausea and vomiting
- fainting
- withdrawal to pain
- grimacing
- restlessness
- guarding an area of pain

6

slight pain

1 and 3

7

moderate pain

4 and 7

8

severe pain

8 and 10

9

wrong-baker faces

6 faces with different expressions

10

wrong-baker faces 0,2,4,6,8,10

0 with smiling face
2 hurts a little
4 hurts little more
6 hurts even more
8 hurts a whole lot
10 crying face and hurts worst

11

clients perception of pain affected by

cultural
ethnic
religious beliefs
family
support systems
gender
age
environment
past experiences with pain
anxiety
other stressors

12

nonpharmacological pain interventions

positioning
cutanous stimulation
heat/cold therapy
touch/ healing, touch/theraptic
massage
acupuncture
hyponsis
acupressure
electronic stimulating unit

13

distraction techniques

used for mild pain or as an adjunct to other modalities to relieve pain

14

opioids

considered first-line treatment for management of moderate to severe pain/include all controlled substances, morphine, codeine, oxycodone, hydromorphone, methadone, meridine

15

nonopioid

include acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) that are available over the counter

16

adjuvant analgecis

include antidepressants, anticonvulsants, corticosteroids, and bisphosphonates, used to enhance the effect of opioids by reducing pain and anxiety

17

pt. controlled analgesia

used typically for clients with postoperative pain.
- it is computerized intravenous pump with a syringe of a prescribed opioid medicine usually morphine, fentanyl, hydromorphone

18

pain management involves

multimodal
multidisciplinary
client centered approach

19

clients have the right to

quality pain management and should be involved in discussions with the interprofessional team about how best to treat their pain