Flashcards in Autonomic drugs and glaucoma drugs Deck (46)
Direct Acting Muscarinic Drugs
(MOA: Inhibits M3 receptors)
Indirect Acting Nicotinic Drugs
Nicotine and Varenicline
Drugs used in Alzheimer's Disease
Rivastigmine, Donepazil, Tacrine, Galantamine
Drug used in bowel and bladder atony
Indirect acting muscarinic receptor used for treatment of glaucoma
Antidotes for organophosphate poisoning
Pralidoxime (should be given only within 6 hours)
Nonselective Cholinergic Antagonist
Atropine, Tropicamide, Homatropine, Cyclopentolate
Nonselective Cholinergic antagonist used in the treatment of Parkinsons disease
Benztropine, Biperiden, Trihexyphenidyl
Cholinergic antagonist used in the treatment of asthma
Ipatropium and tiotropium
Side effect: Nasal dryness
Why Ipatropium and tiotropium preferred as bronchodilators for combined COPD and heart disease patients?
less likely to cause tachycardia and cardiac arrhythmias
Nonselective muscarinic antagonist used in the treatment of motion sickness
Scopolamine (has an additional histamine and serotonin antagonistic effect)
Symptoms of atropine toxicity
Hot as a hare (hyperthermia)
Dry as a bone (decreased secretions and constipation)
Red as a a beet (atropine flush)
Blind as a bat (blurred vision)
Mad as a hatter (CNS toxicity, tachycardia, arrhythmia)
Cholinergic antagonist that blocks Nicotinic AcH receptors (ganglion blockers) used in the treatment of hypertension? Side effect?
Side effect: Postural Hypertension
What is the difference of dopamine and norepinephrine in their action in the blood vessels?
Dopamine: vasodilates the renal blood vessels
Norepinephrine: vasoconstricts the renal blood vessels
Inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase
Metyrosine - prevents conversion of tyrosine to DOPA
Vesicular transport of norepinephrine and epinephrine is inhibited by what drug
MAO's increase stores of norepinephrine and epineprhine
What drug inhibits entry of calcium which triggers interaction among SNARE proteins (VAMPs and SNAPS? What drugs promote them?
Inhibited by Guanethidine
Promoted by Amphetamines and Tyramine
Diffusion and reuptake of norepi and epi via NET and DAT in the synaptic cleft is inihibited by what drugs?
Cocaine and TCA
MOA of Epinephrine
Nonselective and Direct acting Sympathomimetic (activates alpha and beta)
a1: vasoconstriction, increases BP
b1: increases heart rate, conduction and contractility (cardiac arrest)
b2: bronchodilation (anaphylaxis)
Uses and side effects of norepinephrine
Neurogenic shock, cardiogenic shock (last resort)
Extreme vasospasm, tissue necrosis and extensive blood pressure increase
Dose dependent actions of dopamine
Low dose: 1 - 5 mcg/kg/min - vasodilation of the splanchnic and renal vascular beds via D1 receptors (thus increase in renal blood flow)
Medium Dose: 5-15 mcg/kg/min - D1 and B2 receptors
High dose: >15 mcg/kg/min - A1 receptors
Beta nonselective sympathomimetic drug that is used in the treatment of asthma?
B1: increases heart rate, conduction and velocity
SE: cardiovascular disturbance, arrhythmias
Selective alpha 1 agonist used as decongestant? Side effect?
SE: rebound nasal congestion
Ocular administration may cause mydriasis without cyclopegia
Selective alpha 2 agonist (decreases central sympathetic outflow)? Side effect?
SE: rebound hypertension - Treated using Phentolamine
Selective alpha 2 agonist used in the treatment of hypertension which causes hemolytic anemia?
Selective alpha 2 agonist used in the treatment of glaucoma (decreases secretion of aqueous humor)?
Selective beta 1 agonist used in acute heart failure and cardiogenic shock? Side effect?
Side effect: tachyphylaxis
Other uses: Used in cardiac stress testing
Selective beta 2 agonists used in the treatment of asthma
Terbutaline and Ritodrine
Selective beta 2 agonists used as tocolytic in preterm labor
terbutaline and ritodrine
Remember: beta 2 receptors - relaxation of uterine muscles vs alpha 1 and M3 receptors which causes contraction of uterine muscles