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Flashcards in Autonomic drugs and glaucoma drugs Deck (46)
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1

Direct Acting Muscarinic Drugs

Betanechol, Pilocarpine
(MOA: Inhibits M3 receptors)

2

Indirect Acting Nicotinic Drugs

Nicotine and Varenicline

3

Drugs used in Alzheimer's Disease

Rivastigmine, Donepazil, Tacrine, Galantamine

4

Drug used in bowel and bladder atony

Betanechol

5

Indirect acting muscarinic receptor used for treatment of glaucoma

Physostigmine

6

Antidotes for organophosphate poisoning

Atropine
Pralidoxime (should be given only within 6 hours)

7

Nonselective Cholinergic Antagonist

Atropine, Tropicamide, Homatropine, Cyclopentolate

8

Nonselective Cholinergic antagonist used in the treatment of Parkinsons disease

Benztropine, Biperiden, Trihexyphenidyl

9

Cholinergic antagonist used in the treatment of asthma

Ipatropium and tiotropium
Side effect: Nasal dryness

10

Why Ipatropium and tiotropium preferred as bronchodilators for combined COPD and heart disease patients?

less likely to cause tachycardia and cardiac arrhythmias

11

Nonselective muscarinic antagonist used in the treatment of motion sickness

Scopolamine (has an additional histamine and serotonin antagonistic effect)

12

Symptoms of atropine toxicity

Hot as a hare (hyperthermia)
Dry as a bone (decreased secretions and constipation)
Red as a a beet (atropine flush)
Blind as a bat (blurred vision)
Mad as a hatter (CNS toxicity, tachycardia, arrhythmia)

13

Cholinergic antagonist that blocks Nicotinic AcH receptors (ganglion blockers) used in the treatment of hypertension? Side effect?

Hexamethonium, Trimethaphan
Side effect: Postural Hypertension

14

What is the difference of dopamine and norepinephrine in their action in the blood vessels?

Dopamine: vasodilates the renal blood vessels
Norepinephrine: vasoconstricts the renal blood vessels

15

Inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase

Metyrosine - prevents conversion of tyrosine to DOPA

16

Vesicular transport of norepinephrine and epinephrine is inhibited by what drug

Reserpine
MAO's increase stores of norepinephrine and epineprhine

17

What drug inhibits entry of calcium which triggers interaction among SNARE proteins (VAMPs and SNAPS? What drugs promote them?

Inhibited by Guanethidine
Promoted by Amphetamines and Tyramine

18

Diffusion and reuptake of norepi and epi via NET and DAT in the synaptic cleft is inihibited by what drugs?

Cocaine and TCA

19

MOA of Epinephrine

Nonselective and Direct acting Sympathomimetic (activates alpha and beta)
a1: vasoconstriction, increases BP
b1: increases heart rate, conduction and contractility (cardiac arrest)
b2: bronchodilation (anaphylaxis)

20

Uses and side effects of norepinephrine

Neurogenic shock, cardiogenic shock (last resort)
Extreme vasospasm, tissue necrosis and extensive blood pressure increase

21

Dose dependent actions of dopamine

Low dose: 1 - 5 mcg/kg/min - vasodilation of the splanchnic and renal vascular beds via D1 receptors (thus increase in renal blood flow)
Medium Dose: 5-15 mcg/kg/min - D1 and B2 receptors
High dose: >15 mcg/kg/min - A1 receptors

22

Beta nonselective sympathomimetic drug that is used in the treatment of asthma?

Isoproterenol
B1: increases heart rate, conduction and velocity
B2: bronchodilation
SE: cardiovascular disturbance, arrhythmias

23

Selective alpha 1 agonist used as decongestant? Side effect?

Phenylephrine, Pseudoephrine
SE: rebound nasal congestion
Ocular administration may cause mydriasis without cyclopegia

24

Selective alpha 2 agonist (decreases central sympathetic outflow)? Side effect?

Clonidine
SE: rebound hypertension - Treated using Phentolamine

25

Selective alpha 2 agonist used in the treatment of hypertension which causes hemolytic anemia?

Methyldopa

26

Selective alpha 2 agonist used in the treatment of glaucoma (decreases secretion of aqueous humor)?

Apraclonidine, Brimonidine

27

Selective beta 1 agonist used in acute heart failure and cardiogenic shock? Side effect?

Dobutamine
Side effect: tachyphylaxis
Other uses: Used in cardiac stress testing

28

Selective beta 2 agonists used in the treatment of asthma

Albuterol/Salbutamol
Terbutaline and Ritodrine

29

Selective beta 2 agonists used as tocolytic in preterm labor

terbutaline and ritodrine
Remember: beta 2 receptors - relaxation of uterine muscles vs alpha 1 and M3 receptors which causes contraction of uterine muscles

30

Drugs used in the presurgical treatment of hypertension in pheochromocytoma?

Phenoxybenzamine and Phentolamine
MOA: nonselective alpha blockers (alpha 1>alpha2)
SE: Orthostatic hypotension

31

Difference between phenoxybenzamine and phentolamine

Phenoxybenzamine: IRREVERSIBLE Inhibitor
Phentolamine: REVERSIBLE Inhibitor, can also be used as treatment for rebound hypertension (e.g. Clonidine)

32

Selective alpha 1 receptors used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and hypertension?

Prazosin, Doxazosin, Terazosin, Tamsulosin, Silodosi
Side effect: First dose orthostatic hypotension

33

Most selective for prostatic smooth muscle?

Tamsulosin

34

Nonselective beta blockers

Propranolol, Pindolol, Timolol, Labetalol, Carvedilol, Nadolol
SE: bronchospasm, erectile dysfunction

35

Drug which has a combined alpha and beta blocker blockade (can also be used in the treatment of pheochromocytoma)

Labetalol

36

Nonselective beta blockers which has an intrinsic sympathomimetic activity

Pindolol and acebutolol

37

Beta blocker which has an absent Local anesthetic activity

timolol and betaxolol
(local anesthetic activity is disadvantageous when used in the eye topically since it can decrease protective effects and increase the risk of corneal ulcerations)

38

Beta blocker which has the longest half-life

Nadolol

39

selective beta blockers

Betaxolol, esmolol, acebutolol, atenolol, and metoprolol

40

Selective beta blockers used for supraventricular tachycardia

Esmolol

41

Beta blocker which has the shortest half-life

Esmolol

42

Flow of aqueous humor

Ciliary body - Posterior chamber - Angle of the anterior chamber - Pupil - Anterior chamber - trabecular meshwork - canal of schlemm - Uveoscleral veins

43

Drugs that cause decreased secretion of aqueous humor from the ciliary epithelium

Beta blocker: Timolol
Osmotic agents: Mannitol
Alpha2 agonist: Apraclonidine
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor: acetazolamide, dorzolamide

44

Drugs that cause ciliary muscle contraction, opening of trabecular meshwork and increased outflow through canal of schlemm

Cholanomimetics: Pilocarpine, Physostigmine

45

Drugs that cause increased outflow through canal of Schlemm

Prostaglandins: latanoprost

46

Drugs that causes increased outflow via uveoscleral veins

Epinephrine