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Flashcards in Antibacterials Deck (37)
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1

For gram positive organisms - S. Pneumoniae, S. Pyogenes, Actinomyces

For N. Meningitides, T. Pallidum

Pen G, V

2

ADR of Penicillins G, V

Hypersensitivity, hemolytic anemia

3

Wide spectrum beta lactamase antibiotic

Ampicillin, amoxicillin

4

Combines with clavulanic acid

Ampicillin, amoxicillin

5

Treatment for HELPSS

H. Influenza
E. Coli
L. Monocytogenes
P. Mirabilis
Salmonella
Shigella

Ampicillin, amoxicillin

6

ADR of ampicillin, amoxicillin

Hypersensitivity
Pseudomembranous colitis

7

Narrow spectrum penicillin
Penicillinase resistant due to bulky R group

Oxacillin, nafcillin, dicloxacillin

8

Tx for S. Aureus and ADR

Oxacillin, nafcillin, dicloxacillin

Hypersensitivity, interstitial nephritis

9

Antipseudomonals

Ticarcillin, piperacillin

10

B lactamase inhibitors

CAST

Clavulanic Acid
Sulbactam
Tazobactam

11

Organisms not covered by Cephalosporins

LAME

Listeria
Atypicals
MRSA
Enterococci

12

1st generation Cephalosporins

PEcKs first

Proteus
E. Coli
Klebsiella
S. Aureus

Start with Ceph EXCEPT Cefadroxil and Cefazolin

13

2ng generation Cephalosporins

HEN PEcKS

H. Influenza
Enterobacter aerogenes
Neisseria
Proteus mirabilis
E. Coli
Klebsiella
Serratia marcescens

Start with Cef, don't end with -ime/one EXCEPT Cefuroxime

14

3rd generation Cephalosporins

Ceftriaxone - meningitis and gonorrhea
Ceftazidime - pseudomonas

Start with Cef, ends with -ime/one EXCEPT Cefazolin

15

4th generation cephalosporins

Increased activity against Pseudomonas and gram positive

16

5th generation cephalosporin

Ceftaroline

Broad spectrum, does not cover pseudomonas

17

Cephalosporin toxicity

Vitamin K deficiency, nephrotoxicity with aminoglycosides

18

Aztreonam

MOA
Uses
ADRs

Binds to PBPs
Gram negative rods
Usually non toxic

19

Carbpenems

MOA
Uses
ADRs

B lactamase resistant

Wide spectrum, for life threatening infections
Used with Cilastatin (decreases inactivation in kidneys)
CNS toxicity (decreased with Meropenem)

20

Vancomycin

MOA
Uses
ADRs

Binding D-ala D-ala, inhibitis peptidoglycan
Gram positive, MRSA
NOT trouble free - Nephrotoxicity, Ototoxicity, Thrombophlebitis
Red man syndrome

21

Aminoglycoside

Examples
MOA
Uses
ADRs

GNATS - gentamicin, neomycin (bowel sx), amikacin, tobramycin, streptomycin
Inhibits initiation complex causing misreading of mRNA, Require O2
For severe gram negative rod infections
Nephrotoxicity, Neuromuscular blockade, Ototoxicty, Teratogen

22

Tetracylcins

Examples
MOA
Uses
ADR

Tetracycline, doxyxycline, minocycline
Binds 30s and prevents attachment of aminoacyl-tRNA
Borrelia, M. Pneumonia, Rickettsia, Chlamydia
Teeth discoloration, inhibition of bone growth, photosensitive, Contraindicated in pregnancy

23

Macrolides

MOA
Uses
ADRs

Azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin

Binds to 50s, blocks translation
Atypical pneumonia, Chlamydia, gram positive cocci
MACRO: Motility issues, arrhythmia, cholestatic hepatitis, rash, eosinophilia

24

Used for meningitis, Rocky Mountains potted fever
Blocks 50s
Causes anemia and gray baby syndrome

Chloramphenicol

25

Blocks 50s
For anaerobic infections above the diaphragm
Causes pseudo membranous colitis

Clindamycin

26

Sulfonamide a

Examples
MOA
Uses
ADRs

Sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, sulfadiazine
Inhibits folate synthesis (inhibit dihydropteroate synthase)
Gram posive/negative, Nocardia, Chlamydia, UTI
Hemolysis is G6PD deficient, Nephrotoxicity, kernicterus, displaces warfarin from albumin

27

Trimethoprim

MOA
Uses
ADRs

Inhibits dihydrofolate reductase
UTI, salmonella, shigella, pneumocystis jirovecii and toxoplasmosis prophylaxis
Megaloblastic anemia, leukopenia, granulocytopenia

28

Fluroquinolones

Examples
MOA
Uses
ADR

Floxacins and nalidixic acid
Inhibits DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II) and topoisomerase IV
Gram negative rods for urinary and GIT, neisseria
Tendinitis

29

Metronidazole

MOA
Uses
ADRs

Forms free radicals that damage DNA
GET GAP: giardia, entamoeba, trichomonas, gardnerella, anaerobes, h. Pylori (anaerobic infections below the diaphragm)
Disulfiram-like reaction, metallic taste

30

Isoniazid

MOA
ADR

Decreased mycolic acid synthesis

INH Injures Neurons and Hepatocytes: Nuerotoxicity, hepatotoxicity