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Flashcards in Avian salmonellosis Deck (29)
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What salmonella species are host-specific?

typhoid: salmonella pullorum, salmonella gallinarum


paratyphoid salmonellosis is important to the poultry industry because:

food safety concerns


What is pullorum disease

infectious EGG TRANSMITTED disease of poultry, esp chicks and tuurkey poults, characterized by white diarrhea and high mortality in young birds and by asymptomatic adult carriers


Who does pullorum disease usually occur in?

young chicks and turkey poults. Disease in all age groups but greatest loss


Why was pullorum disease important historically?

the losses from the disease were so severe they impaired expansion of the poultry industry


What did the poultry industry do to address pullorum disease?

devleoped an improvemnet plant that allowed them to control hatchery disseminated disease. It is now eradicated fromm commercial poultry in US but is still in back yard flocks


What is teh cause of fowl typhoid?

salmonella gallinarum


How long can salmonella pullorum be present in the environment?

months (but can be killed with cleaning and disinfection)


How is salmonella pullorum primarily spread?

1.through infected eggs laid by carrier hens, which then transmit the organism laterally in the hatchery.
2. Adults can also have slow lateral spread. Contamination of eggs--penetration can also occur
3. cannibalism


What are the signs of s. pullorum in adults?

none. Ma appear unthrifty


What are the signs of s pullorum in young chicks and poults?

1. reduced hatchability
2. early death
3. batermia
4. rise in morbidity/mortality around 4th, 5th day--weak, anorexia, adherent white diarrhea
mortality may be very high or relatively low


What are the lesions of s. pullorum in adults?

often none. may have abnormal gonads or myocarditis, pericarditis


What are the lesions of S pullorum in young chicks and poults?

1. no signs
2. feel wet
3. white feces
4. grey nodules on multiple sites
5. petechial hemorrhags
6. swollen joints
. white plaques on intestine
8. spleen frequently enlarged


How is pullorum disease diagnosed?

1. history
2. signs
3. in young chicks and poults
4. serology from surviving birds
5. isolation of s. pullorum


How is s. pullorum controlled

maintenance of pullorum-free breeder and multiplier flocks by serological testing


What is paratyhoid infection?

an acute or chonic disease of poultry, many other birds, and mammals caused by one of a large group of salmonellae that are not host secific


What age group is most severely affected with paratyphoid?

the young


What are two speccies of salmonella that cause paratyphoid?

enteridis, typhimurium


What is responsible for the pathogenic effects of paratyphoid salmonellosis?



Where do paratyphoid organisms often localize to?

the intestine or gallbladder of carriers


How does infection of young birds occur?

fecal contamination of egg shells and penetration into eggs


How do carriers shed paratyphoid salmonella?

in the feces


Does vertical transmission occur with paratyphoid salmonella?

yes. The paratyphoid organisms can localize to the ovary and result in transovarian transmission


What non-poultry species is a reservoir for paratyphoid salmonella?



Can birds get salmonella from contaminated animal proteins?

yes (contamination after processing)


What are the clinical signs of paratyphoid?

1. only disease in young birds
2. somnolence, profuse diarrhea, dehydration, pasting/wetting of vent, drooping wings, shivering, huddling near heat sources
3. high morbidity and mortality (variable)


What are lesions of paratyphoid salmonella?

1. few lesions if septicemia
2. dehydration, marked enteritis
3. liver lesion
4. omphalitis
5. raised plaques in intestinal mucosa and cheesy cecal cores


How is paratyphoid diagnosed??

isolation from multiple organisms. Type the organism


How is paratyphoid controlled?

1. bacteirologic monitoring
2. sell birds to eliminate carriers
3. thoroughly clean/disinfect premise
4. keep nests clean
5. gather eggs frequently, sanitize
6. fumigate eggs
7. raise new broods as al in all out
8. no contact with wild birds, rodents, reptiles
9. uncontaminated food protein
10. can check for carriers
11. inoculate 1 day chicks with antibiotics
12. bacterin against enteritidis