Flashcards in Bovine Neurological disease Deck (77)
What is the typical presentations of bovine neurological disease?
abnormal head posture
aint doing right
What should you try to assess with a distance exam?
4. ability to eat
How do you examine the 12 cranial nerves? (restrained)
2. sensation and response
4. vestibular system
5. mastication and swallowing
How do you do a spinal evaluation?
1. examine the animal as moves freely and driven
2. attempt to assess limb placement and motion
What is a key comonent of neurological disease (time)
the timeline--what is onset, progression?
acute, subacute, chronic
What is the timeline of progression, treatment of polio?
Fairly rapid progression, rapid improvement with thiamine
What is the timeline of progression of rabies?
What is an issue with doing a neuro exam in calvess?
they are very stoical and hard to get a response to most stimuli
What is an issue with downer cows?
It is difficult to assess limb function. May need to use panniculus, shock prod.
What are additional diagnostic tests that can be used for neuro cows?
1. chemistry--Mg, Ca, urea, glucose (hypocalcemia, hypomagnesiuma, urea poisoning, glucose--neuro ketosis) CK/AST---down cows
2. CBC--meningitis, cerebral abscess
3. CSF--menigitis, neoplasia, trauma
5. vit A
Are CBCs very useful?
no, the inflammation in the brain is rarely reflected in the CBC
Are CSF taps useful?
could do in a calf but in a cow very very difficult
What is the best diagnostic test for neurologic dz in cattle?
How do you assess blindness in cattle?
1. distant exam
2. pupillary light reflex
3. menace response
(check palpebral reflex first)
what are three conditions typified by blindness?
1. lead poisoning
2. polioencephalomalacia. a) vit B1 deficiency, b) sulfate induced
3. vitamin A deficiency
What is the signalment for lead poisoning in cattle?
1. any age, any animal, calves may be slightly more common
2. any bizarre behavior patterns (e.g. uncontrollable walking)
What are characteristics on distance exam of lead poisoning?
1. ataxia (drunkeness)
2. weakness (recumbency)
4. aimless wandering
7. teeth grinding
9 . hyperasthesia
What is the source of lead in lead poisoning?
What will you see when looking for a "car battery"
The individual lead sheets and old paper that separated them because the casing has been frozen and broken apart
Grey, white because the acid has dried--residue crystals
What does lead taste like?
sweet, covered in salt crystals. cows like to pick it up and chew it
What is a source of lead besides car batteries
(white and green
usually an issue for bottle fed calves in an old barn)
2) crank case oil--not really major
What are features on the physical exam of lead poisoning?
1. Disruption of normal GI function (decreased rumination, mild bloat, tenesmus, constipation or diarrhea)
What is more common, acute or chronic lead poisoning?
acute (1/2lb in cows, 2oz calve)
How is lead poisoning diagnosed?
1) blood lead levels
What blood tubes must be used to analyze lead poisoning?
HEPARINIZED BLOOD SAMPLE (can't use EDTA because it binds lead)
What are ways can check for lead poisoning besides blood sample?
1. Ca-EDTA adminsitration and measure urinary excretion
2. measure urinary delta ALA excretion
3. fecal lead
What can you do post mortem to diagnose lead?
1. lead in reticulum and rumen
2. check levels in KIDNEY (or liver)--kidney better
Do you teat lead poisoning in cows?
What are the theoretical treatments for lead?
1. remove access to lead
2. chelation therapy--Ca-EDTA to promote excretion