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who does bovine ketosis occur in?

well conditioned animals


What are the products of carbohydrate metabolism



What is the etiology of ketosis?

glucose requirements > inetake
ketones suppress apetite
low carbohydrate absorbance


What is primary ketosis?

good to excessive body condition
high lactation potential
good quality rations
predisposes cattle to abomasal displacement


What is secondary ketosis?

alimentary ketosis (butyrate in silage)
nutritional deficiency (cobalt, phosphorus)


What are the clinical signs of ketosis

wasting form: decrease in appetite and milk yield, preferncially eats hay, rapid body weight loss, ketones on breath
subclinical: decreased production, infertility, other diseases
nervous: circling, straddling/crossingl legs, head pressing, delirium, due to isopropyl alcohol (from acetoacetic acid) and lack of glucose in brain


What are the lab findings of ketosis?

1. hypoglyccemia variable
2. blood ketone levels increased (BHBA >1.2mmol/L)
increased urine ketons: urine test strips tend to ony detect aetoacetate
increased milk ketones (BHBA >100mmol/L; acetone >0.70mmol/L


What are the differentials for ketosis?

-displaced abmasum
-traumatic reticulitis
-primary indigestion


What is treatment for ketosis?

PROPYLENE GLYCOL: only evidence based treatment!!!! 300g daily for up to 5 days, drench or feed

(glucose: 500mL 50% dextrose IV, never SQ, transient response, renal excretion and abomasal dysfunction--overdose, -->>second line treatment/nervous ketosis)

isofluprednone (predef) doesn't really work, more mineralocorticoid activity--hypokalemia

dexamethsaone: not labeled, glucose repartitioning causes hyperglycemia, decent efficacy based on evidence

insulin--enhances glucose ptake and gluconeongenesis, not alone, suppresses fatty acid metabolism, may be useful if refractory to glucose and glucocorticoids

anabolic steroids=illegal

other treatments: vit B12, cobalt, niacin,


How do you prevent ketosis

ensure adequate body condition at calving
less than 10% of cattle have BCS >4/5 in transition period


What is small ruminant pregnancy toxemia

major energy drains are fetuses
decreased plane of nutrition late preg
differences in suscpetiblity may be hepatic efficiency?


What are the primary causes of preg toxemia?

decreased plane of nutrition in late preg
shor tperiod of fast
cold weather/abscence of shelter
poor pasture


Why are fat ewes more likely to get preg toxemia?

overconditioned in late preg--vluntary fall in feed due to intrabdominal fat


What are risk factors for preg toxemia?

1. last 6 weeks preg
2. twins and triplpets
3. increased parity
4. interurrent dz
5. por plane of nutrition (hill breeds may be nore resistant)
6. case fatality 100% if don't treat


What are the clinical signs of preg toxemia?

more nervous--hypoglycemic encephalopathy
1. separate from group
2. blindness
3. tremors of head muscles
4. abnormal postures
5. recumbence in 304 days
6. dystocia
7. hypoglycemia early in dz
8. ketonemia, ketonuria
9. metabolic acidosis (as opposed to large ruminants off feed???)
10. renal failure and terminal uremia


When is treatment of preg toxemia effective?

early in dz


WHat is treatment for preg toxemia?

1. fluid and electrolyte replacement
2. GLUCOSE +/- insuline
3. propylene glycol if brain is ok and can swallow
4. glucocorticoids ineffective
5. REMOVAL OF FETUSES: cesarian or induce parturition


How do you control preg toxemia?

BCS 2.5-3/5 at 90 days allows response to increased feeding later
last 2 months important 70% lambs weight gained in last 6 weeks
10% protein concentrate, 0.25kg/day-1kg/day
feed maiden ewes separately


What are issues of starvation

look at notes


When might you see starvation in neonatal calves?

poor quality milk replacers
-insufficient energy
-indigestible non-milk protein
diarrhea without extra nutritional support


What are the effects oprotein deficiency

look at notes


What are the clinical signs of starvation?

similar to toher nutritional deficiency or subclin dz


What are situations where nutritional deficiency may occur?

1. late gestation in beef cattle
2. rare in dairy cattle
3. concurrent diarrhea
4. diagnosis based on analysis of feed
5. prevention based on providing adequate diet


What is fatty liver also known as in cattle?

pregnancy toxemia?


Why does fatty live roccur?

excessivve fat mobilization from body reserves to liver


When does fatty liver ocur?

around time of parturition


Who does fatty liver occur in?

sudden increases inenergy demand or decreases in intake


Why do cattle get fatty liver?

pre-partum: FFA mobilized pre-partum; live, muscle, kidneys; mobilization influenced by hormonal anhd energy


What happens when liver triglyceride is high with VLDL?

VLDL secretion further reduced due to hepatic insufficiency


What is the epidemiology of fatty liver?

1. over conditioned animals (housed in poor conditions, excessively long dry periods, attempts to decrease body condition in late preg)
2. exessive energy in late preg
3. late gestation beef cattle carrying twins