Bovine hematuria and hemoglobinuria Flashcards Preview

Food animal production > Bovine hematuria and hemoglobinuria > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bovine hematuria and hemoglobinuria Deck (116)
Loading flashcards...
1

How do you differentiate hematuria and hemoglobinuria/myoglobinuria?

spin down the urine
hematuria when centrifuged leaves clear supernatant

2

What will you find with myoglobinuria that does not occur with hemoglobinuria?

increased CK, AST

3

Where might blood in the urine arise from?

1. urethra
2. bladder
3. kidney

4

What are differentials of hematuria?

1. urethra: caluli, trauma, urethritis
2. bladder: bracken fern, cystitis, papilloma, neoplasia, calculi, polyps
3. kidney: pyelonephritis, infarction, trauma, malignant catarrhal fever, endotoxic shock

5

What are the major calculi in ruminants?

1. struvite--seen in feed lot--phosphatic on grain based diets
2. silica--rangeland
3. calcium carbonate--most comon on lush clover pasture
4. calcium oxalate: idiopathic

6

Who is most likely to get urinary calculi?

males

7

When do urinary calculi occur?

when high mineral concentratrions in urine overwhelm crystallization inhibitors

8

What forms a matrix for calculus formation?

mucoproteins

9

How are calculi diagnosed?

1. hematuria
2. colic and straining to urinate
3. enlarged ureter or urethra (rectal exam, urethra pulsing without urination)
4. post renal azotemia
5. endoscopy?

10

How are calculi diagnosed?

1. surgical
2. salvage if not uremic
3. medical (tranquilizer, NSAID, IV fluids)
4. Walpole's solution (acetic acid)

11

How are struvite crystals prevented?

1. increase long stem forage in diet (hard to convince in feedlot)
2. 3-5% salt in feedlot diets
3. ammonium chloride (alkalinize the urine) but reduces palatability

12

How do you prevent silica calculi?

sodium or ammonium chloride

13

What is urethral trauma commonly associated with?

uroliths

14

What is bacterial urethritis sometime sassociated with?

pseudomonas

15

What does bacterial urethritis suually manifest as?

hemospermia. treated by rest from reprod acitvity and antibiotics that concentrate in urine like penicillin

16

What are the clinical signs of bracken fern poisoning?

bladder wall thickneing, tumors
blood and clots in urine
anemia may be present
usually sporadic

17

what is the cause of enzootic hematuria?

pteridium aquilinum (braken fern)

18

What are the toxic agents of pteridium aquilinum toxicity?

ptaquiloside, quercetin, A ecdysone

19

What is the treatmetn for braken fern?

supportive care, removal of braken fern from diet

20

Who most commonly gets cystitis?

females

21

What are the common etiological agents of cystitis?

C. renale, or e. colie

22

is grosshematuria common with cystitis?

no

23

What are common clinical signs of cystitsi?

1. dysuria,
2. pollalkuria,
3. decreased urinary flow rate
4. thickened bladder wall

24

What is a good treatment for cystitis?

penicillin, actually gets such high levels in urine that can get e. coli

25

Who does pyelonephritis usually affect?

females

26

Are animals systemically ill with cystitis? what about pyelonephritis?

1. no
2. yes

27

What are the clinical signs of pyelonephritis?

systemic clinical signs
smooth enlarged painful kidney occasionally palpable on rectal

28

What is the treatment for pyelonephritis?

antibiotics (penicillin) and supporitve care

29

What is the prognosis for pyelonephritis?

guarded

30

What are the most common causes of renal infarction?

dehydration and/or NSAID treatment