Flashcards in Bovine hematuria and hemoglobinuria Deck (116)
How do you differentiate hematuria and hemoglobinuria/myoglobinuria?
spin down the urine
hematuria when centrifuged leaves clear supernatant
What will you find with myoglobinuria that does not occur with hemoglobinuria?
increased CK, AST
Where might blood in the urine arise from?
What are differentials of hematuria?
1. urethra: caluli, trauma, urethritis
2. bladder: bracken fern, cystitis, papilloma, neoplasia, calculi, polyps
3. kidney: pyelonephritis, infarction, trauma, malignant catarrhal fever, endotoxic shock
What are the major calculi in ruminants?
1. struvite--seen in feed lot--phosphatic on grain based diets
3. calcium carbonate--most comon on lush clover pasture
4. calcium oxalate: idiopathic
Who is most likely to get urinary calculi?
When do urinary calculi occur?
when high mineral concentratrions in urine overwhelm crystallization inhibitors
What forms a matrix for calculus formation?
How are calculi diagnosed?
2. colic and straining to urinate
3. enlarged ureter or urethra (rectal exam, urethra pulsing without urination)
4. post renal azotemia
How are calculi diagnosed?
2. salvage if not uremic
3. medical (tranquilizer, NSAID, IV fluids)
4. Walpole's solution (acetic acid)
How are struvite crystals prevented?
1. increase long stem forage in diet (hard to convince in feedlot)
2. 3-5% salt in feedlot diets
3. ammonium chloride (alkalinize the urine) but reduces palatability
How do you prevent silica calculi?
sodium or ammonium chloride
What is urethral trauma commonly associated with?
What is bacterial urethritis sometime sassociated with?
What does bacterial urethritis suually manifest as?
hemospermia. treated by rest from reprod acitvity and antibiotics that concentrate in urine like penicillin
What are the clinical signs of bracken fern poisoning?
bladder wall thickneing, tumors
blood and clots in urine
anemia may be present
what is the cause of enzootic hematuria?
pteridium aquilinum (braken fern)
What are the toxic agents of pteridium aquilinum toxicity?
ptaquiloside, quercetin, A ecdysone
What is the treatmetn for braken fern?
supportive care, removal of braken fern from diet
Who most commonly gets cystitis?
What are the common etiological agents of cystitis?
C. renale, or e. colie
is grosshematuria common with cystitis?
What are common clinical signs of cystitsi?
3. decreased urinary flow rate
4. thickened bladder wall
What is a good treatment for cystitis?
penicillin, actually gets such high levels in urine that can get e. coli
Who does pyelonephritis usually affect?
Are animals systemically ill with cystitis? what about pyelonephritis?
What are the clinical signs of pyelonephritis?
systemic clinical signs
smooth enlarged painful kidney occasionally palpable on rectal
What is the treatment for pyelonephritis?
antibiotics (penicillin) and supporitve care
What is the prognosis for pyelonephritis?