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Flashcards in Bovine Lameness Deck (50)
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What is the pathogenesis of sole ulcers?

1. mainly a weight bearing issue


What is the essence of hoof trimming

balance to foot to prevent sole uclers


What percentage of a cows weight is on fore vs hind legs?

60% vs 40%


Why are there more issues in the hind limbs?

there is much more weight borne on the lateral claw--throwing her weight from side to side


Why does the lateral claw lay down more horn on the lateral claw?

because she is putting more weight on it--excessive use


What is the consequence of the lateral claw putting down more horn?

It bears more weight, puts down more horn, bears more weight--vicious cycle--most overloaded claw


What is the rate of sole/toe growth?



Which is tougher? sole or wall horn?

wall horn


Why does the sole get worn away at the heel while the toes not?

The sole is wet, wears away more quickly. The toe is made up of wall horn, does not get worn as quickly. Leads to the cow walking on her heels


Where is the weight born when the toe is overgrown?

thrown back on the heel


What is the region most likely to get sole ulcers?

heel region of the lateral hiind claw


What are you focusing on with foot trimming?

trim down the lateral claw, trim down the toes


What are other factors that contribute to sole ulcers

low grade laminitis results in sinking of P3. P3 has two sharp points--the outer edge and the flexor process at the back of P3


What are the factors that lead to sole ulcer formation

-increased weight bearing in heel
sinking of P3 pinches the corium below the flexor process--first it bleeds, then it dies (pressure necrosis). when it dies it stops forming new horn and a hole grows out in the sole.


What are the two layers of protection of the foot? what happens in abscess vs ulcer?

There is sole/wall and there is corium
In abscess only sole/wall breached. in ulcer the sole/wall and corium are impacted and the delicate tissues are now exposed


What is the big deal with sole ulcers?

They happen in the worse possible place: allows for access to: (1-3=goner)
1. navicular bursa
2. DIPJ (distal interphalangeal joint)
3. tendon sheath
4. heel bulb--fixable but a pain to get drug to (low blood supply)


What is surprising clinically about sole ulcers?

not that painful. Low grade, slow developing lameness. Producers tend to think is just thin soles. BOTH HER FEET HURT so she doesn't limp. Most diagnose while trimming foot.


When a cow goes lame in her hind legs, what does she try to do?

she tries to put weight on front legs and her spine starts to arch


How do you treat sole ulcers?

get the weight bearing OFF of that area. (corium needs time, then can regenerate)
1. trim lateral claw agressively
2. trim toe
3. smooth, contoured edges around the hole. DON'T LEAVE pockets
4. use a block!--analgesia!


What provides the best "analgesia" to the cow?

a block


What is the danger of a block?

but all the weight on the claw with the block! need to aggressively trim that claw!!


What is the maximum time to leave a block on?

6 weeks


What is the disadvantage of wood blocks?

have to take them off
difficult to put them on


What are the advantages of a plastic block?

fall off themselves
easier to put on


What do you want to avoid by avoiding/treating ulcers?

deep sepsis:
-severe lameness!!
-swelling! does NOT look like foot rot!--can be swollen way higher up leg


What is a typical feature of swelling with deep sepsis?

swelling of heel
tendon sheath swelling
10-2 position--pouch of distal interphalangeal joint


What can you do with an animal with deep sepsis (most of the time)



What is at the 10-2 position?

the pouch of the distal interphalangeal joint


What can you see on radiograph?

large changes in the joint and can compare one joint with the other joint


Do you need to take radiographs for deep sepsis?

no, clinical signs should be sufficient