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Flashcards in Bacteroides and Abscesses Deck (38):
1

what are the characteristics of bacteroides and where can the typically be found

gram negative, anearobes, metabolize complex carbs, found in intestinal flora

2

what is the predominant member of bacteroides in intra-abdominal absecess

B. fragilis

3

what is the effect of high amounts of oxygen on beacteroides

toxic and will damage cell wall (aneorbes so only tolerate little o2)

4

what cavity is the most susceptible to bacteroides of intestinal spillage occurs

the peritoneal cavity

5

intra-abdominal infections from intestinal spillage result in what type of disease

biphasic disease

6

why is B. fragilis the most common bacteroide species found in intra-abdominal abscesses

-evades phagocytes
-tolerates initial O2 environment of peritoneal cavity
-thrives once the cavity becomes anaerobic

7

what are the potential damages caused by intra-abdominal abscesses

-necrosis of neiboring tissues
-reservoirs for bacteria causing sepsis/shock

8

how do you diagnose an intra-abdominal infection of bacteroides

CAT scan then culture the fluid drained from abscess

9

how do you treat intra-abdominal abscesses

surgical removal and antibiotics

10

what enzymes do bacteroides use to tolerate short exposure to O2

superoxide dismutase, catalase

11

what is the difference b/w sepsis and bacteremia

sepsis is severe systemic illness brought about by microbes, bacteremia is simply prescence of microbes in blood

12

what are the bodies primary mediators of sepis

-cytokines IL-1 and TNF-x (most important)
-Gram (-) bacteria LPS
-Gram (+) bacteria peptidoglycan

13

what are the effects of cytokines on vasculature

-vasodilation of vessels
-vascular leakage causing edema
-coagulation
-increase neutrophil expression

14

hemodynamic derangement eventually causes ?

organs to fail
-MODS or multi-organ dysfunction syndrome known as "shock" phase

15

what are the physiological characteristics that hemodynamic derangement is in process

decreases blood pressure
increased cardiac output
low organ perfusion

16

how do you treat sepsis

Antibiotics along with ...
-ventilator for O2
-IV fluids fro blood pressure
-adrenergic drugs for increase tissue perfusion

17

what are the general characteristics for spirochetes

long thin and helical shaped
-cause syphilis and lyme disease

18

what is the specific sprirochete that causes syphillis

trepona pallidum

19

what are the 2 major routes for transmission o ftrepona pallidum causing syphillis

transplacental and mucous membranes during sex

20

what is a syphylitic chancre

initial lesion in primary syphillis

21

what does trepona pallidum spread systemically

through lymphatic channels

22

in what stage of syphilis does the bacteria replicate intracellularly and called the "great imitator"

secondary syphillis

23

treatment of secondary syphilis with penicillan can result in fever and shock called ?

Jarisch-Herxheimer r/x

24

what stage of syphilis can the bacteria become latent

secondary syphilis

25

what is the general outcome for tertiary syphilis

destruction of host tissue due chronic inflammation and vasculitis

26

what is a gummas and what stage of syphilis are they

treponemes+ inflammatory cells in tertiary syphilis

27

how does tertiary syphilis affect the CNS

ataxic gait, general paresis

28

how is syphilis diagnosed

detecting antibodies

29

how do you treat syphilis

penecillan in all stages

30

what is the specific spirochete that causes lyme disease

borrelia burgdorferi

31

what is the vector of borrelia burgdorferi, and what triggers the bacteria after being dormant

ticks(bacteria hides in midgut of ticks until triggered), mammal blood is the trigger

32

how is borrelia burgdorferi spread once the body has an infection

spread via binding to plasminogen and converting it to plasmin

33

what is erythrema migrans

lesion that forms in localized infection of stage 1 lyme disease

34

what type of infection is stage 2 lyme disease and what is the mechanism of damage

desseminated infection
-damage caused by hosts response to bacteria via cytokines IL-1 and TNF-x

35

what are the initial symptoms of stage 3 lyme disease

arthritis

36

stage 3 lyme disease effects CNS and skin how ?

affects CNS memory, mood, and sleep
-casuse atrophy of skin called acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans

37

how is lyme disease diagnosed

detecting antibodies

38

what specific antibiotic is not effective against lyme dieases

penicilan