Retroviruses, AIDS, and Tumor Viruses Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Retroviruses, AIDS, and Tumor Viruses Deck (34)
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1

what is the theory/origin of HIV

HIV has evolved from the simian virus in Africa
----> HIV-2 --------> HIV-1

2

what are the 2 subfamilies of retroviridae, and of the 2 which one can cause human disease

orthoretroviridae - cause human disease
spumaviridae - NOT cause human disease

3

what is the main protein specific to retroviruses and what does it do ?

reverse transcriptase
-converts ssRNA to dsDNA

4

what is the genome and virion for retroviridae

genome - (+)ssRNA
virion - enveloped

5

what is a provirus and explain the process

it is when retrovirus integrates their dsDNA into the host genome

6

explain the replication cycle of retrovirus

attaches and enters cell, then reverse transcriptase converts ssRNA to dsDNA
-then integrated into host genome
-transcription then translation, assembly and release

7

_______ levels of what must be present in order to start reverse transcription

high levels of NTP's

8

why are retroviruses an exception w/regards to where it replicates w/in the host cell

most RNA viruses replicate in the cytoplasm
-Retroviruses replicate in NUCLEUS

9

how does integration process work for retroviruses

-must access the nucleus
-attack host DNA and create nick
-integrate via integrase
-host will repair

10

what is the term when the virus integrates its dsDNA into the hosts germ-line

endogenous

11

T/F integration of virus DNA is permanent and can not be removed

True

12

Can retroviruses infections be benign

Yes, happens frequently

13

what are the 3 types of diseases that retrovirus can cause

-slow retrovirusus - high level mutagenesis
-cytopathic retrovirus - direct tissue damage (rare)
-acute transforming virus - induce rapid tumor formation and carry host mitogenic genes

14

what is the family name of Human T-cell Leukemia virus (HTLV)

deltaretrovirus

15

what is the prevalence of Human t cell leukemia (HTLV)

very high worldwide

16

how is HTLV-1 transmitted ?

person to person w/in the host
-MUST have contact b/w cells

17

what 2 diseases can HTLV-1 cause

-Adult T cell lymphoma (ATLL)
-HTLV-1 Associated myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraperesis (HAM/TSP)

18

HAM/TSP symptoms can be associated with what virus

human t cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1)

19

how can HTLV -1 be prevented and treated

eliminate breastfeeding for HTLV-1 mothers
-treat specific disease

20

what is the specific family of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

lentivirus

21

where is the highest prevalence of HIV

worldwide, specifically sub-saharan Africa

22

what are the routes of transmission for HIV

-sex (primary route)
-parenteral (needle sharing and transfusion)
-mother to infant

23

what is the latency period for AIDS

6 months to 25 years

24

what cells does HIV target

targets memory T cells (CD4+)

25

Gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is associated w/what virus

acute infection of HIV

26

when the chronic infection is established in HIV, what occurs ?

replication of the virus continues
-T cell depletion over time

27

what iare the strategies for prevention and treatment of HIV

prevent by sexual behavior
-no vaccine but are antivirals that help

28

what is the most common antiviral of HIV

AZT

29

disease progression for retroviruses generally are very fast or slow ?

slow

30

T/F retroviruses can cause significant types of cancer

True