Bandura's Social Learning Theory Flashcards Preview

Psychology Board Exam > Bandura's Social Learning Theory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bandura's Social Learning Theory Deck (92):
1

Investigates the behavior as it is formed and modified in a social context; stresses that virtually all forms of behavior can be learned without directly experiencing any reinforcement

Albert Bandura's Social-Learning / Modeling / Cognitive-Behavioral Theory
"Virtually every phenomenon that occurs by direct experience can occur vicariously as well by observing other people and the consequences for them."

2

Identify the major distinctions between Skinner and Bandura

-Unlike Skinner, Bandura allows for internal cognitive variables that mediate between stimulus and response
-Skinner dealt with animal subjects in individual settings; Bandura observed the behavior of human subjects in social settings

3

Learning new responses by observing the behavior of other people

Observational Learning

4

Learning or strengthening a behavior by observing the behavior of others, and the consequences of that behavior, rather than experiencing the reinforcement or consequences directly

Vicarious Reinforcement

5

Bandura emphasizes the __ as a means of learning, and he considers learning to be mediated by __.

Observation of others; Cognitive processes

6

This theorist's parents emphasized the value of education at an early age; took a course in psychology only out of practicality or convenience

Albert Bandura

7

Bandura argued that __ is an inefficient and potentially dangerous way to learn skills such as swimming or driving.

Operant Condition
(trial-and-error behavior continues until the person happens upon the correct response)

8

A behavior modification technique that involves observing the behavior of others and participating with them in performing the desired behavior

Modeling
(through this, it is possible to acquire responses never performed and to strengthen or weaken existing responses)

9

Can induce certain behaviors as long a the activities involved are fully and adequately explained; often used to provide instructions and usually supplemented by behavioral demonstrations

Verbam Modeling

10

The weakening of inhibitions or constraints by observing the behavior of a model

Disinhibition

11

An online form of the disinhibition effect which involves posting of inflammatory, derogatory or hateful messages about an individual or a group

Trolling

12

According to Bandura, people who deviate from cultural norms have learned their behavior the same way as everyone does. The difference is that deviant persons have followed __ the rest of society considered __.

Models; Undesirable

13

In Skinner's system, __ control behavior; For Bandura, it is the __ who control behavior

Reinforcers; Models

14

Identify the three factors found to influence modeling

1. Characteristics of the Models
2. Characteristics of the Observers
3. Reward Consequences of the Behaviors

15

Identify the characteristics of the models that affect our tendency to imitate them

-Similarity (we imitate those more similar to us)
-Sex (we imitate person of the same sex)
-Age (we imitate models our own age)
-Type of age (we imitate quickly simpler behaviors)
-Size and weight

16

Identify the characteristics of the observers that affect our tendency to imitate models

-Self-confidence (those with low levels are more likely to imitate)
-Reinforced for imitating (those rewarded for behaving like someone is more susceptible to influence of models)

17

Bandura believed that reward consequences linked to a particular behavior can override the impact of the models' and observers' characteristics. Seeing a model being __ or __ for displaying a particular behavior affects imitation.

Rewarded; Punished

18

Identify the four mechanisms that govern the nature of observational learning

Attentional Processes
Retention Processes (or Representation)
Production Process (or Behavioral Reproduction)
Incentive and Motivational Processes

19

Describe the Attentional Processes in observational learning

Developing our cognitive processes and perceptual skills so that we can pay sufficient attention to a model accurately enough, to imitate displayed behavior
(Ex. Staying awake during driver's education class)

20

Describe the Retention Processes in observational learning

Retaining or remembering the model's behavior so that we can imitate or repeat it at a later time, for this we use our cognitive processes to encode or form mental images and verbal descriptions of the mode's behavior
(Ex. Taking notes on the lecture material or the video of a person driving a car)

21

Describe the Production Processes in observational learning

Translating the mental images or verbal symbolic representations of the model's behavior into our own overt behavior by physically producing the responses and receiving feedback on the accuracy of our continued practice
(Ex. Getting in a car with an instructor to practice shifting gears and dodging the traffic cones in the school parking lot)

22

Describe the Incentive and Motivational Processes in observational learning

Perceiving that the model's behavior leads to a reward and thus expecting that our learning - and successful performance - of the same behavior will lead to similar consequences
(Ex. Expecting that when we have mastered driving skills, we will pass the state test and receive a driver's license)

23

Identify the process / mechanism in observational learning depicted by the following: We remember significant aspects of the model's behavior in order to repeat it later in two way: through an imaginal internal representational system or through a verbal system

Retention Processes

24

Identify the process / mechanism in observational learning depicted by the following: When incentives are available, observation is more quickly translated into action.

Incentive and Motivational Processes

25

Identify the process / mechanism in observational learning depicted by the following: Practice of the proper physical movements and feedback on their accuracy is needed to produce the smooth performance of the behavior

Production Processes

26

Identify the process / mechanism in observational learning depicted by the following: The subject must perceive the model accurately enough to acquire the information necessary to imitate the model's behavior

Attentional Processes

27

To Bandura, a set of cognitive processes and structures concerned with thought and perception

Self

28

Administering rewards or punishments to oneself for meeting, exceeding or falling short of one's own expectations or standards; it requires internal standards of performance, subjective criteria or reference points against which we evaluate behavior

Self-Reinforcement

29

Identify examples of self-administered reinforcement and self-administered punishment

Self-administered reinforcement: tangible material things or emotional ones such as pride or satisfaction
Self-administered punishment: shame, guilt or depression

30

Our feeling of adequacy, efficiency and competence in coping with life

Self-Efficiency
("power of believing you can")

31

Identify the sources of information which serve as the basis in judging or contributing to our self-efficacy

Performance Attainment (or Mastery Experiences)
Vicarious Experiences (or Social Modeling)
Verbal Persuasions (or Social Persuasion)
Physiological and emotional Arousal or States

32

Identify the source of information in judgment of self-efficacy described by the following: Our basis for judging our ability to cope, such as whether in a state of fear, anxiety or tension or not in a given situation.

Physiological and Emotional Arousal (or states)

33

Identify the source of information in judgment of self-efficacy described by the following: Receiving feedback on one's progress or one's performance on a task.

Performance Attainment (or Mastery Experiences)

34

Identify the source of information in judgment of self-efficacy described by the following: "If they can do it, so can I."

Vicarious Experiences (or Social Modeling)

35

Identify the source of information in judgment of self-efficacy described by the following: "You can do it."

Verbal Persuasions (or Social Persuasion)

36

In infancy, modeling is limited to __; it is necessary for the modeled behavior to be repeated several times after the infant's initial attempt to duplicate it.

Immediate Imitation

37

By about age __, children have developed sufficient attentional, retention and production responses to being imitating behavior some time after the observation rather than immediately.

2

38

Early efficacy-building experiences are centered on the __.

Parents
Studies have show than high self-efficacy men experienced pressure from their mothers while high self-efficacy women felt pressure from their fathers.

39

Identify one important similarity of Bandura and Adler

They both considered birth order within the family to be important.

40

Stage of development when new competences and appraisals of abilities are established

Adolescence
According to Bandura, the level of self-efficacy established during childhood determines the success of this stage.

41

Self-efficacy assessments are difficult in this stage of development and a new round of appraisal is required

Old Age

42

Stage of development when people reassess skills and find new opportunities for enhancing self-efficacy

Middle Age

43

Stage of development when high self-efficacy is necessary for successful adjustment to marriage, parenthood and establishing a career

Young Adulthood

44

To Bandura, __ is the crucial factor in determining success or failure throughout the entire life span.

Self-Efficacy

45

Behavior modification technique that involves watching a live model and then participating with the model

Guided Participation

46

Behavior modification technique which involves imagining a model coping with a feared or threatening situation

Covert Modeling

47

This approach to therapy relieves people of their fears, expands their environment and increases their self-efficacy; effective with phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorders and sexual dysfunctions

Behavior Modification

48

The idea that behavior is controlled or determined by the individual, through cognitive processes, and by the environment, through external social stimulus events

Reciprocal Determinism

49

The idea that behavior is determined through the interaction of behavioral, cognitive and environmental or situational variables

Triadic Reciprocality

50

Identify our ultimate and necessary goal in life according to Bandura

To set realistic performance standards to maintain and adequate level of self-efficacy (self-regulation)

51

The assessment of __ and __ variables is important in the social-learning approach to personality; this usually includes __, __ and __.

Behavioral; Cognitive; Direct observation; Self-report inventories; Physiological measurements

52

Identify various prominent factors that affect self-efficacy according to research

-Age and gender differences
-Parental self-efficacy
-Physical appearance
-Academic performance
-Career choice and job performance
-Physical health
-Mental health
-Coping with stress

53

Sense of efficacy developed by a group of people working together in a common enterprise to achieve common goals

Collective Efficacy

54

__ allows people to learn without performing a behavior; whereas __ takes place when our responses produce consequences.

Observational learning; Enactive learning

55

Human functioning is a product of the mutual interaction of environmental events, behavior and personal factors, a model called __.

Triadic Reciprocal Causation

56

__ and __ are two important environmental factors that influence people's lives in unplanned and unexpected ways.

Chance encounters; Fortuitous events

57

__ means that people can and do exercise a measure of control over their lives; __ occurs when people have the capacity to rely on others for goods and services; __ refers to the confidence that groups of people have that their combined efforts will produce social change

Human agency; Proxy agency; Collective efficacy

58

__ refers to people's beliefs that they are capable of performing those behaviors that can produce desired outcomes in a particular situation

Self-efficacy

59

People have some capacity for __, and they use both __, which provide us with standards for evaluating our behavior as well as external reinforcement in the form of rewards received from others; and __, which include self-observation, judgmental processes and self-reaction.

Self-regulation; External factors; Internal factors

60

Through __ and __, people can separate themselves from the injurious consequences of their actions.

Selective activation; Disengagement of internal control

61

Four principal techniques of selective activation and disengagement of internal control

Redefining behavior
Disregarding or distorting the consequences of behavior
Displacing or diffusing responsibility
Dehumanizing or blaming the victims

62

Identify the basic assumptions of Bandura's social-cognitive theory

-Plasticity
-Triadic reciprocal causation model
-Agentic perspective
-Self-regulation through intrinsic and extrinsic factors
-Moral agency

63

The core of observational learning; involves cognitive processes and not simply mimicry or imitatin

Modeling
Several factors determine whether a person will learn from a model in any particular situation: characteristics of the model, characteristics of the observer and consequences of behavior being modeled.

64

__ allows people to acquire new patterns of complex behavior through direct experience by thinking about and evaluating the consequences of their behaviors; __ is facilitated by observing appropriate activities, properly coding these events for representation in memory, actually performing the behavior and being sufficiently motivated

Enactive learning; Observation learning

65

In the triadic reciprocal causation model, __ is usually the strongest contributor to performance. It partially determines which environmental events people __ to, what __ they place on these events; and how they __ these events for future use.

Cognition (person); Attend; Value; Organize

66

__ is an environmental experience that is unexpected and unintended; __ is an unintended meeting of persons unfamiliar to each other

Fortuitous event; Chance encounter

67

Identify other personality theorists whose lives were greatly influenced by fortuity

Maslow (pushed to kiss his to-be wife)
Eysenck (initially wanted to study physics)
Bandura (studied psychology out of convenience)

68

__ adds a separate dimension in any scheme used to predict human behavior, and it makes accurate predictions practically impossible.

Fortuity

69

The essence of humanness; accounts for people who are self-regulating, proactive, self-reflective and self-organizing through an active process of exploring, manipulating and influencing the environment in order to attain desired outcomes

Human Agency
Refers to the capacity of humans to exercise control over their own lives

70

Identify the four core features of human agency according to Bandura

Intentionality (involves planning and actions)
Forethought (set goals, anticipate likely outcomes of actions and select behaviors that produce desired outcomes)
Self-reactiveness (monitor one's progress toward fulfilling choices)
Self-reflectiveness (think and evaluate motivations, values and meanings of life goals)

71

To Bandura, people's most crucial self-reflective mechanism and the foundation of human agency; relate to beliefs that they can or cannot execute the behavior necessary to produce desired outcomes in any particular situation

Self-efficacy

72

Bandura defined self-efficacy as "people's beliefs in their __ to exercise some measure of __ over their own __ and over __."

Bandura defined self-efficacy as "people's beliefs in their CAPABILITY to exercise some measure of CONTROL over their own FUNCTIONING and over ENVIRONMENTAL EVENTS."

73

__ refers to people's confidence that they have the ability to perform certain behaviors, whereas __ refers to one's prediction of the likely consequences of that behavior.

Efficacy; Outcome Expectancy

74

TRUE OR FALSE: Self-efficacy is not a global or generalized concept, such as self-esteem or self-confidence. People can have a high self-efficacy in one situation and low self-efficacy in another.

TRUE

75

High efficacy + responsive environment = People are likely __;
Low efficacy + responsive environment = __;
High efficacy + unresponsive environment = __;
Low efficacy + unresponsive environment = __

Successful;
Depressed;
Intensify efforts to change the environment / Seek a more responsive one;
Apathetic, resigned and helpless

76

Bandura defined collective efficacy as people's shared beliefs in their collective power to produce desired results. Identify the two techniques for measuring collective efficacy.

-Combine individual members' evaluations of their personal capabilities to enact behaviors that benefit the group
-Measure the confidence each person has in the group's ability to bring about a desired outcome

77

When people have high levels of __, are confident in their reliance on __, and possess solid __, they will have considerable capacity to regulate their own behavior.

Self-efficacy; Proxies; Collective efficacy

78

Bandura believes that people use two strategies for self-regulation. That is, they __ attempt to reduce the discrepancies between their accomplishments and their goal; but after they close those discrepancies, they __ set newer and higher goals for themselves.

Reactively; Proactively

79

Describe the external factors in self-regulation

-Provide us with a standard for evaluating our own behavior
-Provide the means for reinforcement (incentives)

80

Describe the internal factors in self-regulation

-Self-observation (monitor our own performance)
-Judgmental processes (evaluate our performance)
-Self-reaction (respond positively or negatively to our performance)

81

How do we judge or evaluate our performance according to Bandura?

-Personal standards (personal comparison)
-Standard of reference (comparison to other people or previous levels of accomplishment)
-Valuation of activity
-Performance attribution (cause of performance)

82

Identify the two aspects of moral agency according to Bandura

-Doing no harm to people
-Proactively helping people

83

Bandura proposes two concepts that operate under a person's moral agency. __ refers to the concept that self-regulatory influences are not automatic but operated only if they are activated; __ is when people justify the morality of their actions by separating or disengaging themselves from the consequences of their behavior.

Selective activation; Disengagement of internal control

84

Identify the techniques where people can justify otherwise reprehensible actions by a cognitive restructuring that allows them to minimize or escape responsibility

-Moral justification (reprehensible conduct is made defensible or noble)
-Palliative comparison (conduct is compared to even greater atrocities)
-Euphemistic labeling

85

Identify the techniques of distorting or obscuring the detrimental consequences of one's actions

-Minimize the consequences of behavior
-Disregard or ignore the consequences of behavior
-Distort or misconstrue the consequences of behavior

86

Differentiate displacement and diffuse responsibility

With displacement, people minimize the consequences of their actions by placing responsibility on an outside source. With diffuse responsibility, people spread it so thin that no one person is responsible.

87

Identify the three elements in the triadic reciprocal causation model

Person (cognition and neurophysiological processes)
Environment (interpersonal relations and socioeconomic conditions)
Behavioral (previous experiences with reinforcement)

88

Identify the three most important strategies employed by the social-cognitive therapist

-Induce specific behavioral changes
-Generalize those changes to other situations
-Maintain those changes by preventing relapse
(employs overt/vicarious modeling, covert/cognitive modeling and enactive mastery)

89

Identify what is being described by the following: Patients, while relaxed, enact the least threatening behavior and then gradually move through the hierarchy until they can perform the most threatening activity, all the while remaining at a low state of emotional arousal.

Systematic Desensitization
(developed by Wolpe)

90

Bandura believes that the reason for the effectiveness of the various strategies in social cognitive therapy can be traced to a common mechanism found in each of these approaches, namely __.

Cognitive Mediation

91

__ suggests that people who have high personal and collective efficacy and who make efficient use of proxies have a great amount of influence on their own actions.

Human agency

92

To Bandura, the number of options available to people and their right to exercise them

Freedom