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Flashcards in Psychological Assessment Deck (205):
0

What is intelligence?

Intelligence is the mental capacity to solve problems and adapt to the environment.

1

Who created the first intelligence measure?

Alfred Binet created the first intelligence measure, the Binet-Simon scale, and it was designed for French schools to identify students who would benefit from additional support.

2

He revised and expanded Binet's test for use in the United States and renamed it the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, which also included a formula for determining intelligence quotient (IQ).

Lewis Terman

3

He developed the field of psychometrics by applying key statistical concepts including correlation and percentile rank to studies on human intelligence and other factors.

Francis Galton

4

Which intelligence test allowed French schools to identify students who would benefit from additional support?

Binet-Simon scale. It is also the first intelligence measure created by Alfred Binet.

5

What is the formula that was developed by William Stern and was used for determining the intelligence quotient (IQ) of an individual?

Mental Age / Chronological Age x 100

6

He developed the formula for determining intelligence quotient (IQ), which is MA/CA x 100.

William Stern

7

It indicated that an individual was capable of reasoning at the level of a typical person at that chronological age.

Mental age. This concept was developed by Alfred Binet.

8

He suggested IQ tests were limited because thet measured intelligence only verbally so he devised a test that included both verbal and performance components to compute a total IQ score.

David Weschler. He also developed separate intelligence tests for adults (WAIS) and children (WISC) and used a scoring system based on normal distribution.

9

The psychologist responsible for creating the first intelligence measuring and for developing the concept of mental age.

Alfred Binet

10

What is David Weschler known for?

He is known for developing intelligence tests that included both verbal and performance components to compute a total IQ score.

11

He presented a two-factor theory of intelligence separating general and specific mental abilities.

Charles Spearman. He also utilized the statistical method of factor analysis which identified groups of associated ideas by combining like items.

12

Who developed the concept of mental age?

Alfred Binet developed the concept of mental age, which indicated an individual was capable of reasoning at the level of a typical person at that chronological age.

13

What could be derived by the formula MA/CA x 100?

Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

15

What is Alfred Binet known for?

He is known for creating the first intelligence measuring and for developing the concept of mental age.

16

What is William Stern known for?

He is known for developing the formula for determining Intelligence Quotient (IQ), which is MA/CA x 100.

17

A revision of the first intelligence measure, the Binet-Simon scale, which included a formula for determining intelligence quotient or IQ.

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale

17

What is Lewis Terman known for?

He is known for revising the first intelligence measure, the Simon-Binet scale, and renaming it the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. He was akso known for his longitudinal studies of gifted students whom he called Terman's Termites.

18

What is Charles Spearman known for?

He is known for presenting the two-factor theory of intelligence which separates general (g factor) and specific mental abilities (s factor), and for utilizing factor analysis.

19

What is the g factor?

Also called general intelligence. It refers to ability of individuals to solve complex problems.

20

It refers to ability of individuals to solve complex problems

g factor or general intelligence

21

What is Robert Sternberg known for?

He is known for the triarchic theory of intelligence which states that intelligence is dividedd into three aspects: practical, analytical and creative.

22

It refers to ability of an individual to utilize math or verbal skills.

s factor or specific mental abilities

24

He proposed the triarchic theory of intelligence, in which intelligence was divided into three aspects: practical, analytical and creative.

Robert Sternberg

25

What is the s factor?

Also called specific mental abilities. It refers to ability of an individual to utilize math or verbal skills.

26

According to Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence, it refers to the ressoning and problem solving that is evaluated by most intelligence tests.

Analytical intelligence

27

What does the two-factor theory of intelligence comprise?

The g-factor or general intelligence which is the ability of individuals to solve complex problems, and the s factor or specific mental abilities which referred to the ability of an individual to utilize math or verbal skills. These concepts were developed by Charles Spearman.

27

What statistical method did Spearman employ to discover that most cognitive skills are related to a single essential trait?

Factor analysis

28

According to Sternberg, what is practical intelligence?

Practical intelligence refers to the ability to adapt to changes in the environment.

30

According to Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence, it refers to the capacity to create new ideas and unique solutions to problems.

Creative intelligence

31

According to Sternberg, what is analytical intelligence?

Analytical intelligence refers to reasoning and problem solving that is evaluated by most intelligence tests.

32

It states that intelligence is not fixed and that all individuals possess at lesst eight different types of intelligences.

Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. According to this theory, the eight intelligences are linguistic, logical-mathematical, visual-spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal and naturalistic.

33

What are the eight intelligences according to Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences?

Linguistic, logical-mathematical, visual-spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal and naturalistic

34

What is the triarchic theory of intelligence?

It is a theory of intelligence proposed by Robert Sternberg which states that intelligence is divided into three aspects: practical, the ability to adapt to changes in the environment; analytical, the reasoning and problem solving that is evaluated by most intelligence tests; and creative, the capacity to create new ideas and unique solutions to problems.

35

Who proposed the multiple intelligences theory?

Howard Gardner. It states that intelligence is not fixed and that all individual possess at least eight different types of intelligence.

36

What did Charles Spearman discover by utilizing factor analysis?

He discovered that most cognitive skills are related to a single essential trait he called general mental ability or g factor intelligence.

36

According to Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence, it is the ability to adapt to changes in the environment.

Practical intelligence

37

According to Sternberg, what is creative intelligence?

Creative intelligence refers to the capacity to create new ideas and unique solutions to problems.

38

What does the multiple intelligences theory state?

It states that intelligence is not fixed and that all individuals possess at least eight different types of intelligence. This theory was proposed by Howard Gardner.

39

It is engaged in the design and analysis of quantitative tests for measuring psychological variables such as intelligence and personality tests.

Psychometrics

40

What is psychometrics?

It is a field engaged in the design and analysis of quantitative tests for measuring psychological variables such as intelligence and personality tests.

41

What tests are used to predict future success and assess the ability to acquire new skills?

Aptitude tests

42

What are aptitude tests?

Aptitude tests are used to predict future success and assess the ability to acquire new skills.

43

What tests are used to evaluate how well a person has mastered a subject?

Achievement tests

44

What are achievement tests?

Achievement tests evaluate how well a person has mastered a subject.

45

What are the three major aspects of psychometrics in terms of tests construction?

Standardization, reliability and validity

46

What is standardization?

It involves utilizing scores from a representative sample to determine how well an individual did on the test relative to other test takers, and creating similar testing conditions for all individuals taking the exam to prevent any potentially confounding variables.

47

Intelligence tests originally indicated a ratio between a person's mental age and chronological age, but modern tests are based on a normal distribution created through ____________.

Standardization

48

It involves utilizing scores from a representative sample to determine how well an individual did on the test relative to other test takers, and creating similar testing conditions for all individuals taking the exam to prevent any potentially confounding variables.

Standardization

49

Normal distributions of scores form _____ curves in which the _____, ______, and ______ are equal and located in the ______ of the distribution and the percentages of scores falling between _____ are fixed by a formula.

Normal distributions of scores form symmetrical bell-shaped curves in which the mean, median and mod are equal and located in the center of the distribution and the percentages of scores falling between standard deviations are fixed by a formula.

50

In a normal distribution, how many % of scores fall within: one standard deviation, two standard deviations and three standard deviations of the mean in either direction?

68%, 95% and 98% respectively

51

It involves testing the same individuals twice but giving a different version on the retake date.

Alternate form reliability

52

It is the degree to which a psychological test is consistent or dependable.

Reliability

53

What is reliability?

Reliability is the degree to which a psychological test such as an IQ test is consistent or dependability. It is determined by utilizing three main methods: Test-retest, alternate form and split-half reliability.

54

What is test-retest reliability?

It is computed by having the same individuals take the same test at two different times.

55

Because percentages in normal distribution are fixed, it is possible to compute the ________, or the percentage of scores in a distribution below the score you are considering.

Percentile rank

56

It is the percentage of scores in a distribution below the score you are considering.

Percentile rank

57

It involves testing the same individuals twice but giving a different version on the retake date.

Alternate form reliability

58

It is computed by having the same individuals take the same test at two different times.

Test-retest reliability

59

It involves checking for consistency between the scores on two halves of the same test, which can mean comparing the first half to the second half of the test or even questions to odd.

Split-half reliability

60

It is the degree to which a particularly psychological test is accurate and inferences drawn from the results are correct.

Validity

61

What are the three main methods to determine if a test is reliable?

Test-retest, alternate form and split-half reliability

62

It involves checking for consistency between the scores on two halves of the same test, which can mean comparing the first half to the second half of the test or even questions to odd.

Split-half reliability

63

It evaluates how well a test measures the total meaning of the concept and if it is reasonably representative of the material it is evaluating.

Content validity

64

What is validity?

Validity is the degree to which a particularly psychological test is accurate and inferences drawn from the results are correct. It can be determined by content validity, construct validity and criterion or predictive validity.

65

Criterion validity is also called _________ validity.

Predictive

66

It refers to how well test results relate to another measure of what you are evaluating or how well they predict success in the future.

Criterion or predictive validity

67

Individuals with moderate mental retardation have IQ scores between ______.

35 and 49

68

What is construct validity?

It refers to whether a test is really evaluating an abstract psychological or theoretical idea.

69

Predictive validity is also called _________ validity.

Criterion

70

It refers to whether a test is really evaluating an abstract psychological or theoretical idea.

Construct validity. Additionally, constructs are difficult to measure and define operationally and include ideas such as extraversion or intelligence.

71

Individuals with mild mental retardation have IQ scores between ______.

50 and 70. Such individuals are capable of achieving sixth-grade education levels and living independently.

72

What is content validity?

It evaluates how well a test measures the total meaning of the concept and if it is reasonably representative of the material it is evaluating.

72

What is criterion or predictive validity?

It refers to how well test results relate to another measure of what you are evaluating or how well they predict success in the future.

74

Mental retardation: IQ is to Intellectual disability: ________

Adaptive functioning
In DSM-IV-TR, mental retardation is determine by using IQ as severity scale. In DSM-V, adaption functioning was used as severity scale to determine intellectual disability.

75

Individuals with severe mental retardation have IQ scores between ______.

20 and 34

76

A term used to refer to individuals with extremely high IQ scores.

Gifted

77

Individuals with profound mental retardation have IQ scores ______.

Below 20

79

DSM-IV-TR: mental retardation is to DSM-V: _________

Intellectual disability.
In DSM-IV-TR, mental retardation is determine by using IQ as severity scale. In DSM-V, adaption functioning was used as severity scale to determine intellectual disability.

79

External causes related to problems during pregnancy such as malnutrition, exposure to toxins, fetal alcohol syndrome and injuries during birth can lead to ______.

Mental retardation

80

What can eliminate racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, and gender biases in psychological testing?

Culture-fair tests

81

Terman's Termites refer to ______.

A group of gifted students whom Lewis Terman included in longitudinal studies. They scored higher than average in terms of family income, physical and mental health and reported happiness.

83

It is a known cause of mental retardation in which individuals are born with all or part of an extra chromosome.

Down syndrome

84

What is the Flynn effect?

It is the finding that IQ scores have been steadily improving across generations. It is generally considered to have an environmental basis such as better education and nutrition, since 100 years is not long enough to create an evolutionary change.

85

It is the finding that IQ scores have been steadily improving across generations. It is generally considered to have an environmental basis such as better education and nutrition rather than an evolutionary change.

Flynn effect

86

What did Terman found out about gifted individuals?

They scored higher than average in terms of family income, physical and mental health, and reported happiness.

86

It is a potential cause for the gap in intelligence scores among groups and results when individuals are reminded of a negative stereotype about a group they belong to prior to a test, which results in their scoring lower.

Stereotype threat

87

What is stereotype threat?

It is a potential cause for the gap in intelligence scores among groups and results when individuals are reminded of a negative stereotype about a group they belong to prior to a test, which results in their scoring lower.

88

What are culture-fair tests?

They are tests that reduce differences related to ethnicity, culture and gender existing within Western societies that can affect test performance.

89

The person who revised the first IQ test to include tests items for adults and the use of an IQ formula.

Lewis Terman

90

The person who founded psychometrics and the concept of nature versus nurture.

Sir Francis Galton

91

The person who created the first method for measuring intelligence and created the concept of mental age, but his test did not use the IQ formula or norms.

Alfred Binet

92

The person who collaborated with Binet to create the Simon-Binet test.

Theodore Simon

93

The person who developed a theory of intelligence based on g and s factors.

Charles Spearman

94

The statistical process that reveals common aspects among large groups of variables is known as ___.

Factor analysis

95

It refers to the increase in average IQ scores with each successive generation.

Flynn effect

96

It refers to a self-fulfilling prophecy that results if before taking the assessment, test takers are reminded of a negative stereotype about the performance of a group they belong to.

Stereotype threat

97

It refers to a test's ability to measure an abstract idea.

Construct validity

98

It refers to how well a test measures the complete meaning of a concept.

Content validity

99

The SAT is designed to predict success in college, which makes SAT a(n) ________.

Aptitude test

100

Tests that are designed to evaluate people's capacity to understand emotions in themselves and others.

Emotional intelligence tests

101

Tests that are flawed assessments because they provide an advantage to members of one group over another.

Culture-biased tests

102

Tests that evaluate how well an individual has mastered a particular subject.

Achievement tests

103

Psychologists creating an assessment tool to determine if individuals would be well suited to a career in air traffic control first administer the exam to a representative sample to serve as a source of comparison and make certain that all individuals take the test under the same testing conditions. The psychologists are focused on establishing ____.

Standardization

104

It refers to accuracy in a test.

Validity

105

It involves creating a comparison group for the creation of norms and maintaining consistent testing conditions for all participants.

Standardization

106

It refers to methods to determine whether a test gives the same results over multiple results.

Reliability

107

Charles Spearman referred to the ability of individuals to solve complex problems as ____.

g factor intelligence / general intelligence

108

They refer to intelligence tests that evaluate without the use of verbal measures.

Performance scales

109

Principal Scott created a math readiness test to give to eighth graders prior to entering high school. He chose a representative group of students to give the test to and compared each student's scores on odd versus even questions. He found a strong positive correlation between the odd and even scores, which gave him evidence that the test he made had ____.

Split-half reliability

110

It refers to how well a test measures the total meaning of the concept and whether it includes a reasonable representation of the material it is evaluating.

Content validity

111

It involves evaluting a test by having two or more individuals give the same score.

Inter-rater reliability

112

It involves having the same individuals retake the same test and then comparing the scores.

Test-retest reliability

113

The mean for IQ scores is ____ and the standard deviation is _____.

100; 15

114

About __ percent of IQ scores fall between 70 and 115.

81.5

115

Comparing average IQ scored from the original Stanford-Binet test to the scores of individuals taking the current version provides support for ____.

The Flynn effect
The average scores on the original Weschler Intelligence test would ne lower than on the current version, providing evidence for the Flynn effect, which shows that IQ scores have been rising with each successive generation.

116

It is a theory by Howard Gardner that states that there are actually eight different ways in which to be intelligent.

Multiple intelligences

117

It is a test development tool that involves comparing scores to a representative sample group and ensuring that all test takers have the same testing conditions.

Standardization

118

It is the idea that reminding individuals about a negative stereotype relating to a group they belong to prior to taking a test results in lower scores.

Stereotype threat

119

It is a statistical procedure used in psychometrics that identified groups of related items and combines them to create fewer overall categories.

Factor analysis

120

Who is the psychologist famous for a landmark longitudinal study of gifted individuals?

Lewis Terman

121

Ms. Dorsey asks other psychology teachers at her school to look over the final exam that she created for her psychology class to ensure that the test fairly represents the material covered during the semester. Ms. Dorsey is having others assist her in evaluating her exam for ___.

Content validity

122

It is a tool for determining if the test is consistent by comparing scores on two halves of the same test for a high positive correlation.

Split-half reliability

123

It is used to check consistency in a test by having the same individuals take the same assessment on two different occasions and looking for a high positive correlation between the two scores.

Test-retest reliability

124

It involves evaluating a test for accuracy in terms of how well the results match up to another measure or how well they predict future success.

Criterion validity

125

An eight-year-old child who scores as well as a typical ten-year-old would have an IQ score of ___.

125

126

Women in studies have been found to score lower on math tests when they are tested in the same location as men if they are reminded of the belief that males typically outscore females in math. This highlights the concept of ___.

Stereotype threat

127

It refers to a person's ability to succeed in a variety of environments and is sometimes referred to as "street smarts."

Practical intelligence

128

It refers to a person's skill at generating unique solutions and ideas.

Creative intelligence

129

After taking the ACT and receiving a 29, Mario decides to retake it the following month. Although he is given a different version of the test, he ends up with a score of 30. One resson his two scores are so close is that the ACT has strong __.

Alternate form reliability

130

It would involve having a nonexpert evaluate whether or not the test fairly covered the material it was designed to test.

Face validity

131

The aspect of Sternberg's triachic theory of intelligence that is typically measured by traditional IQ tests is ___.

Analytical intelligence

132

The psychologist who pioneered psychometrics by creating concepts like percentile rank and correlation.

Sir Francis Galton

133

Who founded the first psychology laboratory? When and where?

William Lundt. 1879, University of Leipzig (Germany)

134

Who showed that higher mental processes could be studied empirically using good experimental methodology?

Hermann Ebbinghaus
He also studied memory using nonsense syllables.

135

Who strongly believed that there could be imageless thought, as opposed to Wundt's belief that there could be no thought without a mental image?

Oswald Kulpe

136

Who introduced mental testing to the United States?

James McKeen Cattell

137

In what year did Simon and Binet publish the first intelligence measure?

1905

138

In what year did Terman revised the first intelligence measure for use in the US

1916

139

What is a hypothesis?

It is a tentative and testable explanation of the relationship between two or more variables.

140

It is a tentative and testable explanation of the relationship between two or more variables.

Hypothesis

141

What is a variable?

It is a characteristic or property that varies in amount or kind, and can be measured (e.g. Height, weight, mental abilities, physical abilities, personality characteristics).

142

It is a characteristic or property that varies in amount or kind, and can be measured.

Variable

143

It states how the reseacher will measure the variables.

Operational definition

144

What is the independent variable?

It is the variable whose effect is being studied and is the variable that the experimenter manipulates.

145

It is the variable whose effect is being studied and is the variable that the experimenter manipulates.

Independent variable (IV)

146

What is the dependent variable?

It is the response that is expected to vary with differences in the independent variable.

147

It is the response that is expected to vary with differences in the independent variable.

Dependent variable (DV)

148

What are the three basic types of research?

True experiments, quasi-experiments and correlational studies

149

It is a type of research wherein the researcher does not intervene and measures behavior as it naturally occurs.

Naturalistic observation

150

It is a type of research wherein the independent variable is not manipulated.

Correlational study

151

It is a type of research wherein the independent variable is manipulated and the subjects are not randomly assigned to groups.

Quasi-experiment

152

It is a type of research wherein the independent variable is manipulated and the subjects are randomly assigned to groups.

True experiment

153

It refers to a subset of the population that is representative of the population of interest.

Sample

154

One technique for selecting a sample where each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample.

Random selection or random sampling

155

A sampling technique of assuring that each subgroup of the population is randomly sample in proportion to its size.

Stratified random sampling

156

It is the group the researcher wishes to generalize the results to.

Population

157

What are the three options to decide which subjects will receive the different levels of the IV?

Between-subjects, matched-subjects and within-subjects design

158

A kind of experimental design where each subject is exposed to only one level of each independent variable.

Between-subjects design

159

A kind of experimental design where the experimenter could match subjects on the basis of the variable that he wants to control.

Matched-subjects variable

160

Within-subjects design is also called __.

Repeated measures design

161

A kind of experimental design where each subject is exposed to all levels of the independent variable.

Within-subjects design

162

What are the pitfalls of the within-subjects experimental design?

With regards to test performance, people may just do better on the second test because they are more familiar with the test format or they may do worse because of boredom.

163

It is used to reduce the pitfalls of within-subjects design, in which all subjects will still experience both levels, just in different orders.

Counterbalancing

164

Confounding variables or those that differentially affect the dependent variable are also called ___.

Extraneous variables

165

In this kind of design, the control group is not necessarily similar to the experimental group since the researcher doesn't use random assignment.

Nonequivalent group design

166

It refers to the experimenter's expectations or attitudes that can affect results.

Experimenter bias

167

It refer to any cues that suggest to subjects what the researcher expects from them.

Demand characteristics

168

A type of demand characteritic where a placebo has a beneficial effect on the subjects.

Placebo effect

169

One way to control for experimenter bias wherein neither the researcher who interacts with the subjects nor the subjects themselves know which groups received the IV or which level of the IV.

Double-blinding

170

It refers to the tendency of people to behave differently if they know that they are being observed.

Hawthorne effect

171

It refers to how generalizable the results of an experiment are.

External validity

172

What are the two basic types of statistics?

Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics

173

It is concerned with organizing, describing, quantifying and summarizing a collection of actual observations.

Descriptive statistics

174

It is concerned with making an inference from the sample involved in the research to the population of interest and providing an estimate of popular characteristics.

Inferential statistics

175

What are the measures of central tendency?

Mean, median and mode

176

What are the measures of variability or dispersion?

Standard deviation, range and variance

177

It is the value of the most frequent observation in a set of scores.

Mode

178

If all the values in a distribution occur with equal frequency, that distribution has how many mode(s)?

0

179

It is the middle value when observations are ordered from least to most or from most to least or the number that divides the distribution in half.

Median

180

If you have an even number of data points, how do you get the median?

Add the two middle-most numbers and divide by two

181

It is the numerical halfway point between the highest score and the lowest score, the arithmetic avergae.

Mean

182

It refer to extreme scores that affect the mean, median and mode differently.

Outliers

183

What is the measure of central tendency most sensitive to extreme scores?

Mean

184

It is the smallest number in the distribution subtracted from the largest number.

Range

185

It provides a measure of the typical distance of scores from the mean.

Standard deviation

186

It is the square of the standard deviation and is a description of how much each score varies from the mean.

Variance

187

TRUE OR FALSE: Both the standard deviation and the variance must be either 0 or a positive number, sincere there can be no negative values to these measures of distance.

TRUE

188

It indicates the percentage of scores that fall at or below a given score.

Percentile

189

It indicates the number of standard deviations your score is away from the mean.

z-Score

190

Describe the normal distribution.

About 68% of the scores within 1 SD of the mean; about 96% of the scores fall within 2 SD of the mean

191

What is a type of descriptive statistic that measure to what extent two variables are related?

Correlation coefficients

192

They help us understand the relationship and degree of association between two variables?

Correlations

193

Give the possible range of correlation coefficients.

-1.00 to +1.00

194

If two variables have a ____, it means that a change in value of one of the variables tends to be associated with a change in the same direction of the value of the other variable.

Positive correlation

195

If two variables have a ____, a change in value of one of the variables tends to be associated with a change in the opposite direction of the other variable.

Negative correlation

196

TRUE OR FALSE: Correlations show a cause-and-effect relationship.

FALSE

197

What does the numerical value in a correlation coefficient tell us about the relationship between two variables?

It tells us how strong the relationship is. The closer the correlation coefficient is to +1 or -1, the more sure we can be of our prediction.

198

Describe the perfect correlation.

A relationship between two variables with a correlation coefficient of either +1 or -1.

199

If two variables have ___ correlation, knowing the value of the first variable does not at all help you predict the value of the second variable.

Zero (0)

200

If two variables have ___ correlation, then given a value of one variable, you can predict, with absolute certainty, the value of the second variable.

Perfect (+1 or -1)

201

It is the graphical representation of correlational data.

Scatterplot

202

Correlation is also the cornerstone of a statistical technique known as ___.

Factor analysis

203

It attempts to account for the interrelationships found among various variables by seeing how groups of variables "hang together."

Factor analysis

204

It allows us to use a relatively small batch of actual observations to make conclusions about the entire population of interest.

Inferential statistics