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Flashcards in Theories of Personality Deck (693):
1

A pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics that give both consistency and individuality to a person's behavior

Personality
Originated from the Latin word "persona" which means theatrical mask

2

__ contribute to individual differences in behavior, consistency of behavior over time and stability of behavior across situations.

Traits

3

__ are unique qualities of an individual that include such attributes as temperament, physique and intelligence.

Characteristics

4

A set of related assumptions that allows scientists to use logical deductive reasoning to formulate testable hypotheses

Theory

5

It is the job of an imaginative scientist to begin with the general __, and, through __ reasoning, arrive at a particular __ that can be tested.

Theory; Deductive; Hypothesis

6

A branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of knowledge

Epistemology
(Theory relates most closely to this branch of philosophy, because it is a tool used by scientists in their pursuit of knowledge.)

7

The branch of study concerned with observation and classification of data with the verification of general laws through the testing of hypotheses

Science

8

An educated guess or prediction specific enough for its validity to be tested through the use of the scientific method

Hypothesis

9

A classification of things according to their natural relationships

Taxonomy

10

Examines how scientists' personalities, cognitive processes, developmental histories and social experience affect the kind of science they conduct and the theories they create

Psychology of Science

11

Enumerate the six criteria that determine the usefulness of a scientific theory

1. Generates Research
2. Is Falsifiable
3. Organizes Data
4. Guides Action
5. Is Internally Consistent
6. Is Parsimonious

12

A kind of research that is concerned with the measurement, labeling and categorization of the units employed in theory building

Descriptive Research

13

The kind of research generated by a useful theory which leads to an indirect verification of the usefulness of the theory

Hypothesis Testing

14

A theory must be evaluated on its ability to be confirmed or disconfirmed; that is, it must be __.

Falsifiable

15

Scientists cannot ask intelligent questions without a __ that organizes their information.

Theoretical Framework

16

A theory which components are logically compatible, limitations of scope are carefully defined, does not offer explanations that lie beyond that scope, and uses language in a consistent manner is said to be __.

Internally consistent

17

One that defines units in terms of observable events or behaviors that can be measured

Operational Definition

18

Enumerate the six dimensions used as a framework for viewing each theorist's concept of humanity

1. Determinism vs Free Choice
2. Pessimism vs Optimism
3. Causality vs Teleology
4. Conscious vs Unconscious determinants of behavior
5. Biological vs Social influences on personality
6. Uniqueness vs Similarities

19

The degree to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to measure

Validity

20

The extent to which a measuring instrument yields consistent results

Reliability

21

A measuring instrument has __ construct validity to the extent that scores on that instrument correlate highly with scores on a variety of valid measures of that same construct.

Convergent

22

An inventory has __ construct validity if it has low or insignificant correlations with other inventories that do not measure that construct.

Divergent

23

An inventory has __ construct validity if it discriminates between two groups of people known to be different.

Discriminant
(ex. a personality inventory measuring extraversion should yield higher scores for people known to be extraverted than for people known to be introverted)

24

The extent that a test predicts some future behavior

Predictive Validity

25

The school of psychology founded by John B. Watson that focused on psychology as the study of overt behavior rather than of mental processes

Behaviorism

26

Sigmund Freud's theory of personality and system of therapy for treating mental disorders

Psychoanalysis
(started in 1890s)

27

In what year did the study of personality became formalized and systematized in American psychology? Primarily through the work of which personality theorist?

1930s; Gordon Allport (at Harvard U)

28

Allport's landmark book that is generally considered to mark the formal beginning of the study of personality

'Personality: A Psychological Interpretation'

29

The unique, relatively enduring internal and external aspects of a person's character that influence behavior in different situations

Personality

30

The consistency of response to a psychological assessment device

Reliability

31

The extent to which an assessment device measures what it is intended to measure

Validity

32

Enumerate the 5 major approaches to personality assessment

1. Self-report or objective inventories
2. Projective techniques
3. Clinical interviews
4. Behavioral assessment procedures
5. Thought and experience sampling procedures

33

A personality assessment technique in which subjects answer questions about their behaviors and feelings

Self-report Inventory

34

The world's most widely used psychological test and has been translated into more than 140 languages

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
(first published in 1943, revised in 1989, consists of 567 statements; MMPI-A for adolescents was developed in 1992 with 478 items)

35

A personality assessment device in which subjects are presumed to project personal needs, fears and values onto their interpretation or description of an ambiguous stimuli

Projective Test

36

Identify the two popular projective tests

Rorschach Inkblot Technique; Thematic Apperception Test

37

Who developed the Rorschach Inkblot Technique and when?

Hermann Rorschach; 1921
(inspired by the game Klecksographie / Blotto)

38

The most successful basis of the administration, scoring and interpretation of the Rorschach

Comprehensive System

39

Who developed the TAT and approximately when?

Henry Murray and Christiana Morgan; 1935

40

Interpretation of the response with sentence completion tests can be highly subjective. However, some sentence-completion tests, such as the __, provide for more objective scoring.

Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank

41

Used to obtain valuable information by talking to the person being evaluation and asking relevant questions about past and present life experiences, social and family relationships and the problems that led the person to seek psychological help

Clinical Interviews

42

In this approach, an observer evaluates a person's behavior in a given situation

Behavioral Assessment

43

A procedure in which a client is asked to write or record thoughts and moods for later analysis by the psychologist

Thought-Sampling Assessment

44

A variation of thought sampling in which the participants are also asked to describe the social and environmental context in which the experience being sampled occurs; the goal of this method is to determine how one's thoughts or moods may be influenced by the context in which they occur

Experience Sampling Method

45

Identify the 4 major methods used in personality research

1. Clinical Method
2. Experimental Method
3. Virtual Method
4. Correlational Method

46

__ is the fundamental defining characteristic of scientific research in any discipline.

Objective Observation

47

A detailed history of an individual that contains data from a variety of sources

Case Study / Case History

48

This kind of method in personality research produce faster responses, are less costly, and have the potential to reach a broader range of subjects

Virtual Method

49

A statistical technique that measures the degree of the relationship between two variables

Correlational Method
(expressed by the correlation coefficient)

50

Sets of principles used to explain a particular class of phenomena; provides the framework for simplifying and describing empirical data in a meaningful way

Theory

51

Theories that are based on data from observations of large numbers of people of diverse natures

Formal Theories

52

Theories that are derived from our observations of a limited number of persons - usually our small circle of relatives, friends and acquaintances

Personal Theories

53

Psychologists recognized that some personality theories have a __ component and may reflect events in that theorist's life as a sort of disguised autobiography.

Subjective

54

The first stage in constructing a theory may be based primarily on __, but in later stages these ideas may be modified and refined by the theorist's __ and __ knowledge,

Intuition; Rational and empirical

55

Considered by many scholars to have been the greatest American psychologist; he believed that biography was a crucial subject for anyone who attempts to study human nature

William James

56

The view that personality is basically fixed in the early years of life and subject to little change thereafter

Historical Determinism

57

A relatively new field of study of the large-scale cultural differences in brain activity and Genetic makeup

Cultural Neuroscience

58

Enumerate the several issues that can lead to different images of human nature by personality theorists

1. Free Will vs Determinism
2. Nature vs Nurture
3. Important of the Past vs Present
4. Uniqueness vs Universality
5. Equilibrium vs Growth
6. Optimism vs Pessimism

59

Personality theory has been influenced more by __ than by any other individual. His system of __ was the first formal theory of personality and is still the best known.

Sigmund Freud; Psychoanalysis

60

In Freud's system, mental representations of internal stimuli, such as hunger, that drive a person to take certain actions; basic elements of the personality, the motivating forces that drive behavior and determine its direction

Instincts
Freud's German term for this concept is 'Trieb'

61

The drive for ensuring survival of the individual and the species by satisfying the needs for food, water, air and sex

Life Instincts

62

To Freud, the form of psychic energy, manifested by the life instincts, that drives a person toward pleasurable behaviors and thoughts

Libido

63

An investment of psychic energy in an object or person

Cathexis

64

The unconscious drive toward decay, destruction and aggression

Death Instincts

65

The compulsion to destroy, conquer and kill

Aggressive Drive

66

To Freud, the aspect of personality allied with the instincts; the source of psychic energy

Id
Operated according to the pleasure principle

67

To Freud, it includes all the sensations and experiences of which we are aware at any given moment

Conscious

68

To Freud, contains the major driving power behind all behaviors and is the repository of forces we cannot see or control; home of the instincts, those wishes and desires that direct our behavior

Unconscious

69

To Freud, the storehouse of memories, perceptions and thoughts of which we are not consciously aware at the moment but that we can easily summon into consciousness

Preconscious

70

The principle by which the id functions to avoid pain and maximize pleasure

Pleasure Principle

71

Childlike thinking by which the id attempts to satisfy the instinctual drives

Primary Process Thinking

72

Mature thought processes needed to deal rationally with the external world

Secondary Process Thought

73

To Freud, the rational aspect of the personality, responsible for directing and controlling the instincts

Ego

74

The principle by which the ego functions to provide appropriate constraints on the expression of the id instincts

Reality Principle

75

Freud compared the relationship of the ego and the id to that of a __ on a __.

Rider; Horse

76

To Freud, the moral aspect of personality; the internalization of parental and societal values and standards

Superego

77

The basis of the moral side of the personality is usually learned by the age of __.

5 or 6
It consists initially of the rules of conduct set down by our parents.

78

A component of the superego that contains behaviors for which the child has been punished

Conscience

79

A component of the superego that contains the moral or ideal behaviors for which a person should strive

Ego Ideal

80

To Freud, a feeling of fear and dread without an obvious cause

Anxiety

81

Kind of anxiety that involves a fear of tangible dangers

Reality Anxiety / Objective Anxiety
(ex. fear of fires, hurricanes, earthquakes, wild animals, speeding cars, etc.)

82

Kind of anxiety that has its basis in childhood, in a conflict between instinctual gratification and reality; an unconscious fear of being punished for impulsively displaying id-dominated behavior; involves a conflict between id and ego

Neurotic Anxiety

83

A kind of anxiety which involves a fear of one's conscience; involves a conflict between id and superego

Moral Anxiety

84

The prototype of all anxiety; our first experience with anxiety

Birth Trauma

85

Strategies the ego uses to defend itself against the anxiety provoked by conflicts of everyday life

Defense Mechanisms

86

2 Characteristics of defense mechanisms

1. They are denials or distortions of reality
2. They operate unconsciously

87

A defense mechanism that involves unconscious denial of the existence of something that causes anxiety

Repression

88

A defense mechanism that involves denying the existence of an external threat or traumatic event

Denial

89

A defense mechanism that involves expressing an id impulse that is the opposite of the one that is truly driving the person

Reaction Formation

90

A defense mechanism that involves attributing a disturbing impulse to someone else

Projection

91

A defense mechanism that involves retreating to an earlier, less frustrating period of life and displaying the usually childish behaviors characteristic of that more secure time

Regression

92

A defense mechanism that involves reinterpreting our behavior to make it more acceptable and less threatening to us

Rationalization

93

A defense mechanism that involves shifting id impulses from a threatening object or from one that is unavailable to an object that is available

Displacement

94

A defense mechanism that involves altering or displacing id impulses by diverting instinctual energy into socially acceptable behaviors

Sublimation

95

A condition in which a portion of libido remains invested in one of the psychosexual stages because of excessive frustration or gratification

Fixation

96

Fixation in this substage of the oral psychosexual stage leads to unusual optimism and dependency; fixated individuals are overly gullible, swallow or believe anything they are told and trust other people inordinately

Oral Incorporative Stage
(such people are labeled oral passive personality types)

97

Fixation in this substage of oral psychosexual stage leads to excessive pessimism, hostility and aggressiveness; individuals are likely to be argumentative and sarcastic, making so-called biting remarks and displaying cruelty toward others

Oral Aggressive / Oral Sadistic Stage

98

Individuals with this personality exhibit hostile and sadistic behavior in adult life, including cruelty, destructiveness and temper tantrums

Anal Aggressive Personality

99

Individuals with this personality are likely to be rigid, compulsively neat, obstinate and overly conscientious

Anal Retentive Personality

100

During the phallic stage, the unconscious desire of a boy for his mother, accompanied by a desire to replace or destroy his father

Oedipus Complex

101

A boy's fear during the Oedipal period that his penis will be cut off

Castration Anxiety

102

During the phallic stage, the unconscious desire of a girl for her father, accompanied by a desire to replace or destroy her mother

Electra Complex

103

The envy the female feels toward the male because the male possesses a penis; this is accompanied by a sense of loss because the female does not have a penis

Penis Envy

104

Individuals who have difficulty establishing mature heterosexual relationships later in life are said by Freud to be likely fixated at this stage

Phallic Stage

105

How do boys and girls resolve the conflicts in the phallic stage?

Boys develops strong identification with the father; in girls it cannot be totally resolved which leads to poorly developed superegos in women (girls identify with the mother and repress her love for the father)

106

The three major structures of the personality have been formed by approximately the age of __.

5

107

To Freud, the period from approximately 5 to puberty, during which the sex instinct is dormant, sublimated in school activities, sports and hobbies, and in developing friendships with members of the same sex

Latency Period

108

The body is becoming physiologically mature and if no major fixations have occurred at an earlier stage of development, the individual may be able to lead a normal life

Genital Stage

109

In Freud's system, there is only one ultimate and necessary goal in life: __

To reduce tension

110

A technique in which the patient says whatever comes to mind; in other words, it is a kind of daydreaming out loud

Free Association

111

The expression of emotions to lead to the reduction of disturbing symptoms

Catharsis

112

In free association, a blockage or refusal to disclose painful memories

Resistance

113

A technique involving the interpretation of dreams to uncover unconscious conflicts

Dream Analysis

114

The actual events in the dream

Manifest Content

115

The symbolic meaning of the dream events

Latent Content

116

Freudian concepts supported by empirical research

Oral and anal personality types
Basic concept of the Oedipal triangle
Castration Anxiety
Resolution of the Oedipal dilemma in women by bearing a child
Unconscious
Repression
Projection
Displacement
Verbal Slips

117

Perception below the threshold of conscious awareness

Subliminal Perception

118

Component of the ego which refers to the amount of control we are able to exert over our impulses and feelings

Ego Control

119

Component of ego which refers to our flexibility in modulating, adjusting, or changing our typical level of ego control to meet the daily changes in our environment

Ego Resiliency

120

2 degrees of ego control

Under-controlled (in which we are unable to restrain any impulses and feelings) and Over-controlled (in which we tightly inhibit the expression of our impulses)

121

Define ego control in terms of 3 levels of development

1. Pre-Conformist Level (most primitive, allowing the least control over impulse expression)
2. Conformist Level (moderates impulse expressions in terms of our awareness of the expectations of others and culture's rules of social conduct)
3. Post-Conformist Level (most mature stage; rely more on personal goals)

122

Substantially revised orthodox psychoanalysis by expanding the role of the ego, arguing that the ego operates independently of the id; one significant contribution is the clarification and refinement of the operation of the defense mechanisms

Anna Freud

123

Outgrowths of psychoanalytic theory that focus more on relationships (such as the mother) that satisfy instinctual needs, rather than on the needs themselves

Object Relations Theories

124

Gave emphasis on the formation of the nuclear self which is described as the foundation for becoming an independent person, capable of taking initiative and integrating ambitions and ideals

Heinz Kohut

125

In object relations theory, the people who play such a vital role in our lives that, as infants, we believe they are part of our selves

Selfobjects

126

Emphasized that the first 5 to 6 months of a child's life, in contrast to Freud's stress on the first 5 years, are the basis of adult personality; assumed that babies are born with active fantasy lives that harbor mental representations of Freudian id instincts which the images temporarily satisfy

Melanie Klein

127

To Klein, the fantasies experienced in infancy

Inner Objects

128

Jung's theory of personality

Analytical Psychology

129

To Jung, a broader and more generalized form of psychic energy

Libido

130

Jung's term for personality

Psyche

131

Jung's idea that conflict between opposing processes or tendencies is necessary to generate psychic energy

Opposition Principle

132

The continuing redistribution of energy within a personality; if the energy expended on certain conditions or activities weakens or disappears, that energy is transferred elsewhere in the personality

Equivalence Principle

133

A tendency toward balance or equilibrium within the personality; the ideal is an equal distribution of psychic energy over all structures of the personality

Entropy Principle

134

To Jung, the conscious aspect of personality

Ego

135

An attitude of the psyche characterized by an orientation toward the external world and other people

Extraversion

136

An attitude of the psyche characterized by an orientation toward one's own thoughts and feelings

Introversion

137

Refer to different and opposing ways of perceiving or apprehending both the external real world and our subjective inner world

Psychological Functions
(namely Sensing, Intuiting, Thinking and Feeling)

138

To Jung, eight personality types based on interactions of the attitudes (introversion and extraversion) and the functions (thinking, feeling, sensing and intuiting)

Psychological Types

139

Individuals with this personality type are logical, objective and dogmatic; they live strictly in accordance with society's rules, tend to repress feelings and emotions, to be objective in all aspects of life and to be dogmatic in thoughts and opinions, they may be perceived as rigid and cold, their focus is on learning about the external world and using logical rules to describe and understand it

Extraverted Thinking

140

Individuals with this personality type are emotional, sensitive, sociable; more typical of women than men

Extraverted Feeling

141

Individuals with this personality type are outgoing, pleasure-seeking and adaptable to different kinds of people and changing situations

Extraverted Sensing

142

Individuals with this personality type are creative, able to motivate others and to seize opportunities; tend to find success in business and politics; attracted to new ideas, able to inspire others to accomplish and achieve; tend to be changeable, moving from one idea or venture to another

Extraverted Intuiting

143

Individuals with this personality type are more interested in ideas than in people; do not get along well with others and have difficulty communicating ideas; intensely concerned with privacy and prefer to deal with abstractions and theories

Introverted Thinking

144

Individuals with this personality type are reserved, undemonstrative, yet capable of deep emotion; seem mysterious and inaccessible and tend to be quiet, modest and childish; have little consideration for others' feelings and thoughts and appear withdrawn, cold and self-assured

Introverted Feeling

145

Individuals with this personality type are passive, calm, outwardly detached, expressing themselves in aesthetic pursuits

Introverted Sensing

146

Individuals with this personality type are concerned with the unconscious more than everyday reality; tend to be visionaries and daydreamers; considered odd and eccentric, have difficulty coping with everyday life and planning for the future

Introverted Intuiting

147

The reservoir of material that was once conscious but has been forgotten or suppressed

Personal Unconscious

148

To Jung, a core or pattern of emotions, memories, perceptions and wishes in the personal unconscious organized around a common theme, such as power or status

Complex

149

The deepest level of the psyche containing the accumulation of inherited experiences of human and pre-human species

Collective Unconscious

150

Images of universal experiences contained in the collective unconscious

Archetypes
(synonymous to primordial images)

151

The public face or role a person presents to others

Persona Archetype

152

Feminine aspects of the male psyche

Anima Archetype

153

Masculine aspects of the female psyche

Animus Archetype

154

The dark side of the personality; the archetype that contains primitive animal instincts

Shadow Archetype

155

To Jung, the archetype that represents the unity, integration and harmony of the total personality

Self Archetype

156

To Jung, the ego begins to develop in __, at first in a primitive way.

Early childhood

157

It is not until __ that the psyche assumes a definite form and content. It is this period that Jung called our psychic birth.

Puberty

158

Jung believed that major personality changes occur in __.

Middle age (between the ages of 35 and 40)

159

A condition of psychological health resulting from the integration of all conscious and unconscious facets of the personality

Individuation

160

An innate tendency toward unity or wholeness in the personality, uniting all the opposing aspects within the psyche; the next developmental stage once psyche is individuated

Transcendence

161

A projective technique in which a person responds to a stimulus word with whatever word comes ti mind

Word Association Test

162

Similar to catharsis, this technique focuses on the symptoms reported by the patient and attempts to interpret the patient's free associations to those symptoms

Symptom Analysis

163

A technique involving the interpretation of dreams to uncover unconscious conflicts

Dream Analysis

164

To Jung, dreams are __, that is they help us prepare for experiences and events we anticipate will occur; and dreams are __, they help bring about a balance between opposites in the psyche.

Prospective; Compensatory

165

An assessment test based on Jung's psychological types and the attitudes of introversion and extraversion

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
It is considered the most visible practical outgrowth of Jung's work on the human personality.

166

Who developed the MBTI and when?

Katharine Briggs and Isabel Myers; 1920s

167

Jung's type of case study that involves examining a person's past experiences to identify developmental patterns that may explain present neuroses

Life-History Reconstruction

168

To Jung, not only is the __ the source of evil, it is also the source of vitality, spontaneity, creativity and emotion.

Shadow

169

Major archetypes according to Jung

Persona
Anima and Animus
Shadow
Self

170

The anima and animus archetypes refer to Jung's recognition that humans are essentially __.

Bisexual

171

To Jung, the __ cannot begin to emerge until the other systems of the psyche have developed. This occurs around __, a crucial period of transition in Jung's system.

Self; Middle Age
(Individuation can occur only in middle age)

172

An assessment instrument deriving from Jung's approach and is a highly popular employee selection technique

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

173

Identify widely-accepted Jungian ideas

Word Association Test
Complexes
Introversion-Extraversion
Self-Actualization
Midlife Crisis

174

Adler's theory of personality

Individual Psychology
His approach focused on the uniqueness of each person and denied the universality of biological motives and goals.

175

To Adler, the normal condition of all people; the source of all human striving

Inferiority Feelings
Adler believed that inferiority feelings are always present as a motivating force in behavior.

176

To Adler, a motivation to overcome inferiority, to strive for higher levels of development

Compensation
Individual growth results from compensation, from our attempts to overcome our real or imagined inferiorities.

177

A condition that develops when a person is unable to compensate for normal inferiority feelings

Inferiority Complex
People with an inferiority complex have a poor opinion of themselves and feel helpless and unable to cope with the demands of life.

178

3 sources in childhood from which an inferiority can arise

1. Organic Inferiority (defective parts or organs of the body)
2. Spoiling (pampering, satisfying every need or whim)
3. Neglect (lack of love and security)

179

A condition that develops when a person overcompensates for normal inferiority feelings; involves an exaggerated opinion of one's abilities and accomplishments

Superiority Complex

180

The urge toward perfection or completion that motivates each of us

Striving for Superiority
Superiority is the ultimate goal toward which we strive. What Adler meant of this was a drive for perfection. Adler suggested that we strive for superiority to perfect ourselves, to make ourselves complete or whole.

181

The idea that there is an imagined or potential goal that guides our behavior

Fictional Finalism
Adler preferred the terms "subjective final goal" or "guiding self-ideal"

182

TRUE OR FALSE: Unlike Freud, Adler did not believe that our sole motivation was to reduce tension. Striving for perfection required great expenditures of energy and effort. And the striving for superiority is manifested both by the individual and by society.

TRUE

183

A unique character structure or pattern of personal behaviors and characteristics by which each of us strives for perfection

Style of life

184

The ability to create an appropriate style of life

Creative Power of the Self

185

Enumerate the 3 universal problems according to Adler

1. Problems involving our behavior toward others
2. Problems of occupation
3. Problems of love

186

Identify the 4 basic styles of life for dealing with these problems

1. Dominant Type (dominant or ruling attitude with litle social awareness)
2. Getting Type (dependent on others)
3. Avoiding Type (no attempt to face life's problems)
4. Socially Useful Type (cooperates with others)

187

According to Adler, what is the cause of abnormal behavior?

Clash between style of life and the real world, manifested in neuroses and psychoses

188

Our innate potential to cooperate with other people to achieve personal and societal goals

Social Interest
from German term 'Gemeinschaftsgefuhl' or 'community feeling'

189

One of Adler's most enduring contributions is the idea that __ is a major social influence in childhood, one from which we create our style of life.

Order of Birth

190

Adler believed that __ take an unusual interest in maintaining order and authority. They become good organizers, conscientious and scrupulous about detail, authoritarian and conservative in attitude.

First-borns

191

TRUE OR FALSE: Adler liked to use humor in his therapy, sometimes teasing his patients in a light-hearted, friendly way.

TRUE

192

Adler's primary methods of assessment

Order of Birth
Early Recollections
Dream Analysis

193

Adler's purpose in assessing personality was to discover the patient's __ and to determine whether it was the most appropriate one for that person.

Style of Life

194

A personality assessment technique in which our earliest memories, whether of real events of fantasies, are assumed to reveal the primary interest of our life

Early Recollections
(According to Adler, our personality is created during the first four or five years of life.)

195

How did Adler view the dreams of his patients?

Adler believed that dreams involve our feelings about a current problem and what we intend to do about it.

196

Identify the most common measures for Adlerian concepts

Social Interest Scale
Social Interest Index
Basic Adlerian Scales for Interpersonal Success

197

4 types of pampering in childhood according to research

Overindulgence
Overpermissiveness
Overdomination
Overprotection

198

Identify specific Adlerian concepts of lasting importance to psychology

Early work on organic inferiority
Inferiority complex
Compensation
Order of bith

199

Who primarily developed Adlerian counseling techniques?

Rudolph Dreikurs

200

__ are the source of all human striving, which results from our attempts to compensate for these feelings.

Inferiority Feelings

201

Inferiority feelings are universal and are determined by the infant's __ and __ on adults.

Helplessness and dependency

202

__ (that is, an inability to solve life's problems) results from being unable to compensate for inferiority feelings.

Inferiority Complex

203

An inferiority complex can originate in childhood through __, __ or __.

Organic inferiority, spoiling or neglect

204

__ (an exaggerated opinion of one's abilities and accomplishments) results from __.

Superiority Complex; Overcompensation

205

Our ultimate goal, according to Adler, is __; that is making the personality whole or complete.

Superiority or perfection

206

__ refers to unique patterns of characteristics and behaviors by which we strive for perfection.

Style of life

207

__ refers to fictional ideas, such as perfection, that guide our behavior.

Fictional Finalism

208

The __ refers to our ability to create our selves from the materials provided by our heredity and environment.

Creative Power of the Self

209

__ is innate but the extent to which it is realized depends on early social experiences.

Social Interest

210

Horney believed that __ forces in childhood, not biological forces, influence personality development.

Social

211

A higher-level need for security and freedom from fear according to Horney

Safety Need
To Horney, whether the infant experiences a feeling of security and an absence of fear is decisive in determining the normality of his or her personality development.

212

A pervasive feeling of loneliness and helplessness; the foundation of neurosis

Basic Anxiety

213

According to Horney, how do we protect/defend ourselves against basic anxiety?

Securing affection and love
Being submissive
Attaining power
Withdrawing

214

Ten irrational defenses against anxiety that become a permanent part of personality and that affect behavior

Neurotic Needs
(irrational solutions to one's problems; these needs encompass the 4 ways of protecting ourselves against anxiety)

215

Enumerate the 10 neurotic needs organized under the 4 ways of protecting ourselves against anxiety

Securing affection and love: 1. Affection and approval
Being submissive: 2. A dominant partner
Attaining power: 3. Power; 4. Exploitation; 5. Prestige; 6. Admiration; 7. Achievement or Ambition
Withdrawing: 8. Self-sufficiency; 9. Perfection; 10. Narrow limits to life

216

The categories of behaviors and attitudes toward oneself and others that express a person's needs; Horney's revision of the concept of neurotic needs

Neurotic Trends

217

Identify the neurotic trends

1. Movement toward other people
2. Movement against other people
3. Movement away from other people

218

Behaviors and attitudes associated with the neurotic trend of moving toward people, such as a need for affection and approval

Compliant Personality
Individuals seem unusually considerate, appreciative, responsive, understanding and sensitive to the needs of others.

219

Behaviors and attitudes associated with the neurotic trend of moving against people, such as a domineering and controlling manner

Aggressive Personality
Individuals act tough and domineering and have no regard for others; they are likely to argue, criticize, demand, and do whatever is necessary to achieve and retain superiority and power.

220

Behaviors and attitudes associated with the neurotic trend of moving away from people, such as an intense need for privacy

Detached Personality
Individuals have an almost desperate desire for privacy; need independence; tend to avoid long-term commitments; place great stress on reason, logic and intelligence

221

To Horney, the basic incompatibility of the neurotic trends and the core of neurosis

Conflict

222

According to Horney, the normal person is __ in behaviors and attitudes and can __ to changing situations

Flexible; Adapt

223

Described the idealized self-image of normal people vs neurotics

Normal people: self-image is an idealized picture of oneself built on a flexible, realistic assessment of one's abilities
Neurotics: self-image is based on an inflexible, unrealistic self-appraisal

224

An attempt to realize an unattainable idealized self-image by denying the true self and behaving in terms of what we think we should be doing

Tyranny of the Shoulds

225

A way to defend against the conflict caused by the discrepancy between an idealized and a real self-image by projecting the conflict onto the outside world

Externalization

226

To Horney, a revision of psychoanalysis to encompass the psychological conflicts inherent in the traditional ideal of womanhood and women's roles

Feminine Psychology

227

The envy a male feels toward a female because she can bear children and he cannot

Womb Envy
Horney's response to Freud's concept of penis envy in females

228

As a result of feelings of inferiority, woman may choose to deny their feminity and to wish, unconsciously, that they were men. Horney referred to this as the __, a condition that can lead to sexual inhibitions.

Flight from Womanhood

229

To Horney, __ is our ultimate and necessary goal in life.

Self-Realization

230

Unlike Freud, in using this technique, Horney focused on her patient's visible emotional reactions toward her, believing that these could explain her patient's attitudes toward other people.

Free Association

231

Horney believed that __ could reveal a person's true self, and they represented attempts to solve problems, in either a constructive or a neurotic way.

Dream Analysis

232

Enumerate tests devised to evaluated Horney's neurotic trends

Compliant, Aggressive and Detached (CAD)
Horney-Coolidge Type Indicator

233

An indiscriminate need to win at all costs

Neurotic Competitiveness

234

The twin cornerstones of psychoanalysis; according to Freud are the two major sources of motivation

Sex and Aggression

235

Origin of the term psycho-analysis

Psychical Analysis

236

A Berlin physician who served as sounding board for Freud's newly developing ideas; their correspondence constitute a firsthand account of the beginnings of psychoanalysis and reveal the embryonic stage of Freudian theory

Wilhelm Fliess

237

Freud's official biographer who believed that Freud suffered from a severe psychoneurosis during the late 1890s

Ernest Jones

238

Freud's personal physician during the final decade of his life

Max Schur

239

A period in Freud's life characterized by depression, neurosis, psychosomatic ailments and an intense preoccupation with some form of creative activity

Creative Illness

240

Freud's greatest work

'Interpretation of Dreams'

241

To Freud, a portion of our unconscious originates from the experiences of our early ancestors that have been passed on to us through hundreds of generations of repetition; he called these inherited unconscious image as __

Phylogenetic Endowment
(When explanations built on individual experiences were not adequate, Freud would turn to the idea of collectively inherited experiences to fill in the gaps.)

242

Identify the German and English translations of the 3 personality structures according to Freud

ID = das Es = "it"
Ego = das Ich = "I"
Superego = das Uber-Ich = "over-I"

243

Identify the corresponding principles that the id, ego and superego operates

Id = pleasure principle
Ego = reality principle
Superego = moralistic / idealistic principle

244

Identify the 2 subsystems of the superego

Conscience (results from experiences with punishments for improper behavior; what we should not do)
Ego Ideal (develops from experiences with rewards for proper behavior; what we should do)

245

A well-developed superego acts to control sexual and aggressive impulses through the process of __.

Repression

246

A universal condition whereby infants are primarily self-centered, with their libido invested almost exclusively on their own ego

Primary Narcissism

247

A condition whereby children give up much of their primary narcissism and develop a greater interest in other people only to redirect their libido back to the ego and become preoccupied with personal appearance and other self-interests during puberty

Secondary Narcissism

248

The need for sexual pleasure by inflicting pain or humiliation on another person

Sadism
(Carried to an extreme, considered a sexual perversion; in moderation, common need and exists to some extent in all sexual relationships)

249

The need to experience sexual pleasure from suffering pain and humiliation inflicted either by themselves or by others

Masochism

250

What major development in Freud's theory of personality occurred during World War I?

Freud elevated aggression to the level of the sexual drive as primary motivating forces

251

A felt, affective, unpleasant state accompanied by a physical sensation that warns the person against impending danger

Anxiety

252

Only the ego can produce or feel anxiety, but the id, superego and external world are involved in one of three kinds of anxiety -- __ (results from ego's dependence on the id); __ (results from ego's dependence on superego); __ (results from ego's dependence on the outer world).

Neurotic Anxiety (ego's dependence on the id)
Moral Anxiety (ego's dependence on the superego)
Realistic Anxiety (ego's dependence on the outer world)

253

A defense mechanism whereby people incorporate positive qualities of another person into their own ego

Introjection

254

Identify 2 subphases in the oral psychosexual stage of development

Oral-receptive (infants incorporate or receive into one's body the object-choice, the nipple)
Oral-sadistic (infants respond to others through biting, cooing, closing their mouth, smiling and crying)

255

Identify the anal triad

Orderliness
Stinginess
Obstinacy (stubbornness)

256

Identify the parallel paths of the simple male and female phallic phases

MALE: Oedipus complex > Castration complex (castration anxiety) > Identification with father > Strong superego
FEMALE: Castration complex (penis envy) > Oedipus complex > Identification with mother > Weak superego

257

The purpose of psychoanalysis is to strengthen the __.

Ego

258

Refers to the strong sexual or aggressive feelings, positive or negative, that patients develop toward their analyst during the course of treatment

Transference

259

A variety of unconscious responses used by patients to block their own progress in therapy

Resistance

260

The basic assumption of Freud's dream analysis is that nearly all dreams are __. However, an exception to the rule that dreams are like these is found in patients suffering from a traumatic experience. Dreams of these people follow the principle of __ .

Wish Fulfillments; Repetition Compulsion

261

The disguise in dreams can operate in two basic ways. __ refers to the fact that the manifest dream content is not as extensive as the latent level; __ means that the dream image is replaced by some other idea only remotely related to it.

Condensation; Displacement

262

Freud referred to it as the "royal road" to knowledge of the unconscious and considered it the most reliable approach to the study of unconscious processes

Dream Interpretation / Analysis

263

German origin of Freudian slips / parapraxes
Give examples of them

Fehlleistung or "faulty function"
(ex. misreading, incorrect hearing, misplacing objects, temporarily forgetting names or intentions)

264

The most active person involved in integrating psychoanalytic theory and neuroscientific research; Identify Freudian concepts that have support from modern neuroscience

Mark Solms;
Unconscious motivation, repression, pleasure principle, primitive drives, dreams

265

A major theme of cognitive psychology over the last 20 years which refer to mental processes that are neither in awareness nor under intentional control, thereby come close to Freud's definition of unconscious

Nonconscious Mental Processing
(implicit / nonconscious / automatic thought and memory)

266

Neuroscientific research established that pleasure-seeking drives have their neurological origins in these two brain structures; and this neurotransmitter is most centrally involved in most pleasure-seeking behaviors

Limbic system and brain stem; Dopamine

267

Key brain structures responsible for dreams including the conversion of latent content into manifest content

Basal ganglia and Amygdala

268

Presents an optimistic view of people while resting heavily on the notion of social interest, that is, a feeling of oneness with all humankind

Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology

269

Identify major differences between Freud's psychoanalysis and Adler's individual psychology

1. Freud reduced all motivation to sex and aggression; Adler saw people as being motivated mostly by social influences and by their striving for superiority or success
2. Freud assumed people have little or no choice in shaping their personality; Adler believed people are largely responsible for who they are
3. Freud assumed that present behavior is caused by past experiences; Adler believed that it is shaped by people's view of the future
4. Freud placed very heavy emphasis on unconscious components of behavior; Adler believed that psychologically healthy people are usually aware of what and why they are doing

270

A weak and sickly boy at age 5 (had rickets and nearly died of pneumonia) so at that age he decided that his goal in life would be to conquer death

Alfred Adler

271

To Adler, people are born with weak, inferior bodies -- a condition that leads to __

Inferiority Feelings

272

To Adler, the one dynamic force behind people's behavior is the __

Striving for success or superiority

273

To Adler, people's __ shape their behavior and personality

Subjective perceptions

274

To Adler, personality is __ and __.

Unified and Self-consistent

275

To Adler, the value of all human activity must be seen from the viewpoint of __.

Social interest

276

To Adler, the self-consistent personality develops into a person's __.

Style of life

277

To Adler, style of life is molded by __, using the raw materials provided by __ and __.

Creative power; Heredity and environment

278

People who strive for personal superiority over others are __ while people who are motivated by highly developed social interest are __.

Striving for superiority; Striving for success

279

When an individual's __ is known, all actions make sense and each subgoal takes on new significance.

Final Goal

280

People who strive for superiority with little or no concern for others and who have personal goals and strivings motivated largely by exaggerated feelings of personal inferiority have __.

Inferiority Complex

281

Ideas that have no real existence, yet they influence people as if they really existed

Fictions
(ex. "Men are superior to women"; "Humans have a free will that enables them to make choices"; "God rewards good and punishes evil")

282

Adler adopted a __ view, one in which people are motivated by present perceptions of the future.

Teleological

283

Adler insisted that the whole human race is "blessed" with __, or physical handicaps that have little or no importance by themselves but become meaningful when they stimulate feelings of inferiority, which serve as an impetus toward __ or __.

Organ Inferiorities; Perfection or Completion

284

In choosing the term __, Adler wished to stressed his belief that each person is unique and indivisible.

Individual Psychology

285

Through __, the body's organs speak a language which is usually more expressive and discloses the individual's opinion more clearly than words are able to do

Organ Dialect

286

Roughly means a feeling of oneness with all humanity; an attitude of relatedness with humanity in general as well as an empathy for each member of the human community

Gemeinschaftsgefuhl / Social feeling / Community Feeling / Social Interest
(it originates from the mother-child relationship during the early months of infancy)

287

Adler believed that after age __, the effects of heredity become blurred by the powerful influence of the child's social environment. By this time, environmental forces have modified or shaped nearly every aspect of a child's personality.

5

288

Adler's yardstick for measuring psychological health and is thus the sole criterion of human values

Social Interest

289

A person's goal, self-concept, feelings for others and attitude toward the world; term Adler used to refer to the flavor of a person's life

Style of life
(a product of the interaction of heredity, environment and a person's creative power; it is well established by age 4 or 5)

290

To Adler, the 3 major problems of life

Neighborly love
Sexual Love
Occupation

291

A dynamic concept implying movement; places people in control of their lives, responsible for their final goal, determines their method of striving for that goal and contributes to the development of social interest

Creative Power

292

To Adler, the one factor underlying all types of maladjustments; identify the common characteristics

Underdeveloped Social Interest;
Set their goals too high; Live in their own private world; Have a rigid and dogmatic style of life

293

Identify 3 contributing factors to abnormality according to Adler

1. Exaggerated physical deficiencies
2. Pampered style of life
3. Neglected style of life

294

According to Adler, these protective devices that operate consciously and enable neurotic people to hide their inflated self-image and to maintain their current style of life; identify the 3 major types and subtypes

Safeguarding Tendencies
1. Excuses (most common)
2. Aggression
(2.a) Depreciation (undervalue other people's achievements and overvalue one's own)
(2.b) Accusation (blame others for one's failures and seek revenge)
(2.c) Self-Accusation (self-torture and guilt)
3. Withdrawal
(3.a) Moving backward (psychological reverting to a more secure period of life)
(3.b) Standing still (do not move in any direction)
(3.c) Hesitating (procrastination, compulsive behaviors)
(3.d) Constructing obstacles

295

To Adler, a condition characterized by the overemphasis on the importance of being manly

Masculine Protest
(results from cultural and social influences)

296

Identify applications of individual psychology

Family Constellation (birth order, gender of siblings, age spread between them)
Early Recollections (consistent with present style of life)
Dreams (provide clues for solving future problems)
Psychotherapy (goal is to enhance courage, lessens feelings of inferiority and encourage social interest)

297

Theory of personality which rests on the assumption that occult phenomena can and do influence the lives of everyone

Carl Jung's Analytical Psychology

298

Jung saw __ as the center of consciousness but not the core of personality; __ is the center of personality that is largely unconscious

Ego; Self

299

The __ embraces all repressed, forgotten or subliminally perceived experiences of one particular individual; its contents are called __ which are emotionally toned conglomeration of associated ideas.

Personal Unconscious; Complexes

300

The __ has roots in the ancestral past of the entire species; its contents are __ or ancient or archaic images

Collective Unconscious; Archetypes

301

Dreams associated with the collective unconscious with meaning beyond the individual dreamer and filled with significance for people of every time and place

Big Dreams

302

To Jung, unconscious physical impulse toward action

Instinct
(its psychic counterpart is the archetype)

303

Identify several modes where an archetype can express itself

Dreams (main source)
Fantasies
Delusions

304

To Jung, the side of personality that people show to the world

Persona

305

To Jung, the archetype of darkness and repression; consists of morally objectionable tendencies as well as constructive and creative qualities; knowing this is a person's first test of courage

Shadow

306

The feminine side of men is __ and the masculine side of women is __; becoming well acquainted with these is a person's second test of courage, a task requiring great courage and even more difficult than becoming acquainted with shadow

Anima (responsible for irrational moods and feelings);
Animus (symbolic of thinking and reasoning)

307

Archetype that represents two opposing forces - fertility and nourishment on the one hand and power and destruction on the other

Great Mother

308

Archetype of wisdom and meaning

Wise Old Man

309

Archetype usually represented in mythology and legends as a powerful person, sometimes part god, who fights against great odds to conquer or vanquish evil with a fatal flaw; serves our model for the ideal personality

Hero

310

The archetype of archetypes; innate disposition to move toward growth, perfection and completion

Self
(pulls together the other archetypes and unites them in the process of self-realization)

311

Ultimate symbol of the self; symbolizes a person's ideas of perfection, completion and wholeness; represents the strivings of the collective unconscious for unity, balance and wholeness

Mandala

312

According to Jung, what are the steps that people have to take to actualize or fully experience the self

1. Overcome fear of the unconscious
2. Prevent persona from dominating personality
3. Recognize the dark side of themselves (shadow)
4. Muster even greater courage to face their anima or animus

313

To Jung, adaptation to the outside world involving the forward flow of psychic energy is called __ whereas adaptation to the inner world which relies on a backward flow of psychic energy is called __

Progression; Regression

314

To Jung, a predisposition to act or react in a characteristic direction

Attitude
(Can be introverted and extraverted)

315

To Jung, a function characterized by logical intellectual activities that produces a chain of ideas

Thinking

316

Compare and contrast extraverted vs. introverted thinking

Extraverted thinking: people rely heavily on concrete thoughts but may use abstract ideas if they have been transmitted from without; objective in their approach (ex. mathematicians, engineers, accountants)
Introverted thinking: people react to external stimuli but interpretation is influenced by internal meaning (ex. inventors, philosophers)

317

To Jung, a function characterized by the process of evaluating an idea of event; evaluation of every conscious activity

Feeling

318

Compare and contrast extraverted vs. introverted feeling

Extraverted feeling: people use objective data to make evaluations; guided by external values and widely accepted standards of judgment (businessmen, politicians, real estate appraisers, objective movie critics)
Introverted feeling: people base value judgments primarily on subjective perceptions; ignore traditional opinions and beliefs (subjective movie critics, art appraisers)

319

To Jung, a function characterized by receiving physical stimuli and trasmitting them to perceptual consciousness; individual's perception of sensory impulses

Sensing

320

Compare and contrast extraverted vs. introverted sensing

Extraverted sensing: people perceive external stimuli objectively, in the same way these stimuli exist in reality (proofreader, house painter, popular musicians, wine taster)
Introverted sensing: people are largely influenced by subjective sensory sensations; guided by interpretation of sense stimuli rather than the stimuli themselves (portrait artists, classical musicians)

321

To Jung, a function that involves perception beyond the workings of consciousness; more creative, often adding or subtracting elements from conscious sensation

Intuiting

322

Compare and contrast extraverted vs. introverted intuiting

Extraverted intuiting: people are oriented toward facts in the external world; perceive them subliminally; guided by hunches and guesses contrary to sensory data (some inventors, religious reformers)
Introverted intuiting: people are guided by unconscious perception of facts that are basically subjective; subjective intuitive perceptions are remarkably strong and capable of motivating decisions of monumental magnitude (mystics, prophets, surrealistic artists, religious fanatics)

323

Stages of development according to Jung

Childhood (anarchic phase, monarchic, dualistic)
Youth
Middle Age
Old Age

324

A desire to live in the past, commonly experienced in youth stage and later stages

Conservative Principle

325

According to Jung, __ is the goal of life and that life can be fulfilling only when seen in this light.

Death

326

Jung's another term for psychological rebirth, which is the process of becoming an individual or whole person; process of integrating the opposite poles into a single homogenous individual

Self-Realization / Individuation

327

Identify Jung's primary methods of investigation

Word Association Test
Dream Analysis
Active Imagination
Psychotherapy

328

Identify the kinds of dreams which offered proof for the existence of the collective unconscious according to Jung

Big Dreams (have special meaning for all people)
Typical Dreams (common to most people)
Earliest dreams remembered (contain mythological and symbolic images and motifs, can be traced back to age 3 or 4)

329

Jung's method which requires a person to begin with any impression (image, vision, picture or fantasy) and to concentrate until the impression begins to "move"; a useful technique to become better acquainted with one's collective and personal unconscious

Active Imagination

330

Identify Jung's alternatives or variations to active imagination

Draw, paint or express in some other nonverbal manner the progression of one's fantasies

331

Identify Jung's 4 basic approaches to therapy

1. Confession of a pathogenic secret (use of catharsis)
2. Interpretation, explanation and elucidation (gives patient insight into the cause of neuroses)
3. Education of patients as social beings (enable patient to solve social problems and become socially well adjusted)
4. Transformation (therapist must first be transformed into a healthy human being to be able to help patients move toward individuation)

332

TRUE OR FALSE: Jung was quite eclectic in his theory and practice of psychotherapy. His treatment varied according to the age, state of development and particular problem of the patient.

TRUE

333

A term used to describe a therapist's feelings toward the patient

Countertransference

334

Theory which stressed the importance of the first 4 to 6 months after birth and stated that the child's relation to the breast is fundamental and serves as a prototype for later relations

Melanie Klein's Object Relations Theory

335

Object relation theory generally sees __ and __ as the prime motive of human behavior.

Human contact and relatedness

336

To Klein, any person, part of a person, or thing through which the aim is satisfied

Object

337

Identify the major differences between Freud's psychoanalysis and Klein's object relations theory

1. Freud emphasized biologically based drives; Klein placed more importance on consistent patterns of interpersonal relationships
2. Freud emphasized the power and control of father; Klein stressed the intimacy and nurturing of the mother
3. Freud saw sexual pleasure as prime motive of human behavior; Klein considered human contact and relatedness

338

To Klein, psychic representations of unconscious id instincts

Phantasies

339

Klein saw human infants as constantly engaging in a basic conflict between __ and __.

Life instinct and Death instinct

340

Identify the two basic positions or ways of dealing with both internal and external objects according to Klein

Paranoid-Schizoid Position
Depressive Position

341

Describe the Paranoid-Schizoid Position

A way of organizing experiences that includes both paranoid feelings of being persecuted and a splitting of internal and external objects into the good and the bad; occurs during the first 3-4 months of life; infant attaches a positive value to nourishment and life instinct and assigns negative value to hunger and death instinct

342

Describe the Depressive Position

Begins at about the 5th-6th month, infants view external objects as whole and see that good and bad can exist in the same person; characterized by feelings of anxiety over losing a loved object coupled with a sense of guilt to destroy that object

343

Identify the psychic defense mechanisms that children adopt to protect their ego against the anxiety aroused by their own destructive fantasies according to Klein

Introjection (infants fantasize taking into their body the perceptions and experiences they had with the good external object)
Projection (fantasy that one's own feelings and impulses actually reside in another person)
Splitting (keeping apart incompatible impulses; infant develops the "good me" and the "bad me")
Projective Identification (infants split off unacceptable parts of themselves, project them into another object and finally introject them back into themselves in a changed form)

344

When objective relations theories speaks of __, they mean that the person takes in (introjects) aspects of the external world and then organizes those introjections into a psychologically meaningful framework.

Internalizations

345

In Kleinian theory, three important internalizations

Ego
Superego
Oedipus Complex

346

Theorist primarily concerned with the psychological birth of the individual that takes place during the first 3 years of life

Margaret Mahler

347

By psychological birth, Mahler meant that the child becomes an individual separate from his or her primary caregiver, an accomplishment that leads ultimately to a __.

Sense of identity

348

3 major developmental stages that a child goes through to achieve psychological birth and individuation according to Mahler

1. Normal Autism (birth to 3-4 weeks)
2. Normal Symbiosis (4-5 weeks to 4-5 months)
3. Separation-Individuation (4-5 months to 30-36 months)

349

Describe the Normal Autism Stage of Mahler

In this stage,a newborn infant satisfies various needs within the all-powerful protective orbit of a mother's care; period of absolute primary narcissism; objectless stage

350

Describe the Normal Symbiosis Stage of Mahler

In this stage, infants recognize their primary caregiver and seek a symbiotic relationship with her; this symbiosis is characterized by a mutual cuing of infant (hunger, pain, pleasure) and mother (feeding, holding, smiling); mothers and others are still preobjects

351

Describe the Separation-Individuation Stage of Mahler

In this stage, children become psychologically separated from their mothers, achieve a sense of individuation and begin to develop feelings of personal identity; consists of 4 overlapping substages

352

Explain the 4 substages of the Separation-Individuation Stage of Mahler

a. Differentiation (5 months to 7-10 months; bodily breaking way from the mother-infant symbiotic orbit)
b. Practicing (7-10 months to 15-16 months;children distinguish their body from their mother's, establish a specific bond with her and begin to develop an autonomous ego)
c. Rapprochement (16 to 25 months; desire to bring their mother and themselves back together both physically and psychologically; separation anxiety occurs)
d. Libidinal Object Constancy (3 years; children develop constant inner representation of mother so they can tolerate being physically separate; learn to develop other object relationships)

353

Theorist who emphasized the process by which the self evolves from a vague and undifferentiated image to a clear and precise sense of individual identity; also focused on early mother-child relationships as key to understanding later development but believed that human relatedness, not innate instinctual drives, are at the core of human personality

Heinz Kohut

354

Kohut defined __ as the center of the individual's psychological universe.

Self

355

Two basic narcissistic needs according to Kohut

1. Need to exhibit the grandiose self
2. Need to acquire an idealized image of one or both parents

356

To Kohut, it is established when the infant relates to a "mirroring" selfobject (parent) who reflects approval of its behavior

Grandiose Exhibitionistic Self
("If others see me as perfect, them I am perfect")

357

To Kohut, it implies that someone else is perfect but also satisfies a narcissistic need

Idealized Parent Image
("You are perfect, but I am part of you")

358

His knowledge of ethology and evolutionary theory, he integrated object relations theory with an evolutionary perspective; he believed that attachments formed during childhood have an important impact on adulthood

John Bowlby

359

3 stages of Separation Anxiety according to John Bowlby

1. Protest Stage (infants cry, resist soothing by other people and search for caregiver)
2. Despair (infants become quiet, sad, passive, listless and apathetic)
3. Detachment (infants become emotionally detached from other people)

360

2 fundamental assumptions of Bowlby's theory

1. A responsive and accessible caregivers (usually mother) must create a secure base for the child.
2. A bonding relationship (or lack thereof) becomes internalized and serves a mental working model on which future friendships and love relationships are built.

361

Developed a technique for measuring the type of attachment style that exists between caregiver and infant

Mary Ainsworth; this technique is called Strange Situation

362

Describe the Strange Situation

A procedure which consists of a 20-minute laboratory session in which a mother and infant are initially alone in a playroom; then a stranger comes into the room and interacts with the infant briefly; the mother then goes away for two separate 2-minute periods; the critical period is how the infant reacts when the mother returns and is the basis of the attachment style rating

363

Identify the 3 attachment style ratings found by Ainsworth and associates

1. Secure Attachment (infants are happy and enthusiastic and initiate contact)
2. Anxious-Resistant Attachment (infants seek contact with mother but reject attempts at being soothed)
3. Anxious-Avoidant Attachment (infants ignore and avoid mother)

364

Pioneered the use of psychoanalysis with children; believed that disturbed children would receive the benefit of therapeutic treatment whereas healthy children would profit from prophylactic analysis

Melanie Klein

365

Klein substituted __ for Freudian dream analysis and free association in child psychonalysis

Play Therapy

366

A self-report questionnaire that identifies four main aspects of object relations: Alienation, Attachment, Egocentricity and Social Incompetence

Bell Object Relations Inventory (BORI)

367

Built on the assumption that social and cultural conditions, especially childhood experiences, are largely responsible for shaping personality

Karen Horney's Psychoanalytic Social Theory

368

Identify Horney's 3 fundamental styles of relating to others, which she called the neurotic trends

1. Moving toward people
2. Moving against people
3. Moving away from people

369

Explain the consequences of compulsive behavior of neurotic people according to Horney

Compulsive behavior arises from neurotic people's tendency to rigidly rely on one style of relating to others and this generates intrapsychic conflict which may take the form of either Idealized Self-image(neurotic search for glory, neurotic claims or neurotic pride) or Self-Hatred (self-contempt or alienation from self).

370

According to Horney, man is ruled by these 2 guiding principles

Safety and Satisfaction

371

Horney repeatedly emphasized __ influences as the primary bases for both neurotic and normal personality development.

Neurotic

372

Horney contended that modern culture is based on __ among individuals. Competitiveness and the __ it spawns result in feelings of __.

Competition; Basic Hostility; Isolation

373

Horney believed that neurotic conflict can stem from almost any developmental stage, but __ is the age from which the vast majority of problems arise. Debilitating experiences can be traced to lack of __ and __.

Childhood; Genuine Warmth and Affection

374

According to Horney, if parents do not satisfy the child's needs for safety and satisfaction, the child develops feelings of __ toward the parents.

Basic Hostility

375

A feeling of being isolated and helpless in a world conceived as potentially hostile

Basic Anxiety

376

Identify Horney's 4 general ways that people protect themselves against basic anxiety or the feeling of being alone in a potentially hostile world

1. Affection
2. Submissiveness
3. Power
4. Withdrawal

377

To Horney, __ is the salient or important characteristic of all neurotic drives.

Compulsion

378

These are more specific needs, stated by Horney, that characterize neurotics in their attempts to combat basic anxiety; they describe the 4 basic protective strategies stated by Horney earlier

Neurotic Needs

379

Identify Horney's 10 neurotic needs

1. Affection and Approval
2. Powerful Partner
3. Restrict One's Life Within Narrow Borders
4. Power
5. Exploit Others
6. Social Recognition or Prestige
7. Personal Admiration
8. Ambition and Personal Achievement
9. Self-Sufficiency and Independence
10. Perfection and Unassailability

380

Compare and contrast the personality of normal people vs. neurotic people in terms of the 3 neurotic trends

Moving toward people: Normal people (friendly, loving personality) vs. Neurotic people (compliant personality)
Moving against people: Normal people (survivor in a competitive society) vs. neurotic people (aggressive personality)
Moving away from people: Normal people (autonomous, serene personality) vs. Neurotic people (detached personality)

381

To Horney, an intrapsychic conflict which is an attempt to solve conflicts by painting a godlike picture of oneself; an extravagantly positive view of themselves that exists only in ther personal belief system

Idealized Self-Image
Compliant (good and saintly)
Aggressive (strong, heroic, omnipotent)
Detached (wise, self-sufficient, independent)

382

To Horney, an intrapsychic conflict which is an irrational and powerful tendency to despise one's real self

Self-Hatred

383

Identify the 3 aspects of the idealized image

Neurotic search for glory
Neurotic claims
Neurotic pride

384

To Horney, it is one aspect of the idealized image which refers to the comprehensive drive toward actualizing the ideal self

Neurotic search for glory
Has 3 elements: Need for perfection, Neurotic ambition, Drive toward a vindictive triumph

385

To Horney, one aspect of the idealized image where neurotics build a fantasy world and proclaimed they are special and entitled to be treated in accordance with their idealized view of themselves

Neurotic Claims

386

To Horney, another aspect of the idealized image which is a false pride based not on a realistic view of true self but on a spurious image of the idealized self

Neurotic Pride

387

To Horney, an intrapsychic conflict of neurotic people who realize that their real self does not match the insatiable demands of their idealized self so they begin to despise themselves

Self-Hatred

388

Identify the 6 major ways in which people express self-hatred according to Horney

Relentless demands on the self (tyranny of the should)
Merciless self-accusation (berate themselves)
Self-contempt (belittling or ridiculing oneself)
Self-frustration (shackled by taboos against enjoyment)
Self-torment (inflict harm or suffering on themselves)
Self-destructive actions and impulses (overeating, abusing alcohol and drugs)

389

Horney believed that the __ is found only in some people and is an expression of the neurotic need for love.

Oedipus complex

390

Horney believed that psychic differences between men and women are not the result of anatomy but rather of __ and __.

Cultural and Social Expectations

391

Identify the favorable or positive counterparts of Horney's 3 neurotic trends

Love (moving toward people)
Mastery (moving against people)
Freedom (moving away from people)

392

Aim of Horneyian therapy and the techniques used

Grow in the direction of self-realization or actualization of the real self
Dream interpretation and Free Association

393

Horney's perspective on dream interpretation and free association

Horney saw dreams as attempts to solve conflicts, but the solutions can be either neurotic or healthy. Together with free association, they eventually reveal patients' idealized self-image and persistent but unsuccessful attempts at accomplishing it.

394

Horney is known for her lucid portrayal of the __ personality.

Neurotic

395

The inability of people to use different tactics in their relationships with others generates __; that is, the incompatible tendency to move toward, against and away from people

Basic Conflict

396

Theory of personality which looks at people from a historical and cultural perspective, takes an evolutionary view of humanity and assumes that humanity's separation from the natural world has produced feelings of loneliness and isolation

Erich Fromm's Humanistic Psychoanalysis

397

According to Fromm, humans have are distinct from all animals due to __ and __.

Weak instincts and highly developed brain

398

According to Fromm, capitalism has contributed to the growth of leisure time and personal freedom but has also resulted in feelings of __, __ and __.

Anxiety, Isolation and Powerlessness

399

Identify five important influences on Fromm's thinking

Teachings of humanistic rabbis
Revolutionary spirit of Karl Marx
Revolutionary ideas of Sigmund Freud
Rationality of Zen Buddhism
Writings of Johann Bachofen on matriarchal societies

400

Fromm's most basic assumption is that individual personality can be understood only in the light of __.

Human History

401

A condition wherein humans have no powerful instincts to adapt to a changing world; instead, they have acquired the facility to reason

Human Dilemma

402

Enumerate existential dichotomies

1. We are aware that we will die, but we try to negate this by postulating life after death.
2. Humans are capable of completing self-realization but we also are aware that life is too short to reach that goal.
3. People are ultimately alone, yet we cannot tolerate isolation.

403

To Fromm, distinctive human needs that can move people toward a reunion with the natural world

Existential Needs

404

To Fromm, an existential need which is the drive for union with another person or others persons

Relatedness

405

Identify Fromm's 3 basic ways in which a person may relate to the world

Submission
Power
Love

406

When a submissive person and a domineering person find each other, they frequently establish __.

Symbiotic Relationship

407

Fromm believed that __ is the only route by which a person can become unified with the word and, at the same time, achieve individuality and integrity.

Love

408

Identify Fromm's 4 basic elements of genuine love

Care
Responsibility
Respect
Knowledge

409

To Fromm, an existential need which is the urge to rise above a passive and accidental existence and into the realm of purposefulness and freedom

Transcendence

410

To kill for reasons other than survival

Malignant Aggression

411

To Fromm, an existential need to establish roots or to feel at home again in the world

Rootedness

412

A nonproductive strategy of rootedness which is characterized by a tenacious reluctance to move beyond the protective security provided by one's mother

Fixation

413

To Fromm, an existential need for the capacity to be aware of ourselves as a separate entity

Sense of Identity

414

To Fromm, an existential need for a road map to make their way through the world

Frame of Orientation

415

The central thesis of his study is that humans have been torn from nature, yet they remain part of the natural world, and that as people gained more and more economic and political freedom, they came to feel increasingly more isolated.

Erich Fromm

416

Identify Fromm's 3 primary mechanisms of escape (to flee from freedom and the basic anxiety it causes)

Authoritarianism (give up one's individual self and fuse it with somebody; masochism or sadism)
Destructiveness (do away with other people)
Conformity (give up individuality and become whatever other people desire them to be)

417

To Fromm, a state of being free and not alone, critical and yet not filled with doubts, independent and yet an integral part of mankind

Positive Freedom
Frequently seen in small children and non-conforming artists

418

Twin components of positive freedom

Love and Work

419

To Fromm, a person's relatively permanent way of relating to people and things

Character Orientation

420

To Fromm, the totality of inherited and acquired psychic qualities which are characteristic of one individual and which make the individual unique

Personality

421

The relatively permanent system of all noninstinctual strivings through which man relates himself to the human and natural world

Character

422

People relate to the world in two ways - by acquiring and using things, called __, and by relating to self and others, called __.

Assimilation; Socialization

423

To Fromm, these are strategies that fail to move people closer to positive freedom and self-realization

Nonproductive

424

Identify Fromm's 4 nonproductive orientations

Receptive (feel the source of all good lies outside themselves and the only way to relate to the world is to receive things)
Exploitative (feel the source of all good lies outside and aggressively take what they desire)
Hoarding (hold everything inside and not let go of anything)
Marketing (see themselves as commodities, with their personal value dependent on their exchange value)

425

Identify Fromm's 3 dimensions of productive orientation

Working
Loving
Reasoning

426

A passionate love of life and all that is alive; concerned with the growth and development of themselves and others

Biophilia

427

According to Fromm, people who are incapable of love and have failed to establish union with others may develop any of these 3 severe personality disorders; collectively considered as the Syndrome of Decay

Necrophilia (attraction to death)
Malignant Narcissism (everything belonging to oneself is highly valued and everything belonging to another is devalued)
Incestuous Symbiosis (extreme dependence on the mother or mother surrogate)

428

Identify the Syndrome of Growth

Biophilia
Love
Positive Freedom

429

Erich Fromm wrote a psychohistory of __, whom he regarded as the world's most conspicuous example of a person with the syndrome of decay.

Adolf Hitler

430

The first American to construct a comprehensive personality theory and believed that people develop their personality within a social context

Harry Stack Sullivan's Interpersonal Theory
"A personality can never be isolated from the complex of interpersonal relations in which the person lives and has his being"

431

To Sullivan, the most crucial stage of development is __ - a period when children first possess the capacity for intimacy but have not yet reached an age at which theyr intimate relationships are complicated by lustful interests

Preadolescence

432

Sullivan experienced an intimate relationship with this person when he was at age 8 1/2 and this transformed his life

Clarence Bellinger

433

Composed of Horney, Fromm, Fromm-Reichmann, Sullivan, Thompson and others, which is an informal organization that met regularly over drinks to discuss old and new ideas in psychiatry and the related social science

Zodiac Group

434

TRUE OR FALSE: Sullivan's theory of interpersonal psychiatry is neither psychoanalytic nor neo-Freudian.

TRUE

435

To Sullivan, a potentiality for action that may or may not be experienced in awareness

Tension

436

To Sullivan __ transform tensions into either covert or overt behaviors and are aimed at satisfying needs and reducing anxiety

Energy Transformations

437

To Sullivan, tensions brought on by biological imbalance between a person and the physiochemical environment, both inside and outside the organism; once they satisfied they temporarily lose their power but are likely to recur after a time

Needs

438

The most basic interpersonal need

Tenderness

439

To Sullivan, 2 kinds of needs

General Needs (ex. oxygen, food, water)
Zonal Needs (arise from a particular area of the body)

440

Another type of tension which is disjunctive, more diffuse and vague and calls forth no consistent actions for its relief; the chief disruptive force blocking the development of healthy interpersonal relations

Anxiety
Originates through the process of empathy wherein it is transferred from the parent to the infant

441

A complete lack of tension

Euphoria

442

To Sullivan, consistent characteristic modes of behavior which are transformed by excess energy; synonymous to traits or habit patterns

Dynamisms

443

Identify 3 categories of dynamisms related to tensions

Disjunctive (destructive patterns of behavior)
Isolating (behavior patterns unrelated to interpersonal relations)
Conjunctive (beneficial behavior patterns)

444

To Sullivan, the disjunctive dynamism of evil and hatred, characterized by the feeling of living among one's enemies

Malevolence

445

To Sullivan, an isolating tendency which is an especially powerful dynamism during adolescence

Lust

446

To Sullivan, an integrating and conjunctive dynamism that tends to draw out loving reactions from the other person, thereby decreasing anxiety and loneliness; involves a close relationship between two people who are more or less of equal status

Intimacy

447

To Sullivan, the most complex and inclusive of all the dynamisms; its primary task is to protect people against anxiety

Self-System

448

2 important security operations (people's attempt to defense themselves against interpersonal tensions)

Dissociation (person refuses to allow impulses, desires and needs into awareness; manifest in dreams, daydreams, outside awareness)
Selective Inattention (refusal to see things we do not wish to see; more accessible to awareness)

449

Images acquired beginning in infancy and continuing throughout the various developmental stages; may be accurate or distorted, colored by needs and anxieties

Personifications

450

Identify Sullivan's 3 basic personifications that develop during infancy

Bad-Mother (not being properly fed)
Good-Mother (tender and cooperative behaviors of mother)
Bad-Me (experiences of punishment and disapproval)
Good-Me (experiences with reward and approval)
Not-Me (dissociate or selectively inattend experiences)

451

Unrealistic traits or imaginary friends that many children invent in order to protect their self-esteem

Eidetic Personifications

452

Identify Sullivan's 3 levels or modes of cognition

Protaxic Level (earliest and most primitive; cannot be communicated to others; beyond conscious recall)
Parataxic Level (can be communicated to others only in a distorted fashion)
Syntaxic Level (consensually validated and can be symbolically communicated)

453

Sullivan's 7 epochs or stages of development

Infancy (birth to 2 years)
Childhood (2 to 6 years)
Juvenila Era
Preadolescence
Early Adolescence
Late Adolescence
Adulthood

454

Identify the highlights of the Infancy stage

-Birth to 2 years (until the child develops syntaxic speech)
-Cannot survive without a mothering one
-Built-in protections of apathy and somnolent detachment
-Autistic language (makes little or no sense to other people)

455

Identify the highlights of the Childhood stage

-2 to 6 years (syntaxic language to need for playmates)
-Good and bad now imply social or moral value
-Relationship between mother and child becomes more personal and less one-sided
-Imaginary playmates to ready for intimacy during preadolescence stage
-Period of rapid acculturation
-Learns dramatizations (attempts to act or sound like authority figures) and Preoccupations (strategies to avoid anxiety by remaining occupied with an activity)

456

Identify the highlights of the Juvenila Era stage

-6 to 8 1/2 years (need for playmates to single chum)
-Learn to compete, compromise and cooperate
-Cooperation is the most important task
-Associate with other children of equal status
-Develop orientation to living

457

Identify the highlights of the Preadolescence stage

-8 1/2 to adolescence
-Intimacy with one person of the same-sex
-Genesis of the capacity to love
-Most untroubled and carefree time of life but the most crucial stage of development

458

Identify the highlights of the Early Adolescence stage

-Puberty to need for sexual love with one person
-Eruption of genital interest and lustful relationships
-Intimacy, lust and security
-Real issue lies in getting along with other people

459

Identify the highlights of the Late Adolescence stage

-15 to 17 or 18 years
-Able to feel lust and intimacy toward the same person
-Exchanging ideas with others and having their opinions and beliefs either validated or repudiated

460

Identify the highlights of the Adulthood stage

-Establish love relationship with at least one significant other person which becomes the principal source of life satisfaction
-Perceptive of other people's anxiety, needs and security

461

Sullivan distinguished 2 broad classes of schizophrenia

1. Symptoms originate from organic causes
2. Disorders grounded in situational factors

462

__, which often precede schizophrenia, are characterized by loneliness, low self-esteem, uncanny emotion, unsatisfactory relations with others and ever-increasing anxiety

Dissociated reactions

463

Aim of Sullivan's psychotherapy

Improve relationship with others

464

Published 'Explorations in Personality: A Clinical and Experimental Study of Fifty Men of College Age' which provided a rich data source on which he based his theory

Henry Murray

465

Murray's system of personality

Personology

466

Identify the principles of Murray's personology

1. Personality is rooted in the brain
2. People act to reduce physiological and psychological tension
3. An individual's personality continues to develop over time and is constructed of all the events that occur during the course of that person's life
4. Personality changes and progresses
5. Each person is unique and similar at the same time

467

To Murray, it contains the primitive, amoral and lustful impulses described by Freud but also contains desirable impulses such as empathy and love

Id

468

To Murray, it is shaped not only by parents and authority figures, but also by the peer group and culture

Superego

469

To Murray, a component of the superego that contains the moral or ideal behaviors for which a person should strive

Ego-Ideal

470

To Murray, the conscious organizer of behavior; not only suppresses id pleasure but also fosters pleasure by organizing and directing the expression of acceptable id impulses

Ego

471

Murray's most important contribution to theory and research in personality is his use of the concept of needs to explain the motivation and direction of behavior. Enumerate Murray's list of 20 needs.

Abasement; Achievement; Affiliation; Aggression; Autonomy; Counteraction; Defendance; Deference; Dominance; Exhibition; Harmavoidance; Infavoidance; Nurturance; Order; Play; Rejection; Sentience; Sex; Succorance; Understanding

472

To Murray, survival and related needs arising from internal bodily processes

Primary needs (viscerogenic needs)

473

To Murray, emotional and psychological needs, such as achievement and affiliation

Secondary needs (psychogenic needs)

474

To Murray, needs that involve a response to a specific object

Reactive needs

475

To Murray, needs that arise spontaneously

Proactive needs

476

Needs differ in terms of the urgency with which they impel behavior, a characteristic Murray called __.

A need's prepotency

477

Some needs are complementary and can be satisfied by one behavior or a set of behaviors; Murray called this

a Fusion of needs

478

To Murray, a situation in which one need is activated to aid in the satisfaction of another need

Subsidiation

479

To Murray, the influence of the environment and past events on the curent activation of a need

Press

480

To Murray, a combination of press (the environment) and need (the personality) that brings order to our behavior

Thema

481

To Murray, a normal pattern of childhood development that influences the adult personality

Complex

482

Identify the 5 complexes in Murray's childhood developmental stages

Claustral Complex
Oral Complex
Anal Complex
Urethral Complex
Genital / Castration Complex

483

Identify forms of the claustral complex

Simple Claustral Complex (desire to be in small, warm, dark places that are safe and secluded)
Insupport Complex (fears open spaces, falling, drowning, fires, earthquakes)
Anti-Claustral/Egression Complex (need to escape from restraining womblike conditions; fear of confinement; prefer open spaces, fresh air, travel, movement, change and novelty)

484

Identify forms of the oral complex

Oral Succorance Complex (mouth activities, passive tendencies and need to be supported; kissing, sucking, eating, drinking, hunger for affection)
Oral Aggression Complex (oral and aggresive behaviors; biting spitting, shouting, verbal aggression)
Oral Rejection Complex (vomiting, being picky about food, eating little, desiring seclusion, avoiding dependence)

485

Identify forms of the anal complex

Anal Rejection Complex (dirty and disorganized; aggression)
Anal Retention Complex (accumulating, saving and collecting things; cleanliness)

486

Describe the urethral complex

Associated with excessive ambition, distorted sense of self-esteem, exhibitionism, bedwetting, sexual cravings and self-love; persons aim too high and dreams shattered by failure

487

Describe the genital or castration complex

Boy's fantasy that his penis might be cut off; such fear grows out of childhood masturbation and accompanying parental punishment

488

According to Murray, our goal is not a tension-free state but rather the __ derived from acting to reduce the tension.

Satisfaction

489

Murray directed an assessment program for the __ to select people to serve as spies and saboteurs.

Office of Strategic Services (forerunner of the CIA)

490

Murray derived the Thematic Apperception Test from __.

Freud's defense mechanism of projection

491

A basic segment of behavior; a time period in which an important behavior pattern occurs from beginning to end

Proceeding

492

A succession of proceedings related to the same function or purpose

Serial

493

This theorist's post-Freudian theory extended Freud's infantile developmental stages into adolescence, adulthood and old age

Erik Erikson

494

A struggle in adolescence that is the turning point in one's life that may either strengthen or weaken personality

Identity Crisis

495

In addition to elaborating on psychoseual stages beyond childhood, Erikson placed more emphasis on both __ and __ influences.

Social and Historical

496

To Erikson, a positive force that creates a self-identity; helps us adapt to the various conflicts and crises of life; person's ability to unify experiences and actions in an adaptive manner

Ego

497

Identify 3 interrelated aspects of ego according to Erikson

Body Ego (experiences with our body; a way of seeing our physical self as different from others)
Ego Ideal (image we have of ourselves in comparison with an established ideal)
Ego Identity (image we have of ourselves in the variety of social roles we play)

498

According to Erikson, the ego emergers from and is largely shaped by __.

Society

499

An illusion perpetrated and perpetuated by a particular society that it is somehow chosen to be the human species

Pseudospecies

500

It implies a step-by-step growth of fetal organs; in Erikson's stages of development, one stage emerges from and is built upon a previous stage but it does not replace that earlier stage

Epigenetic Principle

501

Erikson believed that in very stage of life there is an interaction of opposites - that is, a conflict between __ (harmonious) element and __ (disruptive) element.

Syntonic; Dystonic

502

The conflict between the dystonic and syntonic elements produces ego quality or ego strength which Erikson referred to as a __.

Basic Strength

503

Too little basic strength at any one stage results in a __ for that stage.

Core Pathology

504

Identify Erikson's developmental stages with corresponding psychosexual mode and psychosocial crisis

Infancy (Oral-respiratory: sensory-kinesthetic; Basic trust vs mistrust)
Early Childhood (Anal-urethral-muscular; Autonomy vs. shame and doubt)
Play Age (Infantile genital-locomotor; Initiative vs. guilt)
School age (Latency; Industry vs. inferiority)
Adolescence (Puberty; Identity vs. identity Confusion)
Young Adulthood (Genitality; Intimacy vs. isolation)
Adulthood (Procreativity; Generativity vs. stagnation)
Old Age (Generalization of sensual modes; Integrity vs. despair)

505

Identify the corresponding basic strengths and core pathologies of Erikson's developmental stages

Infancy (Hope; Withdrawal)
Early childhood (Will; Compulsion)
Play Age (Purpose; Inhibition)
School Age (Competence; Inertia)
Adolescence (Fidelity; Role repudiation)
Young Adulthood (Love; Exclusivity)
Adulthood (Care; Rejectivity)
Old Age (Wisdom; Disdain)

506

To Erikson, a syndrome of problems that includes a divided self-image, an inability to establish intimacy, a sense of time urgency, a lack of concentration on required tasks, and a rejection of family or community standards

Identity Confusion
(occurs in adolescence stage)

507

Ability to fuse one's identity with that of another person without fear of losing it

Intimacy

508

Assuming responsibility for the care of offspring that result from that sexual contact

Procreativity

509

To take pleasure in a variety of different physical sensations - sights, sounds, tastes, odors, embraces and perhaps genital stimulations

Generalized Sensuality

510

A feeling of wholeness and coherence, an ability to hold together one's sense of I-ness despite diminishing physical an intellectual powers

Integrity

511

Erikson defined __ as informed and detached concern with life itself in the face of death itself while __ is a reaction to feeling (and seeing others) in an increasing state of being finished, confused, helpless

Wisdom; Disdain
(in old age)

512

__ is a widening commitment to take care of the persons, the products, and the ideas one has learned to care for while __ is the unwillingness to take care of certain persons or groups, manifested as self-centeredness, provincialism or pseudospeciation

Care; Rejectivity
(in adulthood)

513

__ is a mature devotion that overcomes basic differences between men and women; while __ block one's ability to cooperate, compete or compromise

Love; Exclusivity
(in young adulthood)

514

__ is faith in one's ideology while __ block one's ability to synthesize various self-images and values into a workable identity

Fidelity; Role Repudiation
(in adolescence)

515

__ is the confidence to use one's physical and cognitive abilities to solve the problems that accompany school age while __ is the child's tendency to give up and regress to an earlier stage of development.

Competence; Inertia
(in school age)

516

Children in the play age plays with a __, competing at games in order to win or to be on top; while __ results when children are dominated by guilt and they become compulsively moralistic.

Purpose; Inhibition
(in play age)

517

__ evolves from the resolution of the crisis of autonomy versus shame and doubt while __ is the expression of inadequate of the aforementioned basic strength.

Will; Compulsion

518

__ is what arises when infants learn to expect that future distresses will meet with satisfactory outcomes while __ is demonstrated when they retreat from the outside world due to domination of mistrust in this stage.

Hope; Withdrawal

519

Erikson insisted that personality is a product of __, __ and __.

History; Culture; Biology

520

2 primary approaches Erikson used to explain and describe human personality

Anthropological Studies
Psychohistory

521

The study of individual and collective life with the combined methods of psychoanalysis and history

Psychohistory

522

To Freud, anatomy is destiny but to Erikson, anatomy, __ and __ are our combined destiny.

History; Personality

523

The idea that human development is governed by a sequence of stages that depend on genetic or hereditary factors

Epigenetic Principle of Maturation

524

To Erikson, the turning point faced at each developmental stage

Crisis

525

To Erikson, motivating characteristics and beliefs that derive from the satisfactory resolution of the crisis at each developmental stage

Basic Strengths

526

The self-image formed during adolescence that integrates our ideas of what we are and what we want to be

Ego Identity

527

The falure to achieve ego identity during adolescence

Identity Crisis

528

Motivating characteristics that derive from the unsatisfactory resolution of developmental crises

Basic Weaknesses

529

A condition that occurs when the ego consists solely of a single way of coping with conflict

Maldevelopment

530

A basic strength achieved in infancy that involves a persistent feeling of confidence, a feeling we will maintain despite temporary setbacks or reverses

Hope
(trust vs mistrust stage / infancy)

531

It is at this psychosexual stage that Erikson believed the most important ability involved holding on and letting go and for the first time, children are able to exercise some choice; this stage also involves toilet training

Muscular-Anal Stage

532

It is at this psychosexual stage (according to Erikson) that motor and mental abilities are continuing to develop

Locomotor-Genital Stage

533

It is at this psychosexual stage wherein the child learns good work and study habits ideally both at home and at school

Latency Stage

534

A basic strength that emerges from industriousness during the latency stage that involves the exertion of skill and intelligence in pursuing and completing tasks

Competence
(industry vs. inferiority / school age)

535

Erikson suggested that __ was a hiatus between childhood and adulthood, a necessary psychological __ to give the person time and energy to play different roles and live with different self-images

Adolescence

536

The basic strength that should develop during adolescence is __, which merges from a cohesive ego identity. It encompasses sincerity, guineness, and a sense of duty in our

Fidelity
(identity vs. identity confusion / adolescence)

537

The basic strength that develops from autonomy is __, which involves a determination to exercise freedom of choice and self-restraint in the face of society's demands

Will
(autonomy vs. shame and doubt / early childhood)

538

The basic strength that arises from initiative which involves the courage to envision and pursue goals

Purpose
(initiative vs. guilt / play age)

539

The basic strength that emerges from the intimacy of the young adult years which Erikson considered to be the greatest human virtue; a mutual devotion in a shared identity, the fusing of oneself with another person

Love
(intimacy vs. isolation / young adulthood)

540

The basic strength that emerges from generativity in adulthood which involves a broad concern for others and believed it was manifested in the need to teach, not only to help others but also to fulfill one's identity

Care
(generativity vs. stagnation / adulthood)

541

The basic strength which is expressed in a detached concern with the whole of life; it is conveyed to succeeding generations in an integration of experience best described by the word heritage

Wisdom
(integrity vs despair / old age)

542

When only the positive, adaptive tendency is present in the ego, the condition is said to be __ which can lead to __; when only the negative tendency is present, the condition is called __ which can lead to __

Maladaptive; Neuroses; Malignant; Psychoses

543

Identify the maldevelopment that occurs in relation to the positive tendency of every psychosocial stage

Infancy (Trust - Sensory maladjustment)
Early childhood (Autonomy - Shameless willfulness)
Play Age (Initiative - Ruthlessness)
School Age (Industriousness - Narrow virtuosity)
Adolescence (Identity cohesion - Fanaticism)
Young Adulthood (Intimacy - Promiscuity)
Adulthood (Generativity - Overextension)
Old Age (Ego integrity - Presumption)

544

Identify the maldevelopment that occurs in relation to the negative tendency of every psychosocial stage

Infancy (Mistrust - Withdrawal)
Early Childhood (Shame and doubt - Compulsion)
Play Age (Guilt - Inhibition)
School Age (Inferiority - Inertia)
Adolescence (Role Confusion - Role Repudiation)
Young Adulthood (Isolation - Exclusivity)
Adulthood (Stagnation - Rejectivity)
Old Age / Maturity (Despair - Disdain)

545

TRUE OR FALSE: Erikson believed that we have more change to exercise free will during the last four stages, although the attitudes and strengths we have formed during the earlier stages will affect our choices.

TRUE

546

Our ultimate goal according to Erikson

To develop a positive ego identity that incorporates all the basic strengths

547

In developing his personality theory, Erikson used data obtained primarily from?

Play Therapy
Anthropological Studies
Psychohistorical ANalysis
(He occasionally used free association but rarely attempted to analyze dreams)

548

The application of Erikson's life-span theory, along with psychoanalytic principles, to the study of historical figures; Erikson's most unusual assessment technique

Psychohistorical Analysis
(typically focuses on a significant crisis, an episode that represents a major life theme uniting past, present and future activities)

549

Erikson's term for the strategy wherein he adopted the subject's viewpoint as his own to assess life events through that person's eyes

Disciplined Subjectivity

550

A psychological test used to measure the development of ego identity during adolescence

Ego-Identity Scale

551

A psychological test used to measure the dimensions of exploration and commitment among adolescents

Ego Identity Process Questionnaire

552

A 20-item self report inventory used to measure the level of generativity or stagnation in adulthood

Loyola Generativity Scale

553

A personality assessment technique for children in which structures assembled from dolls, blocks and other toys are analyzed

Play Constructions

554

An extensive research program identified 5 psychosocial types or statuses on the adolescent stage of development

Identity Achievement (committed to occupational and ideological choices)
Moratorium (still undergoing identity crisis)
Foreclosure not experienced an identity crisis but firmly committed to an occupation and ideology)
Identity Diffusion (no occupational or ideological commitment and not experienced an identity crisis)
Alienated Achievement (experienced an identity crisis, no occupational goal and cling to beliefs that are critical of the social and economic system)

555

The process of dealing successfully with the social realities of adult life; usually occurs during the 20s, as people assume adult responsibilities of marriage, family and career

Identity Consolidation

556

Identity the 4 stages in the development of gender preference identity according to one model by Frable

Sensitization (one's initial perception of being different from peers of same sex)
Identity Confusion (confusing, frightening realization that one's feelings and thoughts could be characterized as homosexual
Identity Assumption (believes one is homosexual and begins to accept gay identity)
Commitment (fully accepts the gay identity as a way of life)

557

Time magazine called him the "most influential living psychoanalyst" while Psychology Today described him as "an authentic intellectual hero"

Erik Erikson

558

Erikson's method of __ has become a standard diagnostic and therapeutic tool for work with emotionally disturbed and abused children.

Play Therapy

559

Made personality an academically respectable topic; help bring personality into the mainstream and formulated a theory of personality development in which traits play a prominent role

Gordon Allport
Published Personality: A Psychological Interpretation in 1937

560

Allport suggested that emotionally health people function rationally and __, and that the __ is important only in the behavior of neurotic or disturbed persons. Abnormal personality functioned at __ level and psychologically healthy adults are unaffected by __ events.

Consciously; Unconscious; Infantile; Childhood

561

Another distinguishing feature of Allport's theory is his emphasis on the __ of personality as defined by each person's __. He argued that personality is not general or universal but is particular and __ to the individual.

Uniqueness; Traits; Specific

562

Allport's dissertation which was the first research conducted on personality trains in United States

An Experimental Study of the Traits of Personality (1920s)

563

To Allport, it is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine characteristic behavior and thought

Personality
Allport reviewed some 50 definitions of personality before offering his own.

564

To Allport, a characteristic of personality that means that although personality is constantly changing and growing, the growth is organized, not random

Dynamic Organization

565

To Allport, a characteristic of personality which means that personality is composed of mind and body functioning together as a unit

Psychophysical
Personality is neither all mental nor all biological.

566

Allport stated that __ provides the personality with raw materials (such as physique, intelligence, and temperament) that may be shaped, expanded or limited by the conditions of our __. However, our __ background is responsible for the major portion of our uniqueness.

Heredity; Environment; Genetic

567

To Allport, distinguishing characteristics that guide behavior; predispositions to respond in the same manner to different kinds of stimuli and consistent and enduring ways of reacting to our environment

Traits

568

Identify the characteristics of traits according to Allport

1. Traits are real and exist within each of us.
2. Traits determine or cause behavior.
3. Traits can be demonstrated empirically.
4. Traits are interrelated.
5. Traits vary with the situation.

569

Identify two types of traits according to Allport

Individual traits (unique to a person and define one's character)
Common traits (shared by a number of people, cu has members of a culture)

570

Likely to change over time as social standards and values change; subject to social, enviromental and cultural influences

Common traits

571

Allport later revised his terminology. He relabeled common traits as __ and individual traits as __.

Traits; Personal Dispositions

572

Identify the types of personal dispositions or individual traits

Cardinal traits (most pervasive and powerful human traits)
Central traits (handful of outstanding traits that describe a person's behavior)
Secondary traits (least important traits which a person may display inconspicuously and inconsistently)

573

Allport described it as a ruling passion, a powerful force that dominates behavior.

Cardinal trait

574

To Adler, whatever happened in the past is exactly that: past. It is no longer active and does not explain adult behavior unless it exists as a current __. He believed that the central problem for any personality theory is how it treats the concept of __.

Motivating force; Motivation

575

Allport's idea that motives in the normal, mature adult are independent of the childhood experiences in which they originally appeared

Functional Autonomy of Motives
Adult motives cannot be understood by exploring a person's childhood. The only way to understand them is to investigate why people behave as they do today.

576

The level of functional autonomy that relates to low-level and routine behaviors; concerned with such behaviors as addictions and repetitive physical actions

Perseverative Functional Autonomy

577

The level of functional autonomy that relates to our values, self-image and lifestyle

Propriate Functional Autonomy

578

Allport's term for the ego or self; determines which motives will be maintained and which will be discarded; includes those aspects of personality that are distinctive and thus appropriate to our emotional life

Proprium
We retain motives that enhance our self-esteem or self-image. We enjoy doing what we do well.

579

Our propriate functioning is an organizing process that maintains our sense of self. Identify the 3 principles that determines how we perceive the world, what we remember from our experiences and how our thoughts are directed.

Organizing the energy level (how we acquire new motives)
Mastery and competence (level at which we choose to satisfy motives)
Propriate patterning (striving for consistency an integration of the personality)

580

Some behaviors, such as __, __, __ and behaviors arising from __, are not under the control of functionally autonomous motives.

Reflexes; Fixations; Neuroses; Biological Drives

581

Identify the 7 stages that desribe the nature and development of the proprium from infancy through adolescence

1. Bodily self (infants become aware of own existence)
2. Self-identity (identity remains intact despite many changes)
3. Self-esteem (take pride in one's accomplishments)
4. Extension of self (recognize objects and people part of one's own world)
5. Self-image (actual and idealized images; satisfying parental expectations)
6. Self as a rational coper (apply reason and logic to solution of everyday problems)
7. Propriate striving (formulate long-range goals and plans)

582

Identify Allport's six criteria or characteristics of the normal, mature, emotionally healthy, adult personality

1. Extension of self to other people and activities
2. A warm relating to others
3. Emotional security
4. A realistic perception of life, development of skills, commitment to work
5. Sense of humor and self-objectification
6. Unifying philosophy of life

583

To Allport, the ultimate and necessary goal of life is to __, impelling us to seek __ and __.

Increase tension; New sensations; Challenges

584

Allport's popular book which he talked about personality assessment techniques and concluded that there was no single best technique

Pattern and Growth in Personality (1961)

585

Enumerate 11 major methods for evaluating personality according to the list of Allport

Constitutional and physiological diagnosis
Cultural setting, membership, role
Personal documents and case studies
Self-appraisal
Conduct analysis
Rating
Tests and scales
Projective techniques
Depth analysis
Expressive behavior
Synoptic procedures

586

A method of personality assessment that involves the study of a person's written or spoken records; Allport relied heavily on this method

Personal-Document Technique
(involves examining diaries, autobiographies, letters, literary compositions and other samples)

587

A more sophisticated and quantitative approach than Allport's subjective analysis of the personal-document technique

Computer Analysis

588

An objective self-report assessment test constructed by Allport and colleagues which was used to determine personality traits and strongly held interests and motivations that served the basis of one's unifying philosophy in life

Study of Values

589

Identify Allport's categories of values

Theoretical values (discovery of truth; empirical, intellectual and rational approach to life)
Economic values (useful and practical)
Aesthetic values (artistic experiences and form, harmony and grace)
Social values (human relationships, altruism and philanthropy)
Political values (personal power, influence and prestige in all endeavors)
Religious values (mystical and understanding universe as a whole)

590

Identify the 2 approaches for studying personality

Idiographic approach (study of individual case)
Nomothetic approach (study large samples of subjects through statistical analysis)

591

Spontaneous and seemingly purposeless behavior, usually displayed without our conscious awareness

Expressive Behavior

592

Consciously planned behavior determined by the needs of a given situation and designed for a specific purpose, usually to bring about a change in one's environment

Coping Behavior

593

Researcher who identified facial expressions of seven emotions and developed a coding system based on analysis of 43 facial muscles

Paul Ekman
(seven emotions are anger, contempt, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise and happiness)

594

The coding system developed by Ekman and colleagues at the Human Interaction Laboratory that is currently being used in the US by police departments, as well as the CIA and FBI

Facial Action Coding System (FACS)

595

Often considered to be one of the first psychologists to bring humanistic values and concerns to the field

Gordon Allport

596

His rigorously scientific approach to the study of personality was to predict how a person will behave in response to a given stimulus situation; the hallmark of his approach was the use of factor analysis in his treatment of data from a sample of normal people

Raymond Cattell

597

A statistical technique based on correlations between several measures, which may be explained in terms of underlying factors

Factor Analysis
Developed by Charles Spearman and used it to measure mental abilities while Cattell applied it to the study of personality

598

To Cattell, the mental elements of the personality which can predict how a person will behave in a given situation

Traits

599

Developed a theory of personality based on body type

William Sheldon
(ectomorph, mesomorph, endomorph)

600

Due to Cattell's early financial hardships, it forced him to focus on __ problems rather than theoretical or experimental issues.

Practical

601

To Cattell, relatively permanent reaction tendencies that are the basic structural units of the personality

Traits
(derived by the method of factor analysis)

602

Identify Cattell's 2 major division of traits

Common traits (possessed in some degree by all persons)
Unique traits (possessed by one or a few persons)

603

To Cattell, traits that describe our general behavior style in responding to our environment; affect the ways we act and react to situations

Temperament traits
(ex. assertive, easygoing, irritable)

604

To Cattell, traits that describe our skills and how efficiently we will be able to work toward our goals

Ability traits
(ex. intelligence)

605

To Cattell, traits that underlie our motivations and are the driving forces of behavior; define our motivations, interests and ambitions

Dynamic traits

606

To Cattell, single, stable, permanent elements of our behavior that are the basic factors of personality, derived by the method of factor analysis

Source traits

607

To Cattell, characteristics composed of any number of source traits, or behavioral elements; they may be unstable and impermanent, weakening or strengthening in response to different situations

Surface traits
(ex. neuroticism is the surface trait for source traits of anxiety, indecision and irrational fear)

608

To Cattell, source traits that depend on our physiological characteristics and have biological origins

Constitutional traits
(ex. carelessness, talkativeness arising from drinking alcohol)

609

To Cattell, source traits that are learned from social and environmental interactions

Environmental-mold traits

610

An objective personality test developed by Cattell from more than two decades of intensive factor-analytic research

Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF)

611

In Cattell's system, the basic elements of personality

Source traits

612

The kind of dynamic, motivating traits which consist of permanent constitutional source traits that provide energy for goal-directed behaviors; basic innate units of motivation

Ergs
(from the Greek word ergon, meaning work or energy)

613

Identify the 11 ergs according to Cattell

Anger
Appeal
Curiosity
Disgust
Gregariousness
Hunger
Protection
Security
Self-Assertion
Self-Submission
Sex

614

To Cattell, the kind of dynamic, motivating traits which involve environmental-mold source traits that motivate behavior; pattern of learned attitudes that focuses on an important aspect of life such as a person's community, spouse, occupation, religion or hobby

Sentiments

615

Identify the main difference between ergs and sentiments

Ergs is a constitutional trait and therefore a permanent structure of the personality. It may strengthen or weaken but cannot disappear.
Sentiment results from learning so it can be unlearned and can disappear so that it is no longer important to a person's life.

616

Cattell's new term for sentiments later on

Socially Shaped Ergic Manifolds (SEMS)

617

Cattell concluded that one-third of our personality is attributed to __ and two-thirds is determined by __.

Heredity; Environment

618

Identify the six stages in the development of personality according to Cattell

Infancy (major formative period)
Childhood (independence from parents and identification with peers)
Adolescence (conflicts about independence, self-assertion and sex)
Maturity (satisfaction with career, marriage and family)
Late maturity (personality changes in response to physical and social circumstances)
Old age (adjustment to loss of friends, career and status)

619

To Cattell, it is that which permits a preduction of what a person will do in a given situation

Personality

620

TRUE OR FALSE: Cattell did not propose any ultimate or nexessary goal that dominates behavior.

TRUE

621

Identify the 3 primary assessment techniques that Cattell utilized in his measurement of personality

Life records (L-data) (observers' ratings of specific behaviors in real-life situations)
Questionnaires (Q-data) (self-report questionnaire ratings of our characteristics, attitudes and interests)
Personality tests (T-data) (data derived from personality tests that are resistant to faking)

622

Examples of tests that Cattell considered to be "objective" because they are resistant to faking

Rorschach, TAT, Word association test
(most psychologists actually refer to these tests as subjective)

623

The 16 PF test, which is intended for use with people aged 16 years and older, is widely used to assess personality for which purposes?

To assess personality for:
Research
Clinical diagnosis
Predicting occupational success

624

Identify the 3 research methods that Cattell utilized to study personality

Bivariate / Two-variable / Univariate approach (standard laboratory experimental method)
Clinical approach (case studies, dream analysis, free association; highly subjective)
Multivariate approach (sophisticated statistical procedure of factor analysis)

625

Identify the 3 forms of factor analysis that Cattell employed

R technique (collecting large amounts of data from a group of people)
P technique (collecting large amount of data from a single subject over a long period)

626

According to Cattell's research, identify the three source traits determined primarily by heredity

Factor F (serious vs happy-go-lucky)
Factor I (tough-minded vs tender-minded or sensitive)
Factor Q3 (uncontrolled vs controlled)

627

Identify the three source traits determined primarily by environment

Factor E (submissive vs dominant)
Factor G (expedient vs conscientious)
Factor Q4 (relaxed vs tense)

628

The study of the relationship between genetic or hereditary factors and personality traits

Behavioral Genetics

629

Theorist who initially planned to study physics at the University of London but due to lacking in requisite academic background, studied psychology instead and made important contribution in supporting the role of inheritance in the description of personality and in integrating the scientific study of personality into psychology as a whole

Hans Eysenck

630

Identify the personality assessment devices that Eysenck developed

Eysenck Personality Inventory
Eysenck Personality Profiler
Maudsley Medical Questionnaire
Maudsley Personality Inventory

631

Although Eysenck used factor analysis to uncover personality traits, he supplemented the method with __ and __ that considered a wide range of variables.

Personality tests; Experimental studies

632

Eysenck and his wife Sybil together deeveloped many of the questionnaires used in their research. The results of their efforts is a personality theory based on three dimensions. Identify them.

E - Extraversion vs Introversion
N - Neuroticism vs Emotional stability
P - Psychoticism vs Impulse control (or superego functioning)

633

Eysenck noted that the dimensions of __ and __ have been recognized as basic elements of personality since the time of the ancient Greek philosophers and that formulations of the same dimensions could be found on nearly every personality assessment device ever developed.

Extraversion; Neuroticism

634

Identify the personality traits associated with the Extraversion dimension

Sociable
Lively
Active
Assertive
Sensation seeking
Carefree
Dominant
Venturesome

635

Identify the personality traits associated with the Neuroticism dimension

Anxious
Depressed
Guilt feelings
Low self-esteem
Tense
Irrational
Shy
Moody

636

Identify the personality traits associated with the Psychoticism dimension

Aggressive
Cold
Egocentric
Impersonal
Impulsive
Antisocial
Creative
Tough-minded

637

Although Eysenck did not list it as a personality dimension, he considered it an important influence on personality.

Intelligence
He noted that a person with an IQ of 120 is likely to have a more complex and multidimensional personality than is a person with an IQ of 80.

638

Both Cattell and Eysenck proposed that __ of intelligence is inherited, leaving only the rest as a product of social and environmental forces.

80%

639

Eysenck found that extraverts have a __ base level of cortical arousal than introverts do, implying that these differences are genetically based.

Lower
Because the cortical arousal levels for extraverts are low, they need and actively seek excitement and stimulation.

640

Research showed that people high in __ dimension seemed to function best in busy situation where they were forced to work harder.

Neuroticism

641

People high in neuroticism seem to have greater activity in the brain areas that control the __ branch of the __ nervous system. This is the body's alarm system, which responds to stressful or dangerous events by increasing breathing rate, heart rate, blood flow to the muscles and release of adrenaline.

Sympathetic; Autonomic

642

TRUE OR FALSE: Eysenck believed that society needs the diversity provided by people characterized by all aspects of the three personality dimensions. However some people will adapt to the social environment better than others will.

TRUE

643

Some personality researchers have expressed dissatisfaction with Cattell's and Eysenck's theories, suggesting that Eysenck has too few dimensions and Cattell has too many factors. Name the two theorists who embarked on an extensive research program at the Gerontology Research Center of the NIH Baltimore, Maryland and identified the Big Five personality factors.

Robert McCrae and Paul Costa

644

Identify the Big Five factors of McCrae and Costa

Neuroticism
Extraversion
Openness
Agreeableness
Conscientiousness

645

Identify which of the Big Five factors involves the following description: Good-natured, softhearted, trusting, courteous

Agreeableness

646

Identify which of the Big Five factors involves the following description: Careful, reliable, hardworking, organized

Conscientiousness

647

Identify which of the Big Five factors involves the following description: Sociable, talkative, fun-loving, affectionate

Extraversion

648

Identify which of the Big Five factors involves the following description: Worried, insecure, nervous, highly strung

Neuroticism

649

Identify which of the Big Five factors involves the following description: Original, independent, creative, daring

Openness

650

The personality test developed by McCrae and Costa reflecting the Big Five personality factors

NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI)

651

Agreeableness and conscientiousness in the McCrae-Costa model may represent the low end of Eysenck's __ dimension

Psychoticism
(low end is emotional stability)

652

__ facet of neuroticism and the __ facet of extraversion are the most consistent predictors of general life satisfaction and emotional well-being

Depression; Positive emotions/Cheerfulness

653

More physical illness and psychological distress has been associated with high scores on the __ factor.

Neuroticism

654

People high in __ tend to have a wide range of intellectual interests and to seek challenges. Together with __, people with high scores are more likely to be self-employed.

Openness; Extraversion

655

The __ factor was also shown to be a valid predictor of job performance for professional, police, managerial, sales and skilled labor jobs.

Conscientiousness

656

Proposed a six-factor model of personality called the HEXACO

Michael Ashton and Kibeom Lee

657

Identify the six personality factors of Ashton and Lee's HEXACO model

Honesty/humility
Emotionality
EXtraversion
Agreeableness
Conscientiousness
Openness to experience

658

Identify the personality factor of the HEXACO model which involves the following description: Discplined, diligent, thorough, precise VERSUS reckless, lazy, irresponsible, absent-minded

Conscientiousness

659

Identify the personality factor of the HEXACO model which involves the following description: Emotional, oversensitive, faithful, anxious VERSUS brave, tough, self-assured, stable

Emotionality

660

Identify the personality factor of the HEXACO model which involves the following description: Tolerant, peaceful, gentle, agreeable VERSUS quarrelsome, stubborn and ill-tempered

Agreeableness

661

Identify the personality factor of the HEXACO model which involves the following description: Outgoing, lively, sociable, cheerful VERSUS shy, passive, withdrawn, reserved

Extraversion

662

Identify the personality factor of the HEXACO model which involves the following description: Creative, innovative, unconventional VERSUS shallow, conventional, unimaginative

Openness to experience

663

Identify the personality factor of the HEXACO model which involves the following description: Sincere, honest, faithful VERSUS greedy, pretentious, hypocritical, boastful

Honesty/humility

664

Identify the two self-report inventories used to assess the dimensions of the six-factor model

HEXACO Personality Inventory-R (100 items)
HEXACO-60 (60 items) usi

665

Personality theorist who emphasized the uniqueness of the individual; known for spelling out 50 definitions of personality

Gordon Allport
He was a social "isolate" who fashioned his own circle of activities. He taught the first personality course offered in American college.

666

Allport considered himself a __ theorist/psychologist while Eysenck, McCrae and Costa were __ theorists

Humanistic; Trait

667

Allport called the study of the individual as __ (synonymous to idiographic approach)

Morphogenic Science

668

Allport defined personality as the __ within the individual of those __ systems that __ his characteristic __. (first in 1937, revised in 1961)

Personality is the DYNAMIC ORGANIZATION within the individual of those PSYCHOPHYSICAL systems that DETERMINE his characteristic BEHAVIOR AND THOUGHT.

669

To Allport, psychologically mature people are characterized by __ behavior; that is, they not only react to external stimuli, but they are capable of consciously acting on their environment in new and innovative ways and causing their environment to react to them.

Proactive

670

To Allport, mature personalities are motivated by __ processes or motivation while disturbed ones are motivated by __ processes.

Conscious; Unconscious

671

Identify Allport's 6 criteria for the mature personality

1. Extension of the sense of self
2. Warm relating of self to others
3. Emotional security or self-acceptance
4. Realistic perception
5. Insight and humor (self-objectification)
6. Unifying pholosophy of life

672

To Allport, the structure of personality or its basic units or building blocks that permit the description of the person in terms of individual characteristics are called __.

Personal Dispositions

673

__ are general characteristics held in common by many people while __ generalized neuropsychic structure (peculiar to the individual) with the capacity to render many stimuli functionally equivalent, and to initiate and guide consistent (equivalent) forms of adaptive and stylistic behavior

Common traits; Personal dispositions

674

To identify personal dispositions, Allport and __ counted nearly 18,000 personally descriptive words in the 1925 edition of __.

Henry Odbert; Webster's New International Dictionary

675

To Allport, __ are relatively stable characteristics (ex. social or introverted) while __ describe temporary characteristics (ex. happy or angry)

Traits; States

676

Identify the levels of personal dispositions according to Allport

Cardinal dispositions (eminent characteristic or ruling passion that dominates life)
Central dispositions (5 to 10 most outstanding characteristics which life focuses)
Secondary dispositions (less conspicuous but far greater in number and occur with some regularity)

677

All personal dispositions are dynamic in the sense that they have motivational power. Some are much more strongly felt than others and Allport called these intensely experienced dispositions __ which received their motivation from basic needs and drives and work to initiate action. Less intensely experienced personal dispositions are called __ and they work to __ action.

Motivational dispositions; Initiate; Stylistic dispositions; Guide

678

To Allport, behaviors and characteristics that people regard as warm, central and important in their lives; it is the warm center of personality and includes those aspects of life important to a sense of self-identity and self-enhancement; also includes values and part of the conscience that is personal and consistent with one's adult beliefs

Proprium
(all characteristics that are "peculiarly mine")

679

Identify behaviors that do not belong to the proprium

Basic drives and needs ordinarily met and satisfied without much difficulty
Tribal customs
Habitual behaviors

680

In terms of motivation, Allport stated that __ are those that reduce a need whereas __ seek to maintain tension and disequilibrium.

Peripheral motives; Propriate strivings

681

__ or homeostatic behaviors refer to people as being motivated primarily by needs to reduce tension; __ behavior refer to people consciously acting on their environment in a manner that permits growth toward psychological health

Reactive; Proactive

682

Most distinctive and controversial postulate of Allport which serves as his explanation for the myriad human motives that seemingly are not accounted for by hedonistic or drive-reduction principles; adult motives are built primarily on conscious, self-sustaining, contemporary systems

Functional Autonomy
(Some, but not all, human motives are functionally independent from the original motive responsible for the behavior.)

683

Identify Allport's requirements of an adequate theory of motivation

1. Will acknowledge the contemporaneity of motives
2. Pluralistic theory - allowing for motives of many types
3. Ascribe dynamic forces to cognitive processes
4. Will allow for the concrete uniqueness of motives

684

Allport defined __ as any acquired system of motivation in which the tensions involved are not of the same kind as the antecedent tensions from which the acquired system developed

Functional Autonomy

685

Identify the two levels of functional autonomy

Perseverative functional autonomy (more elementary; based on simple neurological principles; habits and behaviors not related ro proprium)
Propriate functional autonomy (master system of motivation; self-sustaining motives related to the proprium)

686

Identify Allport's 8 processes that are not functionally autonomous

Biological drives
Motives directly linked to reduction of basic drives
Reflex actions
Constitutional equipment (physique, intelligence, temperament)
Habits in the process of being formed
Patterns of behavior that require primary reinforcement
Sublimations tied to childhood sexual desires
Some neurotic or pathological symptoms

687

TRUE OR FALSE: To Allport, compulsions that can be eliminated through therapy or behavior modification are not functionally autonomous whereas those that are extremely resistant to therapy are self-sustaining and thus functionally autonomous.

TRUE

688

Allport's morphogenic approach to the study of lives is best illustrated in his famous __.

Letters of Jenny
(prior to this, Allport studied the diaries of Marion Taylor)

689

TRUE OR FALSE: Allport maintained a lifelong active interest in the scientific study of religion.

TRUE

690

Allport was also responsible for developing the __ which was aimed in developing ways to reduce racial prejudice.

Contact Hypothesis

691

Identify the optimal conditions stated in Allport's contact hypothesis

1. Equal status between two groups
2. Common goals
2. Cooperation between groups
4. Support of an authority figure, law or custom

692

Trait theorist whose factor analytic technique yielded three general bipolar factors or type

Hans Eysenck

693

Identify the 3 personality factors proposed by Eysenck

Extraversion/introversion
Neuroticism/emotional stability
Psychoticism/superego