Flashcards in Theories of Personality Deck (693):
A pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics that give both consistency and individuality to a person's behavior
Originated from the Latin word "persona" which means theatrical mask
__ contribute to individual differences in behavior, consistency of behavior over time and stability of behavior across situations.
__ are unique qualities of an individual that include such attributes as temperament, physique and intelligence.
A set of related assumptions that allows scientists to use logical deductive reasoning to formulate testable hypotheses
It is the job of an imaginative scientist to begin with the general __, and, through __ reasoning, arrive at a particular __ that can be tested.
Theory; Deductive; Hypothesis
A branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of knowledge
(Theory relates most closely to this branch of philosophy, because it is a tool used by scientists in their pursuit of knowledge.)
The branch of study concerned with observation and classification of data with the verification of general laws through the testing of hypotheses
An educated guess or prediction specific enough for its validity to be tested through the use of the scientific method
A classification of things according to their natural relationships
Examines how scientists' personalities, cognitive processes, developmental histories and social experience affect the kind of science they conduct and the theories they create
Psychology of Science
Enumerate the six criteria that determine the usefulness of a scientific theory
1. Generates Research
2. Is Falsifiable
3. Organizes Data
4. Guides Action
5. Is Internally Consistent
6. Is Parsimonious
A kind of research that is concerned with the measurement, labeling and categorization of the units employed in theory building
The kind of research generated by a useful theory which leads to an indirect verification of the usefulness of the theory
A theory must be evaluated on its ability to be confirmed or disconfirmed; that is, it must be __.
Scientists cannot ask intelligent questions without a __ that organizes their information.
A theory which components are logically compatible, limitations of scope are carefully defined, does not offer explanations that lie beyond that scope, and uses language in a consistent manner is said to be __.
One that defines units in terms of observable events or behaviors that can be measured
Enumerate the six dimensions used as a framework for viewing each theorist's concept of humanity
1. Determinism vs Free Choice
2. Pessimism vs Optimism
3. Causality vs Teleology
4. Conscious vs Unconscious determinants of behavior
5. Biological vs Social influences on personality
6. Uniqueness vs Similarities
The degree to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to measure
The extent to which a measuring instrument yields consistent results
A measuring instrument has __ construct validity to the extent that scores on that instrument correlate highly with scores on a variety of valid measures of that same construct.
An inventory has __ construct validity if it has low or insignificant correlations with other inventories that do not measure that construct.
An inventory has __ construct validity if it discriminates between two groups of people known to be different.
(ex. a personality inventory measuring extraversion should yield higher scores for people known to be extraverted than for people known to be introverted)
The extent that a test predicts some future behavior
The school of psychology founded by John B. Watson that focused on psychology as the study of overt behavior rather than of mental processes
Sigmund Freud's theory of personality and system of therapy for treating mental disorders
(started in 1890s)
In what year did the study of personality became formalized and systematized in American psychology? Primarily through the work of which personality theorist?
1930s; Gordon Allport (at Harvard U)
Allport's landmark book that is generally considered to mark the formal beginning of the study of personality
'Personality: A Psychological Interpretation'
The unique, relatively enduring internal and external aspects of a person's character that influence behavior in different situations
The consistency of response to a psychological assessment device
The extent to which an assessment device measures what it is intended to measure
Enumerate the 5 major approaches to personality assessment
1. Self-report or objective inventories
2. Projective techniques
3. Clinical interviews
4. Behavioral assessment procedures
5. Thought and experience sampling procedures
A personality assessment technique in which subjects answer questions about their behaviors and feelings
The world's most widely used psychological test and has been translated into more than 140 languages
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
(first published in 1943, revised in 1989, consists of 567 statements; MMPI-A for adolescents was developed in 1992 with 478 items)
A personality assessment device in which subjects are presumed to project personal needs, fears and values onto their interpretation or description of an ambiguous stimuli
Identify the two popular projective tests
Rorschach Inkblot Technique; Thematic Apperception Test
Who developed the Rorschach Inkblot Technique and when?
Hermann Rorschach; 1921
(inspired by the game Klecksographie / Blotto)
The most successful basis of the administration, scoring and interpretation of the Rorschach
Who developed the TAT and approximately when?
Henry Murray and Christiana Morgan; 1935
Interpretation of the response with sentence completion tests can be highly subjective. However, some sentence-completion tests, such as the __, provide for more objective scoring.
Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank
Used to obtain valuable information by talking to the person being evaluation and asking relevant questions about past and present life experiences, social and family relationships and the problems that led the person to seek psychological help
In this approach, an observer evaluates a person's behavior in a given situation
A procedure in which a client is asked to write or record thoughts and moods for later analysis by the psychologist
A variation of thought sampling in which the participants are also asked to describe the social and environmental context in which the experience being sampled occurs; the goal of this method is to determine how one's thoughts or moods may be influenced by the context in which they occur
Experience Sampling Method
Identify the 4 major methods used in personality research
1. Clinical Method
2. Experimental Method
3. Virtual Method
4. Correlational Method
__ is the fundamental defining characteristic of scientific research in any discipline.
A detailed history of an individual that contains data from a variety of sources
Case Study / Case History
This kind of method in personality research produce faster responses, are less costly, and have the potential to reach a broader range of subjects
A statistical technique that measures the degree of the relationship between two variables
(expressed by the correlation coefficient)
Sets of principles used to explain a particular class of phenomena; provides the framework for simplifying and describing empirical data in a meaningful way
Theories that are based on data from observations of large numbers of people of diverse natures
Theories that are derived from our observations of a limited number of persons - usually our small circle of relatives, friends and acquaintances
Psychologists recognized that some personality theories have a __ component and may reflect events in that theorist's life as a sort of disguised autobiography.
The first stage in constructing a theory may be based primarily on __, but in later stages these ideas may be modified and refined by the theorist's __ and __ knowledge,
Intuition; Rational and empirical
Considered by many scholars to have been the greatest American psychologist; he believed that biography was a crucial subject for anyone who attempts to study human nature
The view that personality is basically fixed in the early years of life and subject to little change thereafter
A relatively new field of study of the large-scale cultural differences in brain activity and Genetic makeup
Enumerate the several issues that can lead to different images of human nature by personality theorists
1. Free Will vs Determinism
2. Nature vs Nurture
3. Important of the Past vs Present
4. Uniqueness vs Universality
5. Equilibrium vs Growth
6. Optimism vs Pessimism
Personality theory has been influenced more by __ than by any other individual. His system of __ was the first formal theory of personality and is still the best known.
Sigmund Freud; Psychoanalysis
In Freud's system, mental representations of internal stimuli, such as hunger, that drive a person to take certain actions; basic elements of the personality, the motivating forces that drive behavior and determine its direction
Freud's German term for this concept is 'Trieb'
The drive for ensuring survival of the individual and the species by satisfying the needs for food, water, air and sex
To Freud, the form of psychic energy, manifested by the life instincts, that drives a person toward pleasurable behaviors and thoughts
An investment of psychic energy in an object or person
The unconscious drive toward decay, destruction and aggression
The compulsion to destroy, conquer and kill
To Freud, the aspect of personality allied with the instincts; the source of psychic energy
Operated according to the pleasure principle
To Freud, it includes all the sensations and experiences of which we are aware at any given moment
To Freud, contains the major driving power behind all behaviors and is the repository of forces we cannot see or control; home of the instincts, those wishes and desires that direct our behavior
To Freud, the storehouse of memories, perceptions and thoughts of which we are not consciously aware at the moment but that we can easily summon into consciousness
The principle by which the id functions to avoid pain and maximize pleasure
Childlike thinking by which the id attempts to satisfy the instinctual drives
Primary Process Thinking
Mature thought processes needed to deal rationally with the external world
Secondary Process Thought
To Freud, the rational aspect of the personality, responsible for directing and controlling the instincts
The principle by which the ego functions to provide appropriate constraints on the expression of the id instincts
Freud compared the relationship of the ego and the id to that of a __ on a __.
To Freud, the moral aspect of personality; the internalization of parental and societal values and standards
The basis of the moral side of the personality is usually learned by the age of __.
5 or 6
It consists initially of the rules of conduct set down by our parents.
A component of the superego that contains behaviors for which the child has been punished
A component of the superego that contains the moral or ideal behaviors for which a person should strive
To Freud, a feeling of fear and dread without an obvious cause
Kind of anxiety that involves a fear of tangible dangers
Reality Anxiety / Objective Anxiety
(ex. fear of fires, hurricanes, earthquakes, wild animals, speeding cars, etc.)
Kind of anxiety that has its basis in childhood, in a conflict between instinctual gratification and reality; an unconscious fear of being punished for impulsively displaying id-dominated behavior; involves a conflict between id and ego
A kind of anxiety which involves a fear of one's conscience; involves a conflict between id and superego
The prototype of all anxiety; our first experience with anxiety
Strategies the ego uses to defend itself against the anxiety provoked by conflicts of everyday life
2 Characteristics of defense mechanisms
1. They are denials or distortions of reality
2. They operate unconsciously
A defense mechanism that involves unconscious denial of the existence of something that causes anxiety
A defense mechanism that involves denying the existence of an external threat or traumatic event
A defense mechanism that involves expressing an id impulse that is the opposite of the one that is truly driving the person
A defense mechanism that involves attributing a disturbing impulse to someone else
A defense mechanism that involves retreating to an earlier, less frustrating period of life and displaying the usually childish behaviors characteristic of that more secure time
A defense mechanism that involves reinterpreting our behavior to make it more acceptable and less threatening to us
A defense mechanism that involves shifting id impulses from a threatening object or from one that is unavailable to an object that is available
A defense mechanism that involves altering or displacing id impulses by diverting instinctual energy into socially acceptable behaviors
A condition in which a portion of libido remains invested in one of the psychosexual stages because of excessive frustration or gratification
Fixation in this substage of the oral psychosexual stage leads to unusual optimism and dependency; fixated individuals are overly gullible, swallow or believe anything they are told and trust other people inordinately
Oral Incorporative Stage
(such people are labeled oral passive personality types)
Fixation in this substage of oral psychosexual stage leads to excessive pessimism, hostility and aggressiveness; individuals are likely to be argumentative and sarcastic, making so-called biting remarks and displaying cruelty toward others
Oral Aggressive / Oral Sadistic Stage
Individuals with this personality exhibit hostile and sadistic behavior in adult life, including cruelty, destructiveness and temper tantrums
Anal Aggressive Personality
Individuals with this personality are likely to be rigid, compulsively neat, obstinate and overly conscientious
Anal Retentive Personality
During the phallic stage, the unconscious desire of a boy for his mother, accompanied by a desire to replace or destroy his father
A boy's fear during the Oedipal period that his penis will be cut off
During the phallic stage, the unconscious desire of a girl for her father, accompanied by a desire to replace or destroy her mother
The envy the female feels toward the male because the male possesses a penis; this is accompanied by a sense of loss because the female does not have a penis
Individuals who have difficulty establishing mature heterosexual relationships later in life are said by Freud to be likely fixated at this stage
How do boys and girls resolve the conflicts in the phallic stage?
Boys develops strong identification with the father; in girls it cannot be totally resolved which leads to poorly developed superegos in women (girls identify with the mother and repress her love for the father)
The three major structures of the personality have been formed by approximately the age of __.
To Freud, the period from approximately 5 to puberty, during which the sex instinct is dormant, sublimated in school activities, sports and hobbies, and in developing friendships with members of the same sex
The body is becoming physiologically mature and if no major fixations have occurred at an earlier stage of development, the individual may be able to lead a normal life
In Freud's system, there is only one ultimate and necessary goal in life: __
To reduce tension
A technique in which the patient says whatever comes to mind; in other words, it is a kind of daydreaming out loud
The expression of emotions to lead to the reduction of disturbing symptoms
In free association, a blockage or refusal to disclose painful memories
A technique involving the interpretation of dreams to uncover unconscious conflicts
The actual events in the dream
The symbolic meaning of the dream events
Freudian concepts supported by empirical research
Oral and anal personality types
Basic concept of the Oedipal triangle
Resolution of the Oedipal dilemma in women by bearing a child
Perception below the threshold of conscious awareness
Component of the ego which refers to the amount of control we are able to exert over our impulses and feelings
Component of ego which refers to our flexibility in modulating, adjusting, or changing our typical level of ego control to meet the daily changes in our environment
2 degrees of ego control
Under-controlled (in which we are unable to restrain any impulses and feelings) and Over-controlled (in which we tightly inhibit the expression of our impulses)
Define ego control in terms of 3 levels of development
1. Pre-Conformist Level (most primitive, allowing the least control over impulse expression)
2. Conformist Level (moderates impulse expressions in terms of our awareness of the expectations of others and culture's rules of social conduct)
3. Post-Conformist Level (most mature stage; rely more on personal goals)
Substantially revised orthodox psychoanalysis by expanding the role of the ego, arguing that the ego operates independently of the id; one significant contribution is the clarification and refinement of the operation of the defense mechanisms
Outgrowths of psychoanalytic theory that focus more on relationships (such as the mother) that satisfy instinctual needs, rather than on the needs themselves
Object Relations Theories
Gave emphasis on the formation of the nuclear self which is described as the foundation for becoming an independent person, capable of taking initiative and integrating ambitions and ideals
In object relations theory, the people who play such a vital role in our lives that, as infants, we believe they are part of our selves
Emphasized that the first 5 to 6 months of a child's life, in contrast to Freud's stress on the first 5 years, are the basis of adult personality; assumed that babies are born with active fantasy lives that harbor mental representations of Freudian id instincts which the images temporarily satisfy
To Klein, the fantasies experienced in infancy
Jung's theory of personality
To Jung, a broader and more generalized form of psychic energy
Jung's term for personality
Jung's idea that conflict between opposing processes or tendencies is necessary to generate psychic energy
The continuing redistribution of energy within a personality; if the energy expended on certain conditions or activities weakens or disappears, that energy is transferred elsewhere in the personality
A tendency toward balance or equilibrium within the personality; the ideal is an equal distribution of psychic energy over all structures of the personality
To Jung, the conscious aspect of personality
An attitude of the psyche characterized by an orientation toward the external world and other people
An attitude of the psyche characterized by an orientation toward one's own thoughts and feelings
Refer to different and opposing ways of perceiving or apprehending both the external real world and our subjective inner world
(namely Sensing, Intuiting, Thinking and Feeling)
To Jung, eight personality types based on interactions of the attitudes (introversion and extraversion) and the functions (thinking, feeling, sensing and intuiting)
Individuals with this personality type are logical, objective and dogmatic; they live strictly in accordance with society's rules, tend to repress feelings and emotions, to be objective in all aspects of life and to be dogmatic in thoughts and opinions, they may be perceived as rigid and cold, their focus is on learning about the external world and using logical rules to describe and understand it
Individuals with this personality type are emotional, sensitive, sociable; more typical of women than men
Individuals with this personality type are outgoing, pleasure-seeking and adaptable to different kinds of people and changing situations
Individuals with this personality type are creative, able to motivate others and to seize opportunities; tend to find success in business and politics; attracted to new ideas, able to inspire others to accomplish and achieve; tend to be changeable, moving from one idea or venture to another
Individuals with this personality type are more interested in ideas than in people; do not get along well with others and have difficulty communicating ideas; intensely concerned with privacy and prefer to deal with abstractions and theories
Individuals with this personality type are reserved, undemonstrative, yet capable of deep emotion; seem mysterious and inaccessible and tend to be quiet, modest and childish; have little consideration for others' feelings and thoughts and appear withdrawn, cold and self-assured
Individuals with this personality type are passive, calm, outwardly detached, expressing themselves in aesthetic pursuits
Individuals with this personality type are concerned with the unconscious more than everyday reality; tend to be visionaries and daydreamers; considered odd and eccentric, have difficulty coping with everyday life and planning for the future
The reservoir of material that was once conscious but has been forgotten or suppressed
To Jung, a core or pattern of emotions, memories, perceptions and wishes in the personal unconscious organized around a common theme, such as power or status
The deepest level of the psyche containing the accumulation of inherited experiences of human and pre-human species
Images of universal experiences contained in the collective unconscious
(synonymous to primordial images)
The public face or role a person presents to others
Feminine aspects of the male psyche
Masculine aspects of the female psyche
The dark side of the personality; the archetype that contains primitive animal instincts
To Jung, the archetype that represents the unity, integration and harmony of the total personality
To Jung, the ego begins to develop in __, at first in a primitive way.
It is not until __ that the psyche assumes a definite form and content. It is this period that Jung called our psychic birth.
Jung believed that major personality changes occur in __.
Middle age (between the ages of 35 and 40)
A condition of psychological health resulting from the integration of all conscious and unconscious facets of the personality
An innate tendency toward unity or wholeness in the personality, uniting all the opposing aspects within the psyche; the next developmental stage once psyche is individuated
A projective technique in which a person responds to a stimulus word with whatever word comes ti mind
Word Association Test
Similar to catharsis, this technique focuses on the symptoms reported by the patient and attempts to interpret the patient's free associations to those symptoms
A technique involving the interpretation of dreams to uncover unconscious conflicts
To Jung, dreams are __, that is they help us prepare for experiences and events we anticipate will occur; and dreams are __, they help bring about a balance between opposites in the psyche.
An assessment test based on Jung's psychological types and the attitudes of introversion and extraversion
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
It is considered the most visible practical outgrowth of Jung's work on the human personality.
Who developed the MBTI and when?
Katharine Briggs and Isabel Myers; 1920s
Jung's type of case study that involves examining a person's past experiences to identify developmental patterns that may explain present neuroses
To Jung, not only is the __ the source of evil, it is also the source of vitality, spontaneity, creativity and emotion.
Major archetypes according to Jung
Anima and Animus
The anima and animus archetypes refer to Jung's recognition that humans are essentially __.
To Jung, the __ cannot begin to emerge until the other systems of the psyche have developed. This occurs around __, a crucial period of transition in Jung's system.
Self; Middle Age
(Individuation can occur only in middle age)
An assessment instrument deriving from Jung's approach and is a highly popular employee selection technique
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Identify widely-accepted Jungian ideas
Word Association Test
Adler's theory of personality
His approach focused on the uniqueness of each person and denied the universality of biological motives and goals.
To Adler, the normal condition of all people; the source of all human striving
Adler believed that inferiority feelings are always present as a motivating force in behavior.
To Adler, a motivation to overcome inferiority, to strive for higher levels of development
Individual growth results from compensation, from our attempts to overcome our real or imagined inferiorities.
A condition that develops when a person is unable to compensate for normal inferiority feelings
People with an inferiority complex have a poor opinion of themselves and feel helpless and unable to cope with the demands of life.
3 sources in childhood from which an inferiority can arise
1. Organic Inferiority (defective parts or organs of the body)
2. Spoiling (pampering, satisfying every need or whim)
3. Neglect (lack of love and security)
A condition that develops when a person overcompensates for normal inferiority feelings; involves an exaggerated opinion of one's abilities and accomplishments
The urge toward perfection or completion that motivates each of us
Striving for Superiority
Superiority is the ultimate goal toward which we strive. What Adler meant of this was a drive for perfection. Adler suggested that we strive for superiority to perfect ourselves, to make ourselves complete or whole.
The idea that there is an imagined or potential goal that guides our behavior
Adler preferred the terms "subjective final goal" or "guiding self-ideal"
TRUE OR FALSE: Unlike Freud, Adler did not believe that our sole motivation was to reduce tension. Striving for perfection required great expenditures of energy and effort. And the striving for superiority is manifested both by the individual and by society.
A unique character structure or pattern of personal behaviors and characteristics by which each of us strives for perfection
Style of life
The ability to create an appropriate style of life
Creative Power of the Self
Enumerate the 3 universal problems according to Adler
1. Problems involving our behavior toward others
2. Problems of occupation
3. Problems of love
Identify the 4 basic styles of life for dealing with these problems
1. Dominant Type (dominant or ruling attitude with litle social awareness)
2. Getting Type (dependent on others)
3. Avoiding Type (no attempt to face life's problems)
4. Socially Useful Type (cooperates with others)
According to Adler, what is the cause of abnormal behavior?
Clash between style of life and the real world, manifested in neuroses and psychoses
Our innate potential to cooperate with other people to achieve personal and societal goals
from German term 'Gemeinschaftsgefuhl' or 'community feeling'
One of Adler's most enduring contributions is the idea that __ is a major social influence in childhood, one from which we create our style of life.
Order of Birth
Adler believed that __ take an unusual interest in maintaining order and authority. They become good organizers, conscientious and scrupulous about detail, authoritarian and conservative in attitude.
TRUE OR FALSE: Adler liked to use humor in his therapy, sometimes teasing his patients in a light-hearted, friendly way.
Adler's primary methods of assessment
Order of Birth
Adler's purpose in assessing personality was to discover the patient's __ and to determine whether it was the most appropriate one for that person.
Style of Life
A personality assessment technique in which our earliest memories, whether of real events of fantasies, are assumed to reveal the primary interest of our life
(According to Adler, our personality is created during the first four or five years of life.)
How did Adler view the dreams of his patients?
Adler believed that dreams involve our feelings about a current problem and what we intend to do about it.
Identify the most common measures for Adlerian concepts
Social Interest Scale
Social Interest Index
Basic Adlerian Scales for Interpersonal Success
4 types of pampering in childhood according to research
Identify specific Adlerian concepts of lasting importance to psychology
Early work on organic inferiority
Order of bith
Who primarily developed Adlerian counseling techniques?
__ are the source of all human striving, which results from our attempts to compensate for these feelings.
Inferiority feelings are universal and are determined by the infant's __ and __ on adults.
Helplessness and dependency
__ (that is, an inability to solve life's problems) results from being unable to compensate for inferiority feelings.
An inferiority complex can originate in childhood through __, __ or __.
Organic inferiority, spoiling or neglect
__ (an exaggerated opinion of one's abilities and accomplishments) results from __.
Superiority Complex; Overcompensation
Our ultimate goal, according to Adler, is __; that is making the personality whole or complete.
Superiority or perfection
__ refers to unique patterns of characteristics and behaviors by which we strive for perfection.
Style of life
__ refers to fictional ideas, such as perfection, that guide our behavior.
The __ refers to our ability to create our selves from the materials provided by our heredity and environment.
Creative Power of the Self
__ is innate but the extent to which it is realized depends on early social experiences.
Horney believed that __ forces in childhood, not biological forces, influence personality development.
A higher-level need for security and freedom from fear according to Horney
To Horney, whether the infant experiences a feeling of security and an absence of fear is decisive in determining the normality of his or her personality development.
A pervasive feeling of loneliness and helplessness; the foundation of neurosis
According to Horney, how do we protect/defend ourselves against basic anxiety?
Securing affection and love
Ten irrational defenses against anxiety that become a permanent part of personality and that affect behavior
(irrational solutions to one's problems; these needs encompass the 4 ways of protecting ourselves against anxiety)
Enumerate the 10 neurotic needs organized under the 4 ways of protecting ourselves against anxiety
Securing affection and love: 1. Affection and approval
Being submissive: 2. A dominant partner
Attaining power: 3. Power; 4. Exploitation; 5. Prestige; 6. Admiration; 7. Achievement or Ambition
Withdrawing: 8. Self-sufficiency; 9. Perfection; 10. Narrow limits to life
The categories of behaviors and attitudes toward oneself and others that express a person's needs; Horney's revision of the concept of neurotic needs
Identify the neurotic trends
1. Movement toward other people
2. Movement against other people
3. Movement away from other people
Behaviors and attitudes associated with the neurotic trend of moving toward people, such as a need for affection and approval
Individuals seem unusually considerate, appreciative, responsive, understanding and sensitive to the needs of others.
Behaviors and attitudes associated with the neurotic trend of moving against people, such as a domineering and controlling manner
Individuals act tough and domineering and have no regard for others; they are likely to argue, criticize, demand, and do whatever is necessary to achieve and retain superiority and power.
Behaviors and attitudes associated with the neurotic trend of moving away from people, such as an intense need for privacy
Individuals have an almost desperate desire for privacy; need independence; tend to avoid long-term commitments; place great stress on reason, logic and intelligence
To Horney, the basic incompatibility of the neurotic trends and the core of neurosis
According to Horney, the normal person is __ in behaviors and attitudes and can __ to changing situations
Described the idealized self-image of normal people vs neurotics
Normal people: self-image is an idealized picture of oneself built on a flexible, realistic assessment of one's abilities
Neurotics: self-image is based on an inflexible, unrealistic self-appraisal
An attempt to realize an unattainable idealized self-image by denying the true self and behaving in terms of what we think we should be doing
Tyranny of the Shoulds
A way to defend against the conflict caused by the discrepancy between an idealized and a real self-image by projecting the conflict onto the outside world
To Horney, a revision of psychoanalysis to encompass the psychological conflicts inherent in the traditional ideal of womanhood and women's roles
The envy a male feels toward a female because she can bear children and he cannot
Horney's response to Freud's concept of penis envy in females
As a result of feelings of inferiority, woman may choose to deny their feminity and to wish, unconsciously, that they were men. Horney referred to this as the __, a condition that can lead to sexual inhibitions.
Flight from Womanhood
To Horney, __ is our ultimate and necessary goal in life.
Unlike Freud, in using this technique, Horney focused on her patient's visible emotional reactions toward her, believing that these could explain her patient's attitudes toward other people.
Horney believed that __ could reveal a person's true self, and they represented attempts to solve problems, in either a constructive or a neurotic way.
Enumerate tests devised to evaluated Horney's neurotic trends
Compliant, Aggressive and Detached (CAD)
Horney-Coolidge Type Indicator
An indiscriminate need to win at all costs
The twin cornerstones of psychoanalysis; according to Freud are the two major sources of motivation
Sex and Aggression
Origin of the term psycho-analysis
A Berlin physician who served as sounding board for Freud's newly developing ideas; their correspondence constitute a firsthand account of the beginnings of psychoanalysis and reveal the embryonic stage of Freudian theory
Freud's official biographer who believed that Freud suffered from a severe psychoneurosis during the late 1890s
Freud's personal physician during the final decade of his life
A period in Freud's life characterized by depression, neurosis, psychosomatic ailments and an intense preoccupation with some form of creative activity
Freud's greatest work
'Interpretation of Dreams'
To Freud, a portion of our unconscious originates from the experiences of our early ancestors that have been passed on to us through hundreds of generations of repetition; he called these inherited unconscious image as __
(When explanations built on individual experiences were not adequate, Freud would turn to the idea of collectively inherited experiences to fill in the gaps.)
Identify the German and English translations of the 3 personality structures according to Freud
ID = das Es = "it"
Ego = das Ich = "I"
Superego = das Uber-Ich = "over-I"
Identify the corresponding principles that the id, ego and superego operates
Id = pleasure principle
Ego = reality principle
Superego = moralistic / idealistic principle
Identify the 2 subsystems of the superego
Conscience (results from experiences with punishments for improper behavior; what we should not do)
Ego Ideal (develops from experiences with rewards for proper behavior; what we should do)
A well-developed superego acts to control sexual and aggressive impulses through the process of __.
A universal condition whereby infants are primarily self-centered, with their libido invested almost exclusively on their own ego
A condition whereby children give up much of their primary narcissism and develop a greater interest in other people only to redirect their libido back to the ego and become preoccupied with personal appearance and other self-interests during puberty
The need for sexual pleasure by inflicting pain or humiliation on another person
(Carried to an extreme, considered a sexual perversion; in moderation, common need and exists to some extent in all sexual relationships)
The need to experience sexual pleasure from suffering pain and humiliation inflicted either by themselves or by others
What major development in Freud's theory of personality occurred during World War I?
Freud elevated aggression to the level of the sexual drive as primary motivating forces
A felt, affective, unpleasant state accompanied by a physical sensation that warns the person against impending danger
Only the ego can produce or feel anxiety, but the id, superego and external world are involved in one of three kinds of anxiety -- __ (results from ego's dependence on the id); __ (results from ego's dependence on superego); __ (results from ego's dependence on the outer world).
Neurotic Anxiety (ego's dependence on the id)
Moral Anxiety (ego's dependence on the superego)
Realistic Anxiety (ego's dependence on the outer world)
A defense mechanism whereby people incorporate positive qualities of another person into their own ego
Identify 2 subphases in the oral psychosexual stage of development
Oral-receptive (infants incorporate or receive into one's body the object-choice, the nipple)
Oral-sadistic (infants respond to others through biting, cooing, closing their mouth, smiling and crying)
Identify the anal triad
Identify the parallel paths of the simple male and female phallic phases
MALE: Oedipus complex > Castration complex (castration anxiety) > Identification with father > Strong superego
FEMALE: Castration complex (penis envy) > Oedipus complex > Identification with mother > Weak superego
The purpose of psychoanalysis is to strengthen the __.
Refers to the strong sexual or aggressive feelings, positive or negative, that patients develop toward their analyst during the course of treatment
A variety of unconscious responses used by patients to block their own progress in therapy
The basic assumption of Freud's dream analysis is that nearly all dreams are __. However, an exception to the rule that dreams are like these is found in patients suffering from a traumatic experience. Dreams of these people follow the principle of __ .
Wish Fulfillments; Repetition Compulsion
The disguise in dreams can operate in two basic ways. __ refers to the fact that the manifest dream content is not as extensive as the latent level; __ means that the dream image is replaced by some other idea only remotely related to it.
Freud referred to it as the "royal road" to knowledge of the unconscious and considered it the most reliable approach to the study of unconscious processes
Dream Interpretation / Analysis
German origin of Freudian slips / parapraxes
Give examples of them
Fehlleistung or "faulty function"
(ex. misreading, incorrect hearing, misplacing objects, temporarily forgetting names or intentions)
The most active person involved in integrating psychoanalytic theory and neuroscientific research; Identify Freudian concepts that have support from modern neuroscience
Unconscious motivation, repression, pleasure principle, primitive drives, dreams
A major theme of cognitive psychology over the last 20 years which refer to mental processes that are neither in awareness nor under intentional control, thereby come close to Freud's definition of unconscious
Nonconscious Mental Processing
(implicit / nonconscious / automatic thought and memory)
Neuroscientific research established that pleasure-seeking drives have their neurological origins in these two brain structures; and this neurotransmitter is most centrally involved in most pleasure-seeking behaviors
Limbic system and brain stem; Dopamine
Key brain structures responsible for dreams including the conversion of latent content into manifest content
Basal ganglia and Amygdala
Presents an optimistic view of people while resting heavily on the notion of social interest, that is, a feeling of oneness with all humankind
Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology
Identify major differences between Freud's psychoanalysis and Adler's individual psychology
1. Freud reduced all motivation to sex and aggression; Adler saw people as being motivated mostly by social influences and by their striving for superiority or success
2. Freud assumed people have little or no choice in shaping their personality; Adler believed people are largely responsible for who they are
3. Freud assumed that present behavior is caused by past experiences; Adler believed that it is shaped by people's view of the future
4. Freud placed very heavy emphasis on unconscious components of behavior; Adler believed that psychologically healthy people are usually aware of what and why they are doing
A weak and sickly boy at age 5 (had rickets and nearly died of pneumonia) so at that age he decided that his goal in life would be to conquer death
To Adler, people are born with weak, inferior bodies -- a condition that leads to __
To Adler, the one dynamic force behind people's behavior is the __
Striving for success or superiority
To Adler, people's __ shape their behavior and personality
To Adler, personality is __ and __.
Unified and Self-consistent
To Adler, the value of all human activity must be seen from the viewpoint of __.
To Adler, the self-consistent personality develops into a person's __.
Style of life
To Adler, style of life is molded by __, using the raw materials provided by __ and __.
Creative power; Heredity and environment
People who strive for personal superiority over others are __ while people who are motivated by highly developed social interest are __.
Striving for superiority; Striving for success
When an individual's __ is known, all actions make sense and each subgoal takes on new significance.
People who strive for superiority with little or no concern for others and who have personal goals and strivings motivated largely by exaggerated feelings of personal inferiority have __.
Ideas that have no real existence, yet they influence people as if they really existed
(ex. "Men are superior to women"; "Humans have a free will that enables them to make choices"; "God rewards good and punishes evil")
Adler adopted a __ view, one in which people are motivated by present perceptions of the future.
Adler insisted that the whole human race is "blessed" with __, or physical handicaps that have little or no importance by themselves but become meaningful when they stimulate feelings of inferiority, which serve as an impetus toward __ or __.
Organ Inferiorities; Perfection or Completion
In choosing the term __, Adler wished to stressed his belief that each person is unique and indivisible.
Through __, the body's organs speak a language which is usually more expressive and discloses the individual's opinion more clearly than words are able to do
Roughly means a feeling of oneness with all humanity; an attitude of relatedness with humanity in general as well as an empathy for each member of the human community
Gemeinschaftsgefuhl / Social feeling / Community Feeling / Social Interest
(it originates from the mother-child relationship during the early months of infancy)
Adler believed that after age __, the effects of heredity become blurred by the powerful influence of the child's social environment. By this time, environmental forces have modified or shaped nearly every aspect of a child's personality.
Adler's yardstick for measuring psychological health and is thus the sole criterion of human values
A person's goal, self-concept, feelings for others and attitude toward the world; term Adler used to refer to the flavor of a person's life
Style of life
(a product of the interaction of heredity, environment and a person's creative power; it is well established by age 4 or 5)
To Adler, the 3 major problems of life
A dynamic concept implying movement; places people in control of their lives, responsible for their final goal, determines their method of striving for that goal and contributes to the development of social interest
To Adler, the one factor underlying all types of maladjustments; identify the common characteristics
Underdeveloped Social Interest;
Set their goals too high; Live in their own private world; Have a rigid and dogmatic style of life
Identify 3 contributing factors to abnormality according to Adler
1. Exaggerated physical deficiencies
2. Pampered style of life
3. Neglected style of life
According to Adler, these protective devices that operate consciously and enable neurotic people to hide their inflated self-image and to maintain their current style of life; identify the 3 major types and subtypes
1. Excuses (most common)
(2.a) Depreciation (undervalue other people's achievements and overvalue one's own)
(2.b) Accusation (blame others for one's failures and seek revenge)
(2.c) Self-Accusation (self-torture and guilt)
(3.a) Moving backward (psychological reverting to a more secure period of life)
(3.b) Standing still (do not move in any direction)
(3.c) Hesitating (procrastination, compulsive behaviors)
(3.d) Constructing obstacles
To Adler, a condition characterized by the overemphasis on the importance of being manly
(results from cultural and social influences)
Identify applications of individual psychology
Family Constellation (birth order, gender of siblings, age spread between them)
Early Recollections (consistent with present style of life)
Dreams (provide clues for solving future problems)
Psychotherapy (goal is to enhance courage, lessens feelings of inferiority and encourage social interest)
Theory of personality which rests on the assumption that occult phenomena can and do influence the lives of everyone
Carl Jung's Analytical Psychology
Jung saw __ as the center of consciousness but not the core of personality; __ is the center of personality that is largely unconscious
The __ embraces all repressed, forgotten or subliminally perceived experiences of one particular individual; its contents are called __ which are emotionally toned conglomeration of associated ideas.
Personal Unconscious; Complexes
The __ has roots in the ancestral past of the entire species; its contents are __ or ancient or archaic images
Collective Unconscious; Archetypes
Dreams associated with the collective unconscious with meaning beyond the individual dreamer and filled with significance for people of every time and place
To Jung, unconscious physical impulse toward action
(its psychic counterpart is the archetype)
Identify several modes where an archetype can express itself
Dreams (main source)
To Jung, the side of personality that people show to the world
To Jung, the archetype of darkness and repression; consists of morally objectionable tendencies as well as constructive and creative qualities; knowing this is a person's first test of courage
The feminine side of men is __ and the masculine side of women is __; becoming well acquainted with these is a person's second test of courage, a task requiring great courage and even more difficult than becoming acquainted with shadow
Anima (responsible for irrational moods and feelings);
Animus (symbolic of thinking and reasoning)
Archetype that represents two opposing forces - fertility and nourishment on the one hand and power and destruction on the other
Archetype of wisdom and meaning
Wise Old Man
Archetype usually represented in mythology and legends as a powerful person, sometimes part god, who fights against great odds to conquer or vanquish evil with a fatal flaw; serves our model for the ideal personality
The archetype of archetypes; innate disposition to move toward growth, perfection and completion
(pulls together the other archetypes and unites them in the process of self-realization)
Ultimate symbol of the self; symbolizes a person's ideas of perfection, completion and wholeness; represents the strivings of the collective unconscious for unity, balance and wholeness
According to Jung, what are the steps that people have to take to actualize or fully experience the self
1. Overcome fear of the unconscious
2. Prevent persona from dominating personality
3. Recognize the dark side of themselves (shadow)
4. Muster even greater courage to face their anima or animus
To Jung, adaptation to the outside world involving the forward flow of psychic energy is called __ whereas adaptation to the inner world which relies on a backward flow of psychic energy is called __
To Jung, a predisposition to act or react in a characteristic direction
(Can be introverted and extraverted)
To Jung, a function characterized by logical intellectual activities that produces a chain of ideas
Compare and contrast extraverted vs. introverted thinking
Extraverted thinking: people rely heavily on concrete thoughts but may use abstract ideas if they have been transmitted from without; objective in their approach (ex. mathematicians, engineers, accountants)
Introverted thinking: people react to external stimuli but interpretation is influenced by internal meaning (ex. inventors, philosophers)
To Jung, a function characterized by the process of evaluating an idea of event; evaluation of every conscious activity
Compare and contrast extraverted vs. introverted feeling
Extraverted feeling: people use objective data to make evaluations; guided by external values and widely accepted standards of judgment (businessmen, politicians, real estate appraisers, objective movie critics)
Introverted feeling: people base value judgments primarily on subjective perceptions; ignore traditional opinions and beliefs (subjective movie critics, art appraisers)
To Jung, a function characterized by receiving physical stimuli and trasmitting them to perceptual consciousness; individual's perception of sensory impulses
Compare and contrast extraverted vs. introverted sensing
Extraverted sensing: people perceive external stimuli objectively, in the same way these stimuli exist in reality (proofreader, house painter, popular musicians, wine taster)
Introverted sensing: people are largely influenced by subjective sensory sensations; guided by interpretation of sense stimuli rather than the stimuli themselves (portrait artists, classical musicians)
To Jung, a function that involves perception beyond the workings of consciousness; more creative, often adding or subtracting elements from conscious sensation
Compare and contrast extraverted vs. introverted intuiting
Extraverted intuiting: people are oriented toward facts in the external world; perceive them subliminally; guided by hunches and guesses contrary to sensory data (some inventors, religious reformers)
Introverted intuiting: people are guided by unconscious perception of facts that are basically subjective; subjective intuitive perceptions are remarkably strong and capable of motivating decisions of monumental magnitude (mystics, prophets, surrealistic artists, religious fanatics)
Stages of development according to Jung
Childhood (anarchic phase, monarchic, dualistic)
A desire to live in the past, commonly experienced in youth stage and later stages
According to Jung, __ is the goal of life and that life can be fulfilling only when seen in this light.
Jung's another term for psychological rebirth, which is the process of becoming an individual or whole person; process of integrating the opposite poles into a single homogenous individual
Self-Realization / Individuation
Identify Jung's primary methods of investigation
Word Association Test
Identify the kinds of dreams which offered proof for the existence of the collective unconscious according to Jung
Big Dreams (have special meaning for all people)
Typical Dreams (common to most people)
Earliest dreams remembered (contain mythological and symbolic images and motifs, can be traced back to age 3 or 4)
Jung's method which requires a person to begin with any impression (image, vision, picture or fantasy) and to concentrate until the impression begins to "move"; a useful technique to become better acquainted with one's collective and personal unconscious
Identify Jung's alternatives or variations to active imagination
Draw, paint or express in some other nonverbal manner the progression of one's fantasies
Identify Jung's 4 basic approaches to therapy
1. Confession of a pathogenic secret (use of catharsis)
2. Interpretation, explanation and elucidation (gives patient insight into the cause of neuroses)
3. Education of patients as social beings (enable patient to solve social problems and become socially well adjusted)
4. Transformation (therapist must first be transformed into a healthy human being to be able to help patients move toward individuation)
TRUE OR FALSE: Jung was quite eclectic in his theory and practice of psychotherapy. His treatment varied according to the age, state of development and particular problem of the patient.
A term used to describe a therapist's feelings toward the patient
Theory which stressed the importance of the first 4 to 6 months after birth and stated that the child's relation to the breast is fundamental and serves as a prototype for later relations
Melanie Klein's Object Relations Theory
Object relation theory generally sees __ and __ as the prime motive of human behavior.
Human contact and relatedness
To Klein, any person, part of a person, or thing through which the aim is satisfied
Identify the major differences between Freud's psychoanalysis and Klein's object relations theory
1. Freud emphasized biologically based drives; Klein placed more importance on consistent patterns of interpersonal relationships
2. Freud emphasized the power and control of father; Klein stressed the intimacy and nurturing of the mother
3. Freud saw sexual pleasure as prime motive of human behavior; Klein considered human contact and relatedness
To Klein, psychic representations of unconscious id instincts
Klein saw human infants as constantly engaging in a basic conflict between __ and __.
Life instinct and Death instinct
Identify the two basic positions or ways of dealing with both internal and external objects according to Klein
Describe the Paranoid-Schizoid Position
A way of organizing experiences that includes both paranoid feelings of being persecuted and a splitting of internal and external objects into the good and the bad; occurs during the first 3-4 months of life; infant attaches a positive value to nourishment and life instinct and assigns negative value to hunger and death instinct
Describe the Depressive Position
Begins at about the 5th-6th month, infants view external objects as whole and see that good and bad can exist in the same person; characterized by feelings of anxiety over losing a loved object coupled with a sense of guilt to destroy that object
Identify the psychic defense mechanisms that children adopt to protect their ego against the anxiety aroused by their own destructive fantasies according to Klein
Introjection (infants fantasize taking into their body the perceptions and experiences they had with the good external object)
Projection (fantasy that one's own feelings and impulses actually reside in another person)
Splitting (keeping apart incompatible impulses; infant develops the "good me" and the "bad me")
Projective Identification (infants split off unacceptable parts of themselves, project them into another object and finally introject them back into themselves in a changed form)
When objective relations theories speaks of __, they mean that the person takes in (introjects) aspects of the external world and then organizes those introjections into a psychologically meaningful framework.
In Kleinian theory, three important internalizations
Theorist primarily concerned with the psychological birth of the individual that takes place during the first 3 years of life
By psychological birth, Mahler meant that the child becomes an individual separate from his or her primary caregiver, an accomplishment that leads ultimately to a __.
Sense of identity
3 major developmental stages that a child goes through to achieve psychological birth and individuation according to Mahler
1. Normal Autism (birth to 3-4 weeks)
2. Normal Symbiosis (4-5 weeks to 4-5 months)
3. Separation-Individuation (4-5 months to 30-36 months)
Describe the Normal Autism Stage of Mahler
In this stage,a newborn infant satisfies various needs within the all-powerful protective orbit of a mother's care; period of absolute primary narcissism; objectless stage
Describe the Normal Symbiosis Stage of Mahler
In this stage, infants recognize their primary caregiver and seek a symbiotic relationship with her; this symbiosis is characterized by a mutual cuing of infant (hunger, pain, pleasure) and mother (feeding, holding, smiling); mothers and others are still preobjects
Describe the Separation-Individuation Stage of Mahler
In this stage, children become psychologically separated from their mothers, achieve a sense of individuation and begin to develop feelings of personal identity; consists of 4 overlapping substages
Explain the 4 substages of the Separation-Individuation Stage of Mahler
a. Differentiation (5 months to 7-10 months; bodily breaking way from the mother-infant symbiotic orbit)
b. Practicing (7-10 months to 15-16 months;children distinguish their body from their mother's, establish a specific bond with her and begin to develop an autonomous ego)
c. Rapprochement (16 to 25 months; desire to bring their mother and themselves back together both physically and psychologically; separation anxiety occurs)
d. Libidinal Object Constancy (3 years; children develop constant inner representation of mother so they can tolerate being physically separate; learn to develop other object relationships)
Theorist who emphasized the process by which the self evolves from a vague and undifferentiated image to a clear and precise sense of individual identity; also focused on early mother-child relationships as key to understanding later development but believed that human relatedness, not innate instinctual drives, are at the core of human personality
Kohut defined __ as the center of the individual's psychological universe.
Two basic narcissistic needs according to Kohut
1. Need to exhibit the grandiose self
2. Need to acquire an idealized image of one or both parents
To Kohut, it is established when the infant relates to a "mirroring" selfobject (parent) who reflects approval of its behavior
Grandiose Exhibitionistic Self
("If others see me as perfect, them I am perfect")
To Kohut, it implies that someone else is perfect but also satisfies a narcissistic need
Idealized Parent Image
("You are perfect, but I am part of you")
His knowledge of ethology and evolutionary theory, he integrated object relations theory with an evolutionary perspective; he believed that attachments formed during childhood have an important impact on adulthood
3 stages of Separation Anxiety according to John Bowlby
1. Protest Stage (infants cry, resist soothing by other people and search for caregiver)
2. Despair (infants become quiet, sad, passive, listless and apathetic)
3. Detachment (infants become emotionally detached from other people)
2 fundamental assumptions of Bowlby's theory
1. A responsive and accessible caregivers (usually mother) must create a secure base for the child.
2. A bonding relationship (or lack thereof) becomes internalized and serves a mental working model on which future friendships and love relationships are built.
Developed a technique for measuring the type of attachment style that exists between caregiver and infant
Mary Ainsworth; this technique is called Strange Situation
Describe the Strange Situation
A procedure which consists of a 20-minute laboratory session in which a mother and infant are initially alone in a playroom; then a stranger comes into the room and interacts with the infant briefly; the mother then goes away for two separate 2-minute periods; the critical period is how the infant reacts when the mother returns and is the basis of the attachment style rating
Identify the 3 attachment style ratings found by Ainsworth and associates
1. Secure Attachment (infants are happy and enthusiastic and initiate contact)
2. Anxious-Resistant Attachment (infants seek contact with mother but reject attempts at being soothed)
3. Anxious-Avoidant Attachment (infants ignore and avoid mother)
Pioneered the use of psychoanalysis with children; believed that disturbed children would receive the benefit of therapeutic treatment whereas healthy children would profit from prophylactic analysis
Klein substituted __ for Freudian dream analysis and free association in child psychonalysis
A self-report questionnaire that identifies four main aspects of object relations: Alienation, Attachment, Egocentricity and Social Incompetence
Bell Object Relations Inventory (BORI)
Built on the assumption that social and cultural conditions, especially childhood experiences, are largely responsible for shaping personality
Karen Horney's Psychoanalytic Social Theory
Identify Horney's 3 fundamental styles of relating to others, which she called the neurotic trends
1. Moving toward people
2. Moving against people
3. Moving away from people
Explain the consequences of compulsive behavior of neurotic people according to Horney
Compulsive behavior arises from neurotic people's tendency to rigidly rely on one style of relating to others and this generates intrapsychic conflict which may take the form of either Idealized Self-image(neurotic search for glory, neurotic claims or neurotic pride) or Self-Hatred (self-contempt or alienation from self).
According to Horney, man is ruled by these 2 guiding principles
Safety and Satisfaction
Horney repeatedly emphasized __ influences as the primary bases for both neurotic and normal personality development.
Horney contended that modern culture is based on __ among individuals. Competitiveness and the __ it spawns result in feelings of __.
Competition; Basic Hostility; Isolation
Horney believed that neurotic conflict can stem from almost any developmental stage, but __ is the age from which the vast majority of problems arise. Debilitating experiences can be traced to lack of __ and __.
Childhood; Genuine Warmth and Affection
According to Horney, if parents do not satisfy the child's needs for safety and satisfaction, the child develops feelings of __ toward the parents.
A feeling of being isolated and helpless in a world conceived as potentially hostile
Identify Horney's 4 general ways that people protect themselves against basic anxiety or the feeling of being alone in a potentially hostile world
To Horney, __ is the salient or important characteristic of all neurotic drives.
These are more specific needs, stated by Horney, that characterize neurotics in their attempts to combat basic anxiety; they describe the 4 basic protective strategies stated by Horney earlier
Identify Horney's 10 neurotic needs
1. Affection and Approval
2. Powerful Partner
3. Restrict One's Life Within Narrow Borders
5. Exploit Others
6. Social Recognition or Prestige
7. Personal Admiration
8. Ambition and Personal Achievement
9. Self-Sufficiency and Independence
10. Perfection and Unassailability
Compare and contrast the personality of normal people vs. neurotic people in terms of the 3 neurotic trends
Moving toward people: Normal people (friendly, loving personality) vs. Neurotic people (compliant personality)
Moving against people: Normal people (survivor in a competitive society) vs. neurotic people (aggressive personality)
Moving away from people: Normal people (autonomous, serene personality) vs. Neurotic people (detached personality)
To Horney, an intrapsychic conflict which is an attempt to solve conflicts by painting a godlike picture of oneself; an extravagantly positive view of themselves that exists only in ther personal belief system
Compliant (good and saintly)
Aggressive (strong, heroic, omnipotent)
Detached (wise, self-sufficient, independent)
To Horney, an intrapsychic conflict which is an irrational and powerful tendency to despise one's real self
Identify the 3 aspects of the idealized image
Neurotic search for glory
To Horney, it is one aspect of the idealized image which refers to the comprehensive drive toward actualizing the ideal self
Neurotic search for glory
Has 3 elements: Need for perfection, Neurotic ambition, Drive toward a vindictive triumph
To Horney, one aspect of the idealized image where neurotics build a fantasy world and proclaimed they are special and entitled to be treated in accordance with their idealized view of themselves
To Horney, another aspect of the idealized image which is a false pride based not on a realistic view of true self but on a spurious image of the idealized self
To Horney, an intrapsychic conflict of neurotic people who realize that their real self does not match the insatiable demands of their idealized self so they begin to despise themselves
Identify the 6 major ways in which people express self-hatred according to Horney
Relentless demands on the self (tyranny of the should)
Merciless self-accusation (berate themselves)
Self-contempt (belittling or ridiculing oneself)
Self-frustration (shackled by taboos against enjoyment)
Self-torment (inflict harm or suffering on themselves)
Self-destructive actions and impulses (overeating, abusing alcohol and drugs)
Horney believed that the __ is found only in some people and is an expression of the neurotic need for love.
Horney believed that psychic differences between men and women are not the result of anatomy but rather of __ and __.
Cultural and Social Expectations
Identify the favorable or positive counterparts of Horney's 3 neurotic trends
Love (moving toward people)
Mastery (moving against people)
Freedom (moving away from people)
Aim of Horneyian therapy and the techniques used
Grow in the direction of self-realization or actualization of the real self
Dream interpretation and Free Association
Horney's perspective on dream interpretation and free association
Horney saw dreams as attempts to solve conflicts, but the solutions can be either neurotic or healthy. Together with free association, they eventually reveal patients' idealized self-image and persistent but unsuccessful attempts at accomplishing it.
Horney is known for her lucid portrayal of the __ personality.
The inability of people to use different tactics in their relationships with others generates __; that is, the incompatible tendency to move toward, against and away from people
Theory of personality which looks at people from a historical and cultural perspective, takes an evolutionary view of humanity and assumes that humanity's separation from the natural world has produced feelings of loneliness and isolation
Erich Fromm's Humanistic Psychoanalysis
According to Fromm, humans have are distinct from all animals due to __ and __.
Weak instincts and highly developed brain
According to Fromm, capitalism has contributed to the growth of leisure time and personal freedom but has also resulted in feelings of __, __ and __.
Anxiety, Isolation and Powerlessness
Identify five important influences on Fromm's thinking
Teachings of humanistic rabbis
Revolutionary spirit of Karl Marx
Revolutionary ideas of Sigmund Freud
Rationality of Zen Buddhism
Writings of Johann Bachofen on matriarchal societies
Fromm's most basic assumption is that individual personality can be understood only in the light of __.
A condition wherein humans have no powerful instincts to adapt to a changing world; instead, they have acquired the facility to reason
Enumerate existential dichotomies
1. We are aware that we will die, but we try to negate this by postulating life after death.
2. Humans are capable of completing self-realization but we also are aware that life is too short to reach that goal.
3. People are ultimately alone, yet we cannot tolerate isolation.
To Fromm, distinctive human needs that can move people toward a reunion with the natural world
To Fromm, an existential need which is the drive for union with another person or others persons
Identify Fromm's 3 basic ways in which a person may relate to the world
When a submissive person and a domineering person find each other, they frequently establish __.
Fromm believed that __ is the only route by which a person can become unified with the word and, at the same time, achieve individuality and integrity.
Identify Fromm's 4 basic elements of genuine love
To Fromm, an existential need which is the urge to rise above a passive and accidental existence and into the realm of purposefulness and freedom
To kill for reasons other than survival
To Fromm, an existential need to establish roots or to feel at home again in the world
A nonproductive strategy of rootedness which is characterized by a tenacious reluctance to move beyond the protective security provided by one's mother
To Fromm, an existential need for the capacity to be aware of ourselves as a separate entity
Sense of Identity
To Fromm, an existential need for a road map to make their way through the world
Frame of Orientation
The central thesis of his study is that humans have been torn from nature, yet they remain part of the natural world, and that as people gained more and more economic and political freedom, they came to feel increasingly more isolated.
Identify Fromm's 3 primary mechanisms of escape (to flee from freedom and the basic anxiety it causes)
Authoritarianism (give up one's individual self and fuse it with somebody; masochism or sadism)
Destructiveness (do away with other people)
Conformity (give up individuality and become whatever other people desire them to be)
To Fromm, a state of being free and not alone, critical and yet not filled with doubts, independent and yet an integral part of mankind
Frequently seen in small children and non-conforming artists
Twin components of positive freedom
Love and Work
To Fromm, a person's relatively permanent way of relating to people and things
To Fromm, the totality of inherited and acquired psychic qualities which are characteristic of one individual and which make the individual unique
The relatively permanent system of all noninstinctual strivings through which man relates himself to the human and natural world
People relate to the world in two ways - by acquiring and using things, called __, and by relating to self and others, called __.
To Fromm, these are strategies that fail to move people closer to positive freedom and self-realization
Identify Fromm's 4 nonproductive orientations
Receptive (feel the source of all good lies outside themselves and the only way to relate to the world is to receive things)
Exploitative (feel the source of all good lies outside and aggressively take what they desire)
Hoarding (hold everything inside and not let go of anything)
Marketing (see themselves as commodities, with their personal value dependent on their exchange value)
Identify Fromm's 3 dimensions of productive orientation
A passionate love of life and all that is alive; concerned with the growth and development of themselves and others
According to Fromm, people who are incapable of love and have failed to establish union with others may develop any of these 3 severe personality disorders; collectively considered as the Syndrome of Decay
Necrophilia (attraction to death)
Malignant Narcissism (everything belonging to oneself is highly valued and everything belonging to another is devalued)
Incestuous Symbiosis (extreme dependence on the mother or mother surrogate)
Identify the Syndrome of Growth
Erich Fromm wrote a psychohistory of __, whom he regarded as the world's most conspicuous example of a person with the syndrome of decay.
The first American to construct a comprehensive personality theory and believed that people develop their personality within a social context
Harry Stack Sullivan's Interpersonal Theory
"A personality can never be isolated from the complex of interpersonal relations in which the person lives and has his being"
To Sullivan, the most crucial stage of development is __ - a period when children first possess the capacity for intimacy but have not yet reached an age at which theyr intimate relationships are complicated by lustful interests
Sullivan experienced an intimate relationship with this person when he was at age 8 1/2 and this transformed his life
Composed of Horney, Fromm, Fromm-Reichmann, Sullivan, Thompson and others, which is an informal organization that met regularly over drinks to discuss old and new ideas in psychiatry and the related social science
TRUE OR FALSE: Sullivan's theory of interpersonal psychiatry is neither psychoanalytic nor neo-Freudian.
To Sullivan, a potentiality for action that may or may not be experienced in awareness
To Sullivan __ transform tensions into either covert or overt behaviors and are aimed at satisfying needs and reducing anxiety
To Sullivan, tensions brought on by biological imbalance between a person and the physiochemical environment, both inside and outside the organism; once they satisfied they temporarily lose their power but are likely to recur after a time
The most basic interpersonal need
To Sullivan, 2 kinds of needs
General Needs (ex. oxygen, food, water)
Zonal Needs (arise from a particular area of the body)
Another type of tension which is disjunctive, more diffuse and vague and calls forth no consistent actions for its relief; the chief disruptive force blocking the development of healthy interpersonal relations
Originates through the process of empathy wherein it is transferred from the parent to the infant
A complete lack of tension
To Sullivan, consistent characteristic modes of behavior which are transformed by excess energy; synonymous to traits or habit patterns
Identify 3 categories of dynamisms related to tensions
Disjunctive (destructive patterns of behavior)
Isolating (behavior patterns unrelated to interpersonal relations)
Conjunctive (beneficial behavior patterns)
To Sullivan, the disjunctive dynamism of evil and hatred, characterized by the feeling of living among one's enemies
To Sullivan, an isolating tendency which is an especially powerful dynamism during adolescence
To Sullivan, an integrating and conjunctive dynamism that tends to draw out loving reactions from the other person, thereby decreasing anxiety and loneliness; involves a close relationship between two people who are more or less of equal status
To Sullivan, the most complex and inclusive of all the dynamisms; its primary task is to protect people against anxiety
2 important security operations (people's attempt to defense themselves against interpersonal tensions)
Dissociation (person refuses to allow impulses, desires and needs into awareness; manifest in dreams, daydreams, outside awareness)
Selective Inattention (refusal to see things we do not wish to see; more accessible to awareness)
Images acquired beginning in infancy and continuing throughout the various developmental stages; may be accurate or distorted, colored by needs and anxieties
Identify Sullivan's 3 basic personifications that develop during infancy
Bad-Mother (not being properly fed)
Good-Mother (tender and cooperative behaviors of mother)
Bad-Me (experiences of punishment and disapproval)
Good-Me (experiences with reward and approval)
Not-Me (dissociate or selectively inattend experiences)
Unrealistic traits or imaginary friends that many children invent in order to protect their self-esteem
Identify Sullivan's 3 levels or modes of cognition
Protaxic Level (earliest and most primitive; cannot be communicated to others; beyond conscious recall)
Parataxic Level (can be communicated to others only in a distorted fashion)
Syntaxic Level (consensually validated and can be symbolically communicated)
Sullivan's 7 epochs or stages of development
Infancy (birth to 2 years)
Childhood (2 to 6 years)
Identify the highlights of the Infancy stage
-Birth to 2 years (until the child develops syntaxic speech)
-Cannot survive without a mothering one
-Built-in protections of apathy and somnolent detachment
-Autistic language (makes little or no sense to other people)
Identify the highlights of the Childhood stage
-2 to 6 years (syntaxic language to need for playmates)
-Good and bad now imply social or moral value
-Relationship between mother and child becomes more personal and less one-sided
-Imaginary playmates to ready for intimacy during preadolescence stage
-Period of rapid acculturation
-Learns dramatizations (attempts to act or sound like authority figures) and Preoccupations (strategies to avoid anxiety by remaining occupied with an activity)
Identify the highlights of the Juvenila Era stage
-6 to 8 1/2 years (need for playmates to single chum)
-Learn to compete, compromise and cooperate
-Cooperation is the most important task
-Associate with other children of equal status
-Develop orientation to living
Identify the highlights of the Preadolescence stage
-8 1/2 to adolescence
-Intimacy with one person of the same-sex
-Genesis of the capacity to love
-Most untroubled and carefree time of life but the most crucial stage of development
Identify the highlights of the Early Adolescence stage
-Puberty to need for sexual love with one person
-Eruption of genital interest and lustful relationships
-Intimacy, lust and security
-Real issue lies in getting along with other people
Identify the highlights of the Late Adolescence stage
-15 to 17 or 18 years
-Able to feel lust and intimacy toward the same person
-Exchanging ideas with others and having their opinions and beliefs either validated or repudiated
Identify the highlights of the Adulthood stage
-Establish love relationship with at least one significant other person which becomes the principal source of life satisfaction
-Perceptive of other people's anxiety, needs and security
Sullivan distinguished 2 broad classes of schizophrenia
1. Symptoms originate from organic causes
2. Disorders grounded in situational factors
__, which often precede schizophrenia, are characterized by loneliness, low self-esteem, uncanny emotion, unsatisfactory relations with others and ever-increasing anxiety
Aim of Sullivan's psychotherapy
Improve relationship with others
Published 'Explorations in Personality: A Clinical and Experimental Study of Fifty Men of College Age' which provided a rich data source on which he based his theory
Murray's system of personality
Identify the principles of Murray's personology
1. Personality is rooted in the brain
2. People act to reduce physiological and psychological tension
3. An individual's personality continues to develop over time and is constructed of all the events that occur during the course of that person's life
4. Personality changes and progresses
5. Each person is unique and similar at the same time
To Murray, it contains the primitive, amoral and lustful impulses described by Freud but also contains desirable impulses such as empathy and love
To Murray, it is shaped not only by parents and authority figures, but also by the peer group and culture
To Murray, a component of the superego that contains the moral or ideal behaviors for which a person should strive
To Murray, the conscious organizer of behavior; not only suppresses id pleasure but also fosters pleasure by organizing and directing the expression of acceptable id impulses
Murray's most important contribution to theory and research in personality is his use of the concept of needs to explain the motivation and direction of behavior. Enumerate Murray's list of 20 needs.
Abasement; Achievement; Affiliation; Aggression; Autonomy; Counteraction; Defendance; Deference; Dominance; Exhibition; Harmavoidance; Infavoidance; Nurturance; Order; Play; Rejection; Sentience; Sex; Succorance; Understanding
To Murray, survival and related needs arising from internal bodily processes
Primary needs (viscerogenic needs)
To Murray, emotional and psychological needs, such as achievement and affiliation
Secondary needs (psychogenic needs)
To Murray, needs that involve a response to a specific object
To Murray, needs that arise spontaneously
Needs differ in terms of the urgency with which they impel behavior, a characteristic Murray called __.
A need's prepotency
Some needs are complementary and can be satisfied by one behavior or a set of behaviors; Murray called this
a Fusion of needs
To Murray, a situation in which one need is activated to aid in the satisfaction of another need
To Murray, the influence of the environment and past events on the curent activation of a need
To Murray, a combination of press (the environment) and need (the personality) that brings order to our behavior
To Murray, a normal pattern of childhood development that influences the adult personality
Identify the 5 complexes in Murray's childhood developmental stages
Genital / Castration Complex
Identify forms of the claustral complex
Simple Claustral Complex (desire to be in small, warm, dark places that are safe and secluded)
Insupport Complex (fears open spaces, falling, drowning, fires, earthquakes)
Anti-Claustral/Egression Complex (need to escape from restraining womblike conditions; fear of confinement; prefer open spaces, fresh air, travel, movement, change and novelty)
Identify forms of the oral complex
Oral Succorance Complex (mouth activities, passive tendencies and need to be supported; kissing, sucking, eating, drinking, hunger for affection)
Oral Aggression Complex (oral and aggresive behaviors; biting spitting, shouting, verbal aggression)
Oral Rejection Complex (vomiting, being picky about food, eating little, desiring seclusion, avoiding dependence)
Identify forms of the anal complex
Anal Rejection Complex (dirty and disorganized; aggression)
Anal Retention Complex (accumulating, saving and collecting things; cleanliness)
Describe the urethral complex
Associated with excessive ambition, distorted sense of self-esteem, exhibitionism, bedwetting, sexual cravings and self-love; persons aim too high and dreams shattered by failure
Describe the genital or castration complex
Boy's fantasy that his penis might be cut off; such fear grows out of childhood masturbation and accompanying parental punishment
According to Murray, our goal is not a tension-free state but rather the __ derived from acting to reduce the tension.
Murray directed an assessment program for the __ to select people to serve as spies and saboteurs.
Office of Strategic Services (forerunner of the CIA)
Murray derived the Thematic Apperception Test from __.
Freud's defense mechanism of projection
A basic segment of behavior; a time period in which an important behavior pattern occurs from beginning to end
A succession of proceedings related to the same function or purpose
This theorist's post-Freudian theory extended Freud's infantile developmental stages into adolescence, adulthood and old age
A struggle in adolescence that is the turning point in one's life that may either strengthen or weaken personality
In addition to elaborating on psychoseual stages beyond childhood, Erikson placed more emphasis on both __ and __ influences.
Social and Historical
To Erikson, a positive force that creates a self-identity; helps us adapt to the various conflicts and crises of life; person's ability to unify experiences and actions in an adaptive manner
Identify 3 interrelated aspects of ego according to Erikson
Body Ego (experiences with our body; a way of seeing our physical self as different from others)
Ego Ideal (image we have of ourselves in comparison with an established ideal)
Ego Identity (image we have of ourselves in the variety of social roles we play)
According to Erikson, the ego emergers from and is largely shaped by __.
An illusion perpetrated and perpetuated by a particular society that it is somehow chosen to be the human species
It implies a step-by-step growth of fetal organs; in Erikson's stages of development, one stage emerges from and is built upon a previous stage but it does not replace that earlier stage
Erikson believed that in very stage of life there is an interaction of opposites - that is, a conflict between __ (harmonious) element and __ (disruptive) element.
The conflict between the dystonic and syntonic elements produces ego quality or ego strength which Erikson referred to as a __.
Too little basic strength at any one stage results in a __ for that stage.
Identify Erikson's developmental stages with corresponding psychosexual mode and psychosocial crisis
Infancy (Oral-respiratory: sensory-kinesthetic; Basic trust vs mistrust)
Early Childhood (Anal-urethral-muscular; Autonomy vs. shame and doubt)
Play Age (Infantile genital-locomotor; Initiative vs. guilt)
School age (Latency; Industry vs. inferiority)
Adolescence (Puberty; Identity vs. identity Confusion)
Young Adulthood (Genitality; Intimacy vs. isolation)
Adulthood (Procreativity; Generativity vs. stagnation)
Old Age (Generalization of sensual modes; Integrity vs. despair)
Identify the corresponding basic strengths and core pathologies of Erikson's developmental stages
Infancy (Hope; Withdrawal)
Early childhood (Will; Compulsion)
Play Age (Purpose; Inhibition)
School Age (Competence; Inertia)
Adolescence (Fidelity; Role repudiation)
Young Adulthood (Love; Exclusivity)
Adulthood (Care; Rejectivity)
Old Age (Wisdom; Disdain)
To Erikson, a syndrome of problems that includes a divided self-image, an inability to establish intimacy, a sense of time urgency, a lack of concentration on required tasks, and a rejection of family or community standards
(occurs in adolescence stage)
Ability to fuse one's identity with that of another person without fear of losing it
Assuming responsibility for the care of offspring that result from that sexual contact
To take pleasure in a variety of different physical sensations - sights, sounds, tastes, odors, embraces and perhaps genital stimulations
A feeling of wholeness and coherence, an ability to hold together one's sense of I-ness despite diminishing physical an intellectual powers
Erikson defined __ as informed and detached concern with life itself in the face of death itself while __ is a reaction to feeling (and seeing others) in an increasing state of being finished, confused, helpless
(in old age)
__ is a widening commitment to take care of the persons, the products, and the ideas one has learned to care for while __ is the unwillingness to take care of certain persons or groups, manifested as self-centeredness, provincialism or pseudospeciation
__ is a mature devotion that overcomes basic differences between men and women; while __ block one's ability to cooperate, compete or compromise
(in young adulthood)
__ is faith in one's ideology while __ block one's ability to synthesize various self-images and values into a workable identity
Fidelity; Role Repudiation
__ is the confidence to use one's physical and cognitive abilities to solve the problems that accompany school age while __ is the child's tendency to give up and regress to an earlier stage of development.
(in school age)
Children in the play age plays with a __, competing at games in order to win or to be on top; while __ results when children are dominated by guilt and they become compulsively moralistic.
(in play age)
__ evolves from the resolution of the crisis of autonomy versus shame and doubt while __ is the expression of inadequate of the aforementioned basic strength.
__ is what arises when infants learn to expect that future distresses will meet with satisfactory outcomes while __ is demonstrated when they retreat from the outside world due to domination of mistrust in this stage.
Erikson insisted that personality is a product of __, __ and __.
History; Culture; Biology
2 primary approaches Erikson used to explain and describe human personality
The study of individual and collective life with the combined methods of psychoanalysis and history
To Freud, anatomy is destiny but to Erikson, anatomy, __ and __ are our combined destiny.
The idea that human development is governed by a sequence of stages that depend on genetic or hereditary factors
Epigenetic Principle of Maturation
To Erikson, the turning point faced at each developmental stage
To Erikson, motivating characteristics and beliefs that derive from the satisfactory resolution of the crisis at each developmental stage
The self-image formed during adolescence that integrates our ideas of what we are and what we want to be
The falure to achieve ego identity during adolescence
Motivating characteristics that derive from the unsatisfactory resolution of developmental crises
A condition that occurs when the ego consists solely of a single way of coping with conflict
A basic strength achieved in infancy that involves a persistent feeling of confidence, a feeling we will maintain despite temporary setbacks or reverses
(trust vs mistrust stage / infancy)
It is at this psychosexual stage that Erikson believed the most important ability involved holding on and letting go and for the first time, children are able to exercise some choice; this stage also involves toilet training
It is at this psychosexual stage (according to Erikson) that motor and mental abilities are continuing to develop
It is at this psychosexual stage wherein the child learns good work and study habits ideally both at home and at school
A basic strength that emerges from industriousness during the latency stage that involves the exertion of skill and intelligence in pursuing and completing tasks
(industry vs. inferiority / school age)
Erikson suggested that __ was a hiatus between childhood and adulthood, a necessary psychological __ to give the person time and energy to play different roles and live with different self-images
The basic strength that should develop during adolescence is __, which merges from a cohesive ego identity. It encompasses sincerity, guineness, and a sense of duty in our
(identity vs. identity confusion / adolescence)
The basic strength that develops from autonomy is __, which involves a determination to exercise freedom of choice and self-restraint in the face of society's demands
(autonomy vs. shame and doubt / early childhood)
The basic strength that arises from initiative which involves the courage to envision and pursue goals
(initiative vs. guilt / play age)
The basic strength that emerges from the intimacy of the young adult years which Erikson considered to be the greatest human virtue; a mutual devotion in a shared identity, the fusing of oneself with another person
(intimacy vs. isolation / young adulthood)
The basic strength that emerges from generativity in adulthood which involves a broad concern for others and believed it was manifested in the need to teach, not only to help others but also to fulfill one's identity
(generativity vs. stagnation / adulthood)
The basic strength which is expressed in a detached concern with the whole of life; it is conveyed to succeeding generations in an integration of experience best described by the word heritage
(integrity vs despair / old age)
When only the positive, adaptive tendency is present in the ego, the condition is said to be __ which can lead to __; when only the negative tendency is present, the condition is called __ which can lead to __
Maladaptive; Neuroses; Malignant; Psychoses
Identify the maldevelopment that occurs in relation to the positive tendency of every psychosocial stage
Infancy (Trust - Sensory maladjustment)
Early childhood (Autonomy - Shameless willfulness)
Play Age (Initiative - Ruthlessness)
School Age (Industriousness - Narrow virtuosity)
Adolescence (Identity cohesion - Fanaticism)
Young Adulthood (Intimacy - Promiscuity)
Adulthood (Generativity - Overextension)
Old Age (Ego integrity - Presumption)
Identify the maldevelopment that occurs in relation to the negative tendency of every psychosocial stage
Infancy (Mistrust - Withdrawal)
Early Childhood (Shame and doubt - Compulsion)
Play Age (Guilt - Inhibition)
School Age (Inferiority - Inertia)
Adolescence (Role Confusion - Role Repudiation)
Young Adulthood (Isolation - Exclusivity)
Adulthood (Stagnation - Rejectivity)
Old Age / Maturity (Despair - Disdain)
TRUE OR FALSE: Erikson believed that we have more change to exercise free will during the last four stages, although the attitudes and strengths we have formed during the earlier stages will affect our choices.
Our ultimate goal according to Erikson
To develop a positive ego identity that incorporates all the basic strengths
In developing his personality theory, Erikson used data obtained primarily from?
(He occasionally used free association but rarely attempted to analyze dreams)
The application of Erikson's life-span theory, along with psychoanalytic principles, to the study of historical figures; Erikson's most unusual assessment technique
(typically focuses on a significant crisis, an episode that represents a major life theme uniting past, present and future activities)
Erikson's term for the strategy wherein he adopted the subject's viewpoint as his own to assess life events through that person's eyes
A psychological test used to measure the development of ego identity during adolescence
A psychological test used to measure the dimensions of exploration and commitment among adolescents
Ego Identity Process Questionnaire
A 20-item self report inventory used to measure the level of generativity or stagnation in adulthood
Loyola Generativity Scale
A personality assessment technique for children in which structures assembled from dolls, blocks and other toys are analyzed
An extensive research program identified 5 psychosocial types or statuses on the adolescent stage of development
Identity Achievement (committed to occupational and ideological choices)
Moratorium (still undergoing identity crisis)
Foreclosure not experienced an identity crisis but firmly committed to an occupation and ideology)
Identity Diffusion (no occupational or ideological commitment and not experienced an identity crisis)
Alienated Achievement (experienced an identity crisis, no occupational goal and cling to beliefs that are critical of the social and economic system)
The process of dealing successfully with the social realities of adult life; usually occurs during the 20s, as people assume adult responsibilities of marriage, family and career
Identity the 4 stages in the development of gender preference identity according to one model by Frable
Sensitization (one's initial perception of being different from peers of same sex)
Identity Confusion (confusing, frightening realization that one's feelings and thoughts could be characterized as homosexual
Identity Assumption (believes one is homosexual and begins to accept gay identity)
Commitment (fully accepts the gay identity as a way of life)
Time magazine called him the "most influential living psychoanalyst" while Psychology Today described him as "an authentic intellectual hero"
Erikson's method of __ has become a standard diagnostic and therapeutic tool for work with emotionally disturbed and abused children.
Made personality an academically respectable topic; help bring personality into the mainstream and formulated a theory of personality development in which traits play a prominent role
Published Personality: A Psychological Interpretation in 1937
Allport suggested that emotionally health people function rationally and __, and that the __ is important only in the behavior of neurotic or disturbed persons. Abnormal personality functioned at __ level and psychologically healthy adults are unaffected by __ events.
Consciously; Unconscious; Infantile; Childhood
Another distinguishing feature of Allport's theory is his emphasis on the __ of personality as defined by each person's __. He argued that personality is not general or universal but is particular and __ to the individual.
Uniqueness; Traits; Specific
Allport's dissertation which was the first research conducted on personality trains in United States
An Experimental Study of the Traits of Personality (1920s)
To Allport, it is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine characteristic behavior and thought
Allport reviewed some 50 definitions of personality before offering his own.
To Allport, a characteristic of personality that means that although personality is constantly changing and growing, the growth is organized, not random
To Allport, a characteristic of personality which means that personality is composed of mind and body functioning together as a unit
Personality is neither all mental nor all biological.
Allport stated that __ provides the personality with raw materials (such as physique, intelligence, and temperament) that may be shaped, expanded or limited by the conditions of our __. However, our __ background is responsible for the major portion of our uniqueness.
Heredity; Environment; Genetic
To Allport, distinguishing characteristics that guide behavior; predispositions to respond in the same manner to different kinds of stimuli and consistent and enduring ways of reacting to our environment
Identify the characteristics of traits according to Allport
1. Traits are real and exist within each of us.
2. Traits determine or cause behavior.
3. Traits can be demonstrated empirically.
4. Traits are interrelated.
5. Traits vary with the situation.
Identify two types of traits according to Allport
Individual traits (unique to a person and define one's character)
Common traits (shared by a number of people, cu has members of a culture)
Likely to change over time as social standards and values change; subject to social, enviromental and cultural influences
Allport later revised his terminology. He relabeled common traits as __ and individual traits as __.
Traits; Personal Dispositions
Identify the types of personal dispositions or individual traits
Cardinal traits (most pervasive and powerful human traits)
Central traits (handful of outstanding traits that describe a person's behavior)
Secondary traits (least important traits which a person may display inconspicuously and inconsistently)
Allport described it as a ruling passion, a powerful force that dominates behavior.
To Adler, whatever happened in the past is exactly that: past. It is no longer active and does not explain adult behavior unless it exists as a current __. He believed that the central problem for any personality theory is how it treats the concept of __.
Motivating force; Motivation
Allport's idea that motives in the normal, mature adult are independent of the childhood experiences in which they originally appeared
Functional Autonomy of Motives
Adult motives cannot be understood by exploring a person's childhood. The only way to understand them is to investigate why people behave as they do today.
The level of functional autonomy that relates to low-level and routine behaviors; concerned with such behaviors as addictions and repetitive physical actions
Perseverative Functional Autonomy
The level of functional autonomy that relates to our values, self-image and lifestyle
Propriate Functional Autonomy
Allport's term for the ego or self; determines which motives will be maintained and which will be discarded; includes those aspects of personality that are distinctive and thus appropriate to our emotional life
We retain motives that enhance our self-esteem or self-image. We enjoy doing what we do well.
Our propriate functioning is an organizing process that maintains our sense of self. Identify the 3 principles that determines how we perceive the world, what we remember from our experiences and how our thoughts are directed.
Organizing the energy level (how we acquire new motives)
Mastery and competence (level at which we choose to satisfy motives)
Propriate patterning (striving for consistency an integration of the personality)
Some behaviors, such as __, __, __ and behaviors arising from __, are not under the control of functionally autonomous motives.
Reflexes; Fixations; Neuroses; Biological Drives
Identify the 7 stages that desribe the nature and development of the proprium from infancy through adolescence
1. Bodily self (infants become aware of own existence)
2. Self-identity (identity remains intact despite many changes)
3. Self-esteem (take pride in one's accomplishments)
4. Extension of self (recognize objects and people part of one's own world)
5. Self-image (actual and idealized images; satisfying parental expectations)
6. Self as a rational coper (apply reason and logic to solution of everyday problems)
7. Propriate striving (formulate long-range goals and plans)
Identify Allport's six criteria or characteristics of the normal, mature, emotionally healthy, adult personality
1. Extension of self to other people and activities
2. A warm relating to others
3. Emotional security
4. A realistic perception of life, development of skills, commitment to work
5. Sense of humor and self-objectification
6. Unifying philosophy of life
To Allport, the ultimate and necessary goal of life is to __, impelling us to seek __ and __.
Increase tension; New sensations; Challenges
Allport's popular book which he talked about personality assessment techniques and concluded that there was no single best technique
Pattern and Growth in Personality (1961)
Enumerate 11 major methods for evaluating personality according to the list of Allport
Constitutional and physiological diagnosis
Cultural setting, membership, role
Personal documents and case studies
Tests and scales
A method of personality assessment that involves the study of a person's written or spoken records; Allport relied heavily on this method
(involves examining diaries, autobiographies, letters, literary compositions and other samples)
A more sophisticated and quantitative approach than Allport's subjective analysis of the personal-document technique
An objective self-report assessment test constructed by Allport and colleagues which was used to determine personality traits and strongly held interests and motivations that served the basis of one's unifying philosophy in life
Study of Values
Identify Allport's categories of values
Theoretical values (discovery of truth; empirical, intellectual and rational approach to life)
Economic values (useful and practical)
Aesthetic values (artistic experiences and form, harmony and grace)
Social values (human relationships, altruism and philanthropy)
Political values (personal power, influence and prestige in all endeavors)
Religious values (mystical and understanding universe as a whole)
Identify the 2 approaches for studying personality
Idiographic approach (study of individual case)
Nomothetic approach (study large samples of subjects through statistical analysis)
Spontaneous and seemingly purposeless behavior, usually displayed without our conscious awareness
Consciously planned behavior determined by the needs of a given situation and designed for a specific purpose, usually to bring about a change in one's environment
Researcher who identified facial expressions of seven emotions and developed a coding system based on analysis of 43 facial muscles
(seven emotions are anger, contempt, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise and happiness)
The coding system developed by Ekman and colleagues at the Human Interaction Laboratory that is currently being used in the US by police departments, as well as the CIA and FBI
Facial Action Coding System (FACS)
Often considered to be one of the first psychologists to bring humanistic values and concerns to the field
His rigorously scientific approach to the study of personality was to predict how a person will behave in response to a given stimulus situation; the hallmark of his approach was the use of factor analysis in his treatment of data from a sample of normal people
A statistical technique based on correlations between several measures, which may be explained in terms of underlying factors
Developed by Charles Spearman and used it to measure mental abilities while Cattell applied it to the study of personality
To Cattell, the mental elements of the personality which can predict how a person will behave in a given situation
Developed a theory of personality based on body type
(ectomorph, mesomorph, endomorph)
Due to Cattell's early financial hardships, it forced him to focus on __ problems rather than theoretical or experimental issues.
To Cattell, relatively permanent reaction tendencies that are the basic structural units of the personality
(derived by the method of factor analysis)
Identify Cattell's 2 major division of traits
Common traits (possessed in some degree by all persons)
Unique traits (possessed by one or a few persons)
To Cattell, traits that describe our general behavior style in responding to our environment; affect the ways we act and react to situations
(ex. assertive, easygoing, irritable)
To Cattell, traits that describe our skills and how efficiently we will be able to work toward our goals
To Cattell, traits that underlie our motivations and are the driving forces of behavior; define our motivations, interests and ambitions
To Cattell, single, stable, permanent elements of our behavior that are the basic factors of personality, derived by the method of factor analysis
To Cattell, characteristics composed of any number of source traits, or behavioral elements; they may be unstable and impermanent, weakening or strengthening in response to different situations
(ex. neuroticism is the surface trait for source traits of anxiety, indecision and irrational fear)
To Cattell, source traits that depend on our physiological characteristics and have biological origins
(ex. carelessness, talkativeness arising from drinking alcohol)
To Cattell, source traits that are learned from social and environmental interactions
An objective personality test developed by Cattell from more than two decades of intensive factor-analytic research
Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF)
In Cattell's system, the basic elements of personality
The kind of dynamic, motivating traits which consist of permanent constitutional source traits that provide energy for goal-directed behaviors; basic innate units of motivation
(from the Greek word ergon, meaning work or energy)
Identify the 11 ergs according to Cattell
To Cattell, the kind of dynamic, motivating traits which involve environmental-mold source traits that motivate behavior; pattern of learned attitudes that focuses on an important aspect of life such as a person's community, spouse, occupation, religion or hobby
Identify the main difference between ergs and sentiments
Ergs is a constitutional trait and therefore a permanent structure of the personality. It may strengthen or weaken but cannot disappear.
Sentiment results from learning so it can be unlearned and can disappear so that it is no longer important to a person's life.
Cattell's new term for sentiments later on
Socially Shaped Ergic Manifolds (SEMS)
Cattell concluded that one-third of our personality is attributed to __ and two-thirds is determined by __.
Identify the six stages in the development of personality according to Cattell
Infancy (major formative period)
Childhood (independence from parents and identification with peers)
Adolescence (conflicts about independence, self-assertion and sex)
Maturity (satisfaction with career, marriage and family)
Late maturity (personality changes in response to physical and social circumstances)
Old age (adjustment to loss of friends, career and status)
To Cattell, it is that which permits a preduction of what a person will do in a given situation
TRUE OR FALSE: Cattell did not propose any ultimate or nexessary goal that dominates behavior.
Identify the 3 primary assessment techniques that Cattell utilized in his measurement of personality
Life records (L-data) (observers' ratings of specific behaviors in real-life situations)
Questionnaires (Q-data) (self-report questionnaire ratings of our characteristics, attitudes and interests)
Personality tests (T-data) (data derived from personality tests that are resistant to faking)
Examples of tests that Cattell considered to be "objective" because they are resistant to faking
Rorschach, TAT, Word association test
(most psychologists actually refer to these tests as subjective)
The 16 PF test, which is intended for use with people aged 16 years and older, is widely used to assess personality for which purposes?
To assess personality for:
Predicting occupational success
Identify the 3 research methods that Cattell utilized to study personality
Bivariate / Two-variable / Univariate approach (standard laboratory experimental method)
Clinical approach (case studies, dream analysis, free association; highly subjective)
Multivariate approach (sophisticated statistical procedure of factor analysis)
Identify the 3 forms of factor analysis that Cattell employed
R technique (collecting large amounts of data from a group of people)
P technique (collecting large amount of data from a single subject over a long period)
According to Cattell's research, identify the three source traits determined primarily by heredity
Factor F (serious vs happy-go-lucky)
Factor I (tough-minded vs tender-minded or sensitive)
Factor Q3 (uncontrolled vs controlled)
Identify the three source traits determined primarily by environment
Factor E (submissive vs dominant)
Factor G (expedient vs conscientious)
Factor Q4 (relaxed vs tense)
The study of the relationship between genetic or hereditary factors and personality traits
Theorist who initially planned to study physics at the University of London but due to lacking in requisite academic background, studied psychology instead and made important contribution in supporting the role of inheritance in the description of personality and in integrating the scientific study of personality into psychology as a whole
Identify the personality assessment devices that Eysenck developed
Eysenck Personality Inventory
Eysenck Personality Profiler
Maudsley Medical Questionnaire
Maudsley Personality Inventory
Although Eysenck used factor analysis to uncover personality traits, he supplemented the method with __ and __ that considered a wide range of variables.
Personality tests; Experimental studies
Eysenck and his wife Sybil together deeveloped many of the questionnaires used in their research. The results of their efforts is a personality theory based on three dimensions. Identify them.
E - Extraversion vs Introversion
N - Neuroticism vs Emotional stability
P - Psychoticism vs Impulse control (or superego functioning)
Eysenck noted that the dimensions of __ and __ have been recognized as basic elements of personality since the time of the ancient Greek philosophers and that formulations of the same dimensions could be found on nearly every personality assessment device ever developed.
Identify the personality traits associated with the Extraversion dimension
Identify the personality traits associated with the Neuroticism dimension
Identify the personality traits associated with the Psychoticism dimension
Although Eysenck did not list it as a personality dimension, he considered it an important influence on personality.
He noted that a person with an IQ of 120 is likely to have a more complex and multidimensional personality than is a person with an IQ of 80.
Both Cattell and Eysenck proposed that __ of intelligence is inherited, leaving only the rest as a product of social and environmental forces.
Eysenck found that extraverts have a __ base level of cortical arousal than introverts do, implying that these differences are genetically based.
Because the cortical arousal levels for extraverts are low, they need and actively seek excitement and stimulation.
Research showed that people high in __ dimension seemed to function best in busy situation where they were forced to work harder.
People high in neuroticism seem to have greater activity in the brain areas that control the __ branch of the __ nervous system. This is the body's alarm system, which responds to stressful or dangerous events by increasing breathing rate, heart rate, blood flow to the muscles and release of adrenaline.
TRUE OR FALSE: Eysenck believed that society needs the diversity provided by people characterized by all aspects of the three personality dimensions. However some people will adapt to the social environment better than others will.
Some personality researchers have expressed dissatisfaction with Cattell's and Eysenck's theories, suggesting that Eysenck has too few dimensions and Cattell has too many factors. Name the two theorists who embarked on an extensive research program at the Gerontology Research Center of the NIH Baltimore, Maryland and identified the Big Five personality factors.
Robert McCrae and Paul Costa
Identify the Big Five factors of McCrae and Costa
Identify which of the Big Five factors involves the following description: Good-natured, softhearted, trusting, courteous
Identify which of the Big Five factors involves the following description: Careful, reliable, hardworking, organized
Identify which of the Big Five factors involves the following description: Sociable, talkative, fun-loving, affectionate
Identify which of the Big Five factors involves the following description: Worried, insecure, nervous, highly strung
Identify which of the Big Five factors involves the following description: Original, independent, creative, daring
The personality test developed by McCrae and Costa reflecting the Big Five personality factors
NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI)
Agreeableness and conscientiousness in the McCrae-Costa model may represent the low end of Eysenck's __ dimension
(low end is emotional stability)
__ facet of neuroticism and the __ facet of extraversion are the most consistent predictors of general life satisfaction and emotional well-being
Depression; Positive emotions/Cheerfulness
More physical illness and psychological distress has been associated with high scores on the __ factor.
People high in __ tend to have a wide range of intellectual interests and to seek challenges. Together with __, people with high scores are more likely to be self-employed.
The __ factor was also shown to be a valid predictor of job performance for professional, police, managerial, sales and skilled labor jobs.
Proposed a six-factor model of personality called the HEXACO
Michael Ashton and Kibeom Lee
Identify the six personality factors of Ashton and Lee's HEXACO model
Openness to experience
Identify the personality factor of the HEXACO model which involves the following description: Discplined, diligent, thorough, precise VERSUS reckless, lazy, irresponsible, absent-minded
Identify the personality factor of the HEXACO model which involves the following description: Emotional, oversensitive, faithful, anxious VERSUS brave, tough, self-assured, stable
Identify the personality factor of the HEXACO model which involves the following description: Tolerant, peaceful, gentle, agreeable VERSUS quarrelsome, stubborn and ill-tempered
Identify the personality factor of the HEXACO model which involves the following description: Outgoing, lively, sociable, cheerful VERSUS shy, passive, withdrawn, reserved
Identify the personality factor of the HEXACO model which involves the following description: Creative, innovative, unconventional VERSUS shallow, conventional, unimaginative
Openness to experience
Identify the personality factor of the HEXACO model which involves the following description: Sincere, honest, faithful VERSUS greedy, pretentious, hypocritical, boastful
Identify the two self-report inventories used to assess the dimensions of the six-factor model
HEXACO Personality Inventory-R (100 items)
HEXACO-60 (60 items) usi
Personality theorist who emphasized the uniqueness of the individual; known for spelling out 50 definitions of personality
He was a social "isolate" who fashioned his own circle of activities. He taught the first personality course offered in American college.
Allport considered himself a __ theorist/psychologist while Eysenck, McCrae and Costa were __ theorists
Allport called the study of the individual as __ (synonymous to idiographic approach)
Allport defined personality as the __ within the individual of those __ systems that __ his characteristic __. (first in 1937, revised in 1961)
Personality is the DYNAMIC ORGANIZATION within the individual of those PSYCHOPHYSICAL systems that DETERMINE his characteristic BEHAVIOR AND THOUGHT.
To Allport, psychologically mature people are characterized by __ behavior; that is, they not only react to external stimuli, but they are capable of consciously acting on their environment in new and innovative ways and causing their environment to react to them.
To Allport, mature personalities are motivated by __ processes or motivation while disturbed ones are motivated by __ processes.
Identify Allport's 6 criteria for the mature personality
1. Extension of the sense of self
2. Warm relating of self to others
3. Emotional security or self-acceptance
4. Realistic perception
5. Insight and humor (self-objectification)
6. Unifying pholosophy of life
To Allport, the structure of personality or its basic units or building blocks that permit the description of the person in terms of individual characteristics are called __.
__ are general characteristics held in common by many people while __ generalized neuropsychic structure (peculiar to the individual) with the capacity to render many stimuli functionally equivalent, and to initiate and guide consistent (equivalent) forms of adaptive and stylistic behavior
Common traits; Personal dispositions
To identify personal dispositions, Allport and __ counted nearly 18,000 personally descriptive words in the 1925 edition of __.
Henry Odbert; Webster's New International Dictionary
To Allport, __ are relatively stable characteristics (ex. social or introverted) while __ describe temporary characteristics (ex. happy or angry)
Identify the levels of personal dispositions according to Allport
Cardinal dispositions (eminent characteristic or ruling passion that dominates life)
Central dispositions (5 to 10 most outstanding characteristics which life focuses)
Secondary dispositions (less conspicuous but far greater in number and occur with some regularity)
All personal dispositions are dynamic in the sense that they have motivational power. Some are much more strongly felt than others and Allport called these intensely experienced dispositions __ which received their motivation from basic needs and drives and work to initiate action. Less intensely experienced personal dispositions are called __ and they work to __ action.
Motivational dispositions; Initiate; Stylistic dispositions; Guide
To Allport, behaviors and characteristics that people regard as warm, central and important in their lives; it is the warm center of personality and includes those aspects of life important to a sense of self-identity and self-enhancement; also includes values and part of the conscience that is personal and consistent with one's adult beliefs
(all characteristics that are "peculiarly mine")
Identify behaviors that do not belong to the proprium
Basic drives and needs ordinarily met and satisfied without much difficulty
In terms of motivation, Allport stated that __ are those that reduce a need whereas __ seek to maintain tension and disequilibrium.
Peripheral motives; Propriate strivings
__ or homeostatic behaviors refer to people as being motivated primarily by needs to reduce tension; __ behavior refer to people consciously acting on their environment in a manner that permits growth toward psychological health
Most distinctive and controversial postulate of Allport which serves as his explanation for the myriad human motives that seemingly are not accounted for by hedonistic or drive-reduction principles; adult motives are built primarily on conscious, self-sustaining, contemporary systems
(Some, but not all, human motives are functionally independent from the original motive responsible for the behavior.)
Identify Allport's requirements of an adequate theory of motivation
1. Will acknowledge the contemporaneity of motives
2. Pluralistic theory - allowing for motives of many types
3. Ascribe dynamic forces to cognitive processes
4. Will allow for the concrete uniqueness of motives
Allport defined __ as any acquired system of motivation in which the tensions involved are not of the same kind as the antecedent tensions from which the acquired system developed
Identify the two levels of functional autonomy
Perseverative functional autonomy (more elementary; based on simple neurological principles; habits and behaviors not related ro proprium)
Propriate functional autonomy (master system of motivation; self-sustaining motives related to the proprium)
Identify Allport's 8 processes that are not functionally autonomous
Motives directly linked to reduction of basic drives
Constitutional equipment (physique, intelligence, temperament)
Habits in the process of being formed
Patterns of behavior that require primary reinforcement
Sublimations tied to childhood sexual desires
Some neurotic or pathological symptoms
TRUE OR FALSE: To Allport, compulsions that can be eliminated through therapy or behavior modification are not functionally autonomous whereas those that are extremely resistant to therapy are self-sustaining and thus functionally autonomous.
Allport's morphogenic approach to the study of lives is best illustrated in his famous __.
Letters of Jenny
(prior to this, Allport studied the diaries of Marion Taylor)
TRUE OR FALSE: Allport maintained a lifelong active interest in the scientific study of religion.
Allport was also responsible for developing the __ which was aimed in developing ways to reduce racial prejudice.
Identify the optimal conditions stated in Allport's contact hypothesis
1. Equal status between two groups
2. Common goals
2. Cooperation between groups
4. Support of an authority figure, law or custom
Trait theorist whose factor analytic technique yielded three general bipolar factors or type