Erikson's Post-Freudian Theory Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Erikson's Post-Freudian Theory Deck (66):

This theorist's post-Freudian theory extended Freud's infantile developmental stages into adolescence, adulthood and old age

Erik Erikson


A struggle in adolescence that is the turning point in one's life that may either strengthen or weaken personality

Identity Crisis


In addition to elaborating on psychosexual stages beyond childhood, Erikson placed more emphasis on both __ and __ influences.

Social and Historical


To Erikson, a positive force that creates a self-identity; helps us adapt to the various conflicts and crises of life; person's ability to unify experiences and actions in an adaptive manner



Identify 3 interrelated aspects of ego according to Erikson

Body Ego (experiences with our body; a way of seeing our physical self as different from others)
Ego Ideal (image we have of ourselves in comparison with an established ideal)
Ego Identity (image we have of ourselves in the variety of social roles we play)


According to Erikson, the ego emerges from and is largely shaped by __.



An illusion perpetrated and perpetuated by a particular society that it is somehow chosen to be the human species



It implies a step-by-step growth of fetal organs; in Erikson's stages of development, one stage emerges from and is built upon a previous stage but it does not replace that earlier stage

Epigenetic Principle


Erikson believed that in very stage of life there is an interaction of opposites - that is, a conflict between __ (harmonious) element and __ (disruptive) element.

Syntonic; Dystonic


The conflict between the dystonic and syntonic elements produces ego quality or ego strength which Erikson referred to as a __.

Basic Strength


Too little basic strength at any one stage results in a __ for that stage.

Core Pathology


Identify Erikson's developmental stages with corresponding psychosexual mode and psychosocial crisis

Infancy (Oral-respiratory: sensory-kinesthetic; Basic trust vs mistrust)
Early Childhood (Anal-urethral-muscular; Autonomy vs. shame and doubt)
Play Age (Infantile genital-locomotor; Initiative vs. guilt)
School age (Latency; Industry vs. inferiority)
Adolescence (Puberty; Identity vs. identity Confusion)
Young Adulthood (Genitality; Intimacy vs. isolation)
Adulthood (Procreativity; Generativity vs. stagnation)
Old Age (Generalization of sensual modes; Integrity vs. despair)


Identify the corresponding basic strengths and core pathologies of Erikson's developmental stages

Infancy (Hope; Withdrawal)
Early childhood (Will; Compulsion)
Play Age (Purpose; Inhibition)
School Age (Competence; Inertia)
Adolescence (Fidelity; Role repudiation)
Young Adulthood (Love; Exclusivity)
Adulthood (Care; Rejectivity)
Old Age (Wisdom; Disdain)


To Erikson, a syndrome of problems that includes a divided self-image, an inability to establish intimacy, a sense of time urgency, a lack of concentration on required tasks, and a rejection of family or community standards

Identity Confusion
(occurs in adolescence stage)


Ability to fuse one's identity with that of another person without fear of losing it



Assuming responsibility for the care of offspring that result from that sexual contact



To take pleasure in a variety of different physical sensations - sights, sounds, tastes, odors, embraces and perhaps genital stimulations

Generalized Sensuality


A feeling of wholeness and coherence, an ability to hold together one's sense of I-ness despite diminishing physical and intellectual powers



Erikson defined __ as informed and detached concern with life itself in the face of death itself while __ is a reaction to feeling (and seeing others) in an increasing state of being finished, confused, helpless

Wisdom; Disdain
(in old age)


__ is a widening commitment to take care of the persons, the products, and the ideas one has learned to care for while __ is the unwillingness to take care of certain persons or groups, manifested as self-centeredness, provincialism or pseudospeciation

Care; Rejectivity
(in adulthood)


__ is a mature devotion that overcomes basic differences between men and women; while __ block one's ability to cooperate, compete or compromise

Love; Exclusivity
(in young adulthood)


__ is faith in one's ideology while __ block one's ability to synthesize various self-images and values into a workable identity

Fidelity; Role Repudiation
(in adolescence)


__ is the confidence to use one's physical and cognitive abilities to solve the problems that accompany school age while __ is the child's tendency to give up and regress to an earlier stage of development.

Competence; Inertia
(in school age)


Children in the play age plays with a __, competing at games in order to win or to be on top; while __ results when children are dominated by guilt and they become compulsively moralistic.

Purpose; Inhibition
(in play age)


__ evolves from the resolution of the crisis of autonomy versus shame and doubt while __ is the expression of inadequate of the aforementioned basic strength.

Will; Compulsion


__ is what arises when infants learn to expect that future distresses will meet with satisfactory outcomes while __ is demonstrated when they retreat from the outside world due to domination of mistrust in this stage.

Hope; Withdrawal


Erikson insisted that personality is a product of __, __ and __.

History; Culture; Biology


2 primary approaches Erikson used to explain and describe human personality

Anthropological Studies


The study of individual and collective life with the combined methods of psychoanalysis and history



To Freud, anatomy is destiny but to Erikson, anatomy, __ and __ are our combined destiny.

History; Personality


The idea that human development is governed by a sequence of stages that depend on genetic or hereditary factors

Epigenetic Principle of Maturation


To Erikson, the turning point faced at each developmental stage



To Erikson, motivating characteristics and beliefs that derive from the satisfactory resolution of the crisis at each developmental stage

Basic Strengths


The self-image formed during adolescence that integrates our ideas of what we are and what we want to be

Ego Identity


The falure to achieve ego identity during adolescence

Identity Crisis


Motivating characteristics that derive from the unsatisfactory resolution of developmental crises

Basic Weaknesses


A condition that occurs when the ego consists solely of a single way of coping with conflict



A basic strength achieved in infancy that involves a persistent feeling of confidence, a feeling we will maintain despite temporary setbacks or reverses

(trust vs mistrust stage / infancy)


It is at this psychosexual stage that Erikson believed the most important ability involved holding on and letting go and for the first time, children are able to exercise some choice; this stage also involves toilet training

Muscular-Anal Stage


It is at this psychosexual stage (according to Erikson) that motor and mental abilities are continuing to develop

Locomotor-Genital Stage


It is at this psychosexual stage wherein the child learns good work and study habits ideally both at home and at school

Latency Stage


A basic strength that emerges from industriousness during the latency stage that involves the exertion of skill and intelligence in pursuing and completing tasks

(industry vs. inferiority / school age)


Erikson suggested that __ was a hiatus between childhood and adulthood, a necessary psychological __ to give the person time and energy to play different roles and live with different self-images



The basic strength that should develop during adolescence is __, which merges from a cohesive ego identity. It encompasses sincerity, guineness, and a sense of duty in our

(identity vs. identity confusion / adolescence)


The basic strength that develops from autonomy is __, which involves a determination to exercise freedom of choice and self-restraint in the face of society's demands

(autonomy vs. shame and doubt / early childhood)


The basic strength that arises from initiative which involves the courage to envision and pursue goals

(initiative vs. guilt / play age)


The basic strength that emerges from the intimacy of the young adult years which Erikson considered to be the greatest human virtue; a mutual devotion in a shared identity, the fusing of oneself with another person

(intimacy vs. isolation / young adulthood)


The basic strength that emerges from generativity in adulthood which involves a broad concern for others and believed it was manifested in the need to teach, not only to help others but also to fulfill one's identity

(generativity vs. stagnation / adulthood)


The basic strength which is expressed in a detached concern with the whole of life; it is conveyed to succeeding generations in an integration of experience best described by the word heritage

(integrity vs despair / old age)


When only the positive, adaptive tendency is present in the ego, the condition is said to be __ which can lead to __; when only the negative tendency is present, the condition is called __ which can lead to __

Maladaptive; Neuroses; Malignant; Psychoses


Identify the maldevelopment that occurs in relation to the positive tendency of every psychosocial stage

Infancy (Trust - Sensory maladjustment)
Early childhood (Autonomy - Shameless willfulness)
Play Age (Initiative - Ruthlessness)
School Age (Industriousness - Narrow virtuosity)
Adolescence (Identity cohesion - Fanaticism)
Young Adulthood (Intimacy - Promiscuity)
Adulthood (Generativity - Overextension)
Old Age (Ego integrity - Presumption)


Identify the maldevelopment that occurs in relation to the negative tendency of every psychosocial stage

Infancy (Mistrust - Withdrawal)
Early Childhood (Shame and doubt - Compulsion)
Play Age (Guilt - Inhibition)
School Age (Inferiority - Inertia)
Adolescence (Role Confusion - Role Repudiation)
Young Adulthood (Isolation - Exclusivity)
Adulthood (Stagnation - Rejectivity)
Old Age / Maturity (Despair - Disdain)


TRUE OR FALSE: Erikson believed that we have more change to exercise free will during the last four stages, although the attitudes and strengths we have formed during the earlier stages will affect our choices.



Our ultimate goal according to Erikson

To develop a positive ego identity that incorporates all the basic strengths


In developing his personality theory, Erikson used data obtained primarily from?

Play Therapy
Anthropological Studies
Psychohistorical ANalysis
(He occasionally used free association but rarely attempted to analyze dreams)


The application of Erikson's life-span theory, along with psychoanalytic principles, to the study of historical figures; Erikson's most unusual assessment technique

Psychohistorical Analysis
(typically focuses on a significant crisis, an episode that represents a major life theme uniting past, present and future activities)


Erikson's term for the strategy wherein he adopted the subject's viewpoint as his own to assess life events through that person's eyes

Disciplined Subjectivity


A psychological test used to measure the development of ego identity during adolescence

Ego-Identity Scale


A psychological test used to measure the dimensions of exploration and commitment among adolescents

Ego Identity Process Questionnaire


A 20-item self report inventory used to measure the level of generativity or stagnation in adulthood

Loyola Generativity Scale


A personality assessment technique for children in which structures assembled from dolls, blocks and other toys are analyzed

Play Constructions


An extensive research program identified 5 psychosocial types or statuses on the adolescent stage of development

Identity Achievement (committed to occupational and ideological choices)
Moratorium (still undergoing identity crisis)
Foreclosure not experienced an identity crisis but firmly committed to an occupation and ideology)
Identity Diffusion (no occupational or ideological commitment and not experienced an identity crisis)
Alienated Achievement (experienced an identity crisis, no occupational goal and cling to beliefs that are critical of the social and economic system)


The process of dealing successfully with the social realities of adult life; usually occurs during the 20s, as people assume adult responsibilities of marriage, family and career

Identity Consolidation


Identity the 4 stages in the development of gender preference identity according to one model by Frable

Sensitization (one's initial perception of being different from peers of same sex)
Identity Confusion (confusing, frightening realization that one's feelings and thoughts could be characterized as homosexual
Identity Assumption (believes one is homosexual and begins to accept gay identity)
Commitment (fully accepts the gay identity as a way of life)


Time magazine called him the "most influential living psychoanalyst" while Psychology Today described him as "an authentic intellectual hero"

Erik Erikson


Erikson's method of __ has become a standard diagnostic and therapeutic tool for work with emotionally disturbed and abused children.

Play Therapy