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Flashcards in Industrial Psychology Deck (44):
1

The application of the methods, facts, and principles of the science of psychology to people at work.

Industrial psychology

2

A field of I/O psychology concerned with developing assessment methods for the selection, placement and promotion of employees

Selection and placement

3

A field of I/O psychology concerned with identifying employee skills that need to be enhance to improve job performance

Training and development

4

A field of I/O psychology concerned with the process of identifying criteria or standards for determining how well employees are performing their jobs

Performance appraisal

5

A field of I/O psychology concerned with the process of analyzing the structure of an organization to maximize the satisfaction and effectiveness of individuals, work groups and customers

Organizational development

6

A field of I/O psychology concerned with factors that contribute to a healthy and productive workforce

Quality of Worklife

7

A field of I/O psychology concerned with designing tools, equipment and machines that are compatible with human skills

Ergonomics

8

Published ‘The Theory of Advertising’ and ‘The Psychology of Advertising’ and increased public awareness and credibility of industrial psychology

W.D. Scott

9

Pioneered industrial management techniques
and was concerned with the human aspects of time management

L.M. Gilbreth

10

Published ‘Psychology and Industrial Efficiency’ and considered by some as the founder of industrial psychology

H. Munsterberg

11

Engineer by profession and proposed redesigning the work situation to achieve both higher output for the company and higher wage for the worker

F.W. Taylor

12

A series of research that began in the late 1920s that demonstrated how work behavior manifests itself in an organizational context

Hawthorne Studies

13

A positive change in behavior that occurs at the onset of an intervention followed by a gradual decline, often to the original level of the behavior prior to the intervention

Hawthorne Effect

14

The Hawthorne studies revealed which previously unrecognized aspects of human behavior in a workplace?

Existence of informal employee work groups and their controls on production
Importance of employee attitudes
Value of having a sympathetic and understanding supervisor
Need to treat workers as people instead of merely human capital

15

Traditional unit around which work is organized and the means by which individuals are linked to organizations.

Job

16

The study of a job to describe in specific terms the nature of the component tasks performed by the workers.

Job analysis

17

Methods used to classify potential candidates as suitable or unsuitable for the job.

Selection techniques

18

A score on the test that differentiates those who passed the test from those who failed

Predictor Cutoff

19

The percentage of current employee in a job who are judged to be performing their jobs satisfactorily

Base Rate

20

A term to describe individuals who were correctly selected for hire because they became successful employees

True Positive

21

Individuals who were incorrectly accepted for employment because they were unsuccessful employees

False Positive

22

Individuals who were incorrectly rejected for employment because they would have been successful employees

False Negative

23

A term to describe individuals who were correctly rejected for employment because they would have been unsuccessful employees

True Negative

24

How can we reduce selection errors?

By increasing the validity of the predictor test. The greater the validity of the predictor, the smaller the chance that people will be mistakenly classified.

25

What information are included in a job analysis?

Personal requirements
Personal characteristics
Experience requirements
Job requirements
Labor market

26

What are the techniques for conducting a job analysis?

Interview
Questionnaires
Direct observation
Systematic activity logs
Critical incidents technique

27

A two-way process that allows a company to evaluate a candidate’s suitability for employment and offers the opportunity for candidates to determine whether the company and the job are right for them.

Interview

28

A kind of interview wherein the format and questions asked are left to the discretion of the interviewer; has low reliability and predictive validity but are still used far too often by organizations

Unstructured interview

29

A kind of interview that uses a predetermined list of questions that are asked of every person applying for a particular job; higher reliability and predictive validity

Structured interview

30

A kind of interview that focuses not on personal characteristics or work experience but on behaviors needed for successful job performance; can be more valid than structured interviews in certain situations

Situational interview

31

A kind of interview that uses computer software to conduct the initial interview by employing a fixed sequence of multiple-choice questions

Online interview

32

A kind of interview that is used to conduct initial screening; Saves time on both the interviewer and applicant’s part

Phone interview

33

Assesses the extent to which an applicant can learn or perform a job-related skill

Ability test

34

Measure the traits exhibited by normal individuals in everyday life (tests of normal personality) and determine whether individuals have serious psychological problems (tests of psychopathology)

Personality Inventory

35

A type of personnel selection test in which the candidate demonstrates proficiency on a task representative of the work performed in the job

Work Sample

36

A selection technique wherein information are obtained from persons who knew something about the applicants’ background, skills and work history to examine other people’s impressions of the applicants and to verify the information the applicants reported.

References and letters of recommendations

37

A method of selection via a series of structured, group-oriented exercises that are evaluated by raters

Assessment Center

38

A method of selection in which applicants are presented with a problem situation and asked how they would respond to it

Situational Exercise

39

Requires job applicants to process memos, letters and directives found in a typical manager’s in-basket.

In-Basket Technique

40

Job applicants meet to discuss an actual business problem under the pressure of time; a leader usually emerges from the group to guide the discussion

Leaderless group discussion

41

Assesses the probability that an applicant would steal money or merchandise

Integrity Test (Honesty Test)

42

Controversial testing method used to predict performance limitation due to medical problems

Drug testing

43

Consists of an interview by a clinical psychologist who will examine the applicant’s life history, and the administration of psychological tests

Psychological Exam

44

A method of assessing individuals in which information pertaining to past activities, interests and behaviors in their lives is recorded

Biographical Information