Flashcards in Rogers's Person-Centered Theory Deck (80):
Proponent of person-centered therapy (initially known as non-directive or client-centered therapy) which suggests that the ability to change and improve personality is centered within the person
Rogers suggested that personality could only be understood based on __.
Subjective experiences or from our own viewpoint
As a child, he was captivated by farming and agricultural experiments; later on he applied his philosophy to international problems such as reduction of tension between Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland, and Jews and Arabs in the Middle East
Identify the factors that Rogers believed influence the behavior of a child
Level of education
To Rogers, an acceptance of self and reality, and a sense of responsibility for the self
(single most important predictor of behavior)
The basic human motivation to actualize, maintain and enhance the self; responsible for maturation, the genetically determined development of the body's parts and processes
It begins in the womb, facilitating human growth by providing for the differentiation of the physical organs and development of physiological functioning.
The governing process throughout the life span by which we judge experiences in terms of their value for fostering or hindering our actualization and growth
Organismic Valuing Process (OVP)
Experiences that promote actualization will be sought; experiences that hinder it will be avoided.
Our image of what we are, what we should be, and what we would like to be
Acceptance, love and approval from others; To Maslow, needs that develops as the self emerges
Approval granted regardless of a person's behavior
Unconditional Positive Regard
The condition under which we grant ourselves acceptance and approval; positive regard that comes more from within us than from other people
Approval, love or acceptance granted only when a person expresses desirable behaviors and attitude
Conditional Positive Regard
A discrepancy between a person's self-concept and aspects of his or her experience
Rogers's term for self-actualization, for developing all facets of the self; desired result of psychological development and social evolution
Fully Functioning Person
Identify the characteristics of fully functioning (self-actualizing) persons according to Rogers
1. Awareness of all experience, open to positive as well as negative feelings
2. Freshness of appreciation for all experiences
3. Trust in one's own behavior and feelings
4. Freedom of choice, without inhibitions
5. Creativity and spontaneity
6. Continual need to grow, to strive to maximize one's potential
Roger's emphasis on change and growth is neatly captured in the word __ in the title of his book, __
Becoming; On Becoming a Person
TRUE OR FALSE: To Rogers, although the actualization tendency is innate, the actualizing process itself is influenced more by social than by biological forces.
To Rogers, the only way to assess personality is in terms of the person's __.
Roger's approach to therapy in which the client is assumed to be responsible for changing his or her personality
(To Rogers, the only worthwhile approach to personality assessment)
To Rogers, the danger in trying to infer too much about these non-conscious experiences is that the inferences the therapist draws may represent the __ more than the __.
Therapist's own projections; Client's actual experiences
One advantage Rogers claimed for his approach is that it does not rely on __ into which the therapist must fir the patient's problem.
A predetermined theoretical structure
A group therapy technique in which people learn about their feelings and about how they relate to one another
A self-report questionnaire that assesses openness or receptivity to experience, a characteristic of the fully functioning person
Experience Inventory (Coan)
A self-report questionnaire which measures our level of self-trust
Experiencing Scale (Gendlin & Tomlinson)
A then radical procedure introduced by Rogers in his therapy
Rogers recorded and filmed therapy sessions to enable researchers to study the client-therapist interaction
A self-report technique developed by William Stephenson for assessing aspects of the self-concept; in this technique, clients sort a large number of statements about the self-concept into categories that range from most descriptive to least descriptive
Rogers believed that personality can only be understood by a __ approach, that is, from an individual's own viewpoint based on his or her subjective experiences (one's experiential field).
Rogers's concept of conditions of worth is similar to Freud's concept of __
Both involves seeing ourselves as worthy only under conditions acceptable to our parents
He grew up in a home that included almost no social life and an abundance of hard work; developed a scientific attitude toward farming and later on devoted his research on the necessary and sufficient conditions for human psychological growth
He developed a humanistic theory of personality that grew out of his experiences as a practicing psychotherapist. He was more concerned with helping people than with discovering why they behaved as they did.
To Rogers, a tendency for all matter, both organic and inorganic, to evolve from simpler to more complex forms; e.g. human consciousness evolves from a primitive unconsciousness to a highly organized organized awareness
To Rogers, the tendency within all humans (and other animals and plants) to move toward completion or fulfillment of potentials; the only motive people possess
Tendency subsumed within the actualizing tendency which includes basic needs and the tendency to resist change and to seek the status quo; expressed in people's desire to protect their current, comfortable self-concept
The other tendency subsumed within the actualizing tendency which includes the need to become more, to develop, and to achieve growth; expressed in curiosity, playfulness, self-exploration, friendship and confidence that one can achieve psychological growth
Although people share the __ with plants and other animals, only humans have a concept of self and thus a potential for __.
Actualizing Tendency; Self-Actualization
To Rogers, refers to organismic experiences of the individual; refers to the whole person - conscious and unconscious, physiological and cognitive
To Rogers, the tendency to actualize the self as perceived in awareness
To Rogers, it include all those aspects of one's being and one's experiences that are perceived in awareness (though not always accurately) by the individual
To Rogers, experiences that are inconsistent with people's self-concept usually are either __ or accepted only in __ forms.
To Rogers, one's view of self as one wishes to be; contains all those attributes, usually positive, that people aspire to possess
A wide gap between the ideal self and the self-concept indicated __ and an unhealthy personality.
To Rogers, the symbolic representation (not necessarily in verbal symbols) of some portion of our experience
(synonymous to consciousness and symbolization)
Identify the three levels of awareness as recognized by Rogers
1. Some events are experienced below the threshold of awareness and are either ignored or denied.
2. Some experiences are accurately symbolized and freely admitted to the self-structure.
3. Some experiences are perceived in a distorted form.
__ become the criterion by which we accept or reject our experiences.
Conditions of worth
Our perceptions of other people's view of us
__ refers to the organism's tendency to move toward fulfillment whereas __ is the desire of the perceived self to reach fulfillment.
Rogers believed that people are __ when they are unaware of the discrepancy between their organismic self and their significant experience.
A state of uneasiness or tension whose cause is unknown
An awareness that our self is no longer whole or congruent
Identify the two chief defenses that prevent the inconsistency between our organism experience and our perceived self
Distortion (misinterpretation of experience to fit it into some aspect of self-concept)
Denial (refusal to perceive experience in awareness or at least keeping some aspect of it from reaching symbolization)
The protection of the self-concept against anxiety and threat by the denial or distortion of experiences inconsistent with it
Results when the incongruence between people's perceived self and their organismic experience is either too obvious or occurs too suddenly to be denied or distorted
Rogers always remained uncomfortable with the terms "neurotic" and "psychotic," preferring instead to speak of __ and __ behaviors.
An individual becomes a person by making __ with a caregivers whose __ for that individual fosters __.
Contact; Positive regard; Positive self-regard
Conditions of worth and external evaluation lead to __, __ and __ to prevent people from experiencing unconditional positive regard.
Vulnerability; Anxiety; Threat
When the organismic self and the perceived self are incongruent, people will become __ and use __ and __ as attempts to reduce incongruence.
Defensive; Distortion; Denial
People become __ whenever distortion and denial are insufficient to block out incongruence.
Conditions necessary in person-centered therapy to facilitate psychological growth
Congruence (to be real or genuine)
Unconditional positive regard (non-possessive warmth and acceptance)
Empathic listening (accurately sense feelings of clients and communicate these without prejudice, projection or evaluation)
TRUE OR FALSE: Although congruence is a necessary ingredient in successful therapy, Rogers did not believe that it is necessary for a therapist to be congruent in all relationships outside the therapeutic process.
The necessary and sufficient ingredient in person-centered therapy that enables client to listen to themselves and become their own therapists
Describe the stages of therapeutic change in person-centered therapy
Stage 1 (unwillingness to communicate)
Stage 2 (discuss external events but disown own feelings)
Stage 3 (talk more freely about self, though still as an object)
Stage 4 (talk of deep feelings but not ones presently felt)
Stage 5 (express present feelings though not accurately symbolized)
Stage 6 (dramatic growth and irreversible movement toward becoming fully functioning)
Stage 7 (occur outside therapeutic encounter)
Identify the stage where the person freely allow into awareness those experiences that were previously denied or distorted; unconditional self-regard begins to develop; physiological loosening
What significant development happens to a person who reaches the last stage (Stage 7)
Clients become fully functioning "person of tomorrow"
The most basic outcome of successful client-centered therapy is a __ client who is less __ and more __.
Congruent; Defensive; Open to experiences
Identify the other outcomes of the client with a successful client-centered therapy
-have a more realistic view of the world
-develop positive self-regard
-narrow the gap between ideal self and real self
-be less vulnerable to threat
-become less anxious
-take ownership of experiences
-become more accepting of others
-become more congruent in relationships with others
Identify the characteristics of the "person of tomorrow" according to Rogers
-Open to their experiences
-Trust in their organismic selves
-Live fully in the moment
-Harmonious relations with others
-Basic trust of human nature
-Greater richness in life
To Rogers, the tendency to live in the moment
TRUE OR FALSE: Rogers was first a scientist; second, a therapist; and third, a personality theorist.
Its purpose was to investigate both the process and the outcomes of client-centered therapy; included Rogers and other faculty members, some graduate students
Identify the basic hypothesis of the Chicago Studies
All persons have within themselves the capacity, either active or latent, for self-understanding as well as the capacity and tendency to move in the direction of self-actualization and maturity.
Identify the instruments used in the Chicago Studies
Thematic Apperception Test
Self-Other Attitude Scale
Willoughby Emotional Maturity Scale
Describe the findings of the Chicago Studies
People who received client-centered therapy generally showed some growth or improvement. However, they never attained the level of psychological health demonstrated by normal people in the control group.
Rogers proposed that the cornerstone of mental health was the __ between how we really view ourselves and how we ideally would like to be.
A version of Rogers's theory developed by E. Tory Higgins which proposed at least two distinct forms of discrepancy (real-ideal discrepancy and real-ought discrepancy)
To Rogers, a natural instinct directing us toward the most fulfilling pursuits
Organismic Valuing Process (OVP)
The experience of being fully immersed and engaged in an experience to the point of losing track of time and one's sense of self; proposed by Csikzentmihalyi
Rogers believed that if you engage in experiences that are part of your __, you will be led to pursuits that are more engaging, enriching, interesting and rewarding.
According to Rogers, the two basic human needs are __ and __.
All of us, Rogers said, have a need for __, that is, a feeling of self-confidence and self-worth.
To Rogers, the need for __ would include the need for food, sleep, and the tendency to resist change.