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Flashcards in Maslow's Holistic-Dynamic Theory Deck (84):

Considered the founder and spiritual leader of the humanistic psychology movement

Abraham Maslow
"The study of crippled, stunted, immature, and unhealthy specimens can yield only a cripple psychology."


An arrangement of innate needs, from strongest to weakest, that activates and directs behavior

Heirarchy of Five Innate Needs


Maslow's term for the innate needs in his needs-hierarchy theory

Instinctoid Needs
(hereditary component)


__ needs must be at least partially satisfied before __ needs become influential.

Lower; Higher


Identify the give instinctoid needs of Maslow

Belongingness and love


Identify the several characteristics of needs according to Maslow

-The lower the need is in the hierarchy, the greater are its strength, potency and priority
-Higher needs appear later in life
-Failure to satisfy a higher need does not produce a crisis.
-Although higher needs are less necessary for survival, they contribute to survival and growth
-Satisfaction of higher needs leads to contentment, happiness and fulfillment
-Gratification of higher needs requires better external circumstances that does gratification of lower needs
-A need does not have to be satisfied fully before the next need in the hierarchy becomes important


The lower needs; failure to satisfy them produces a deficiency in the body

Deficit / Deficiency Needs


The higher needs; although they are less necessary than the lower needs, they involve the realization and fulfillment of human potential

Growth / Being Needs


Maslow proposed a declining percentage of satisfaction for each need. Offering a hypothetical example, he described a person who satisfied, in turn, __ % of the physiological needs, __ % of the safety needs, __ % of the belongingness and love needs, __ % of the esteem needs and __ % of the self-actualization need.

85; 70; 50; 40; 10


Once this need is satisfied, the person is no longer driven by it; the need ceases to direct or control behavior

Physiological Needs


The need that requires stability, security and freedom from fear and anxiety; in children, need for a structure or routine, for an orderly and predictable world

Safety Needs


The need expressed through a close relationship with a friend, lover or mate, or through social relationships formed within a group

Belongingness and Love Needs


To Maslow, failure to satisfy the need for __ is a fundamental cause of emotional maladjustment.



The need expressed through the feelings of self-worth and from other people, in the form of status, recognition or social success

Esteem Needs


The fullest development of the self; highest need in Maslow's hierarchy and depends on the maximum realization and fulfillment of our potentials, talents and abilities

Self-Actualization Need


Identify the conditions necessary to satisfy the self-actualization need according to Maslow

-We must be free of constraints imposed by society and by ourselves
-We must not be distracted by the lower-order needs
-We must be secure in our self-image and in our relationships with other people; we must be able to love and be loved in return
-We must have a realistic knowledge of our strengths and weaknesses, virtues and vices


Second set of innate needs proposed by Maslow; innate needs to know and to understand

Cognitive Needs
(The need to know is stronger than the need to understand)


Physiological and safety needs arise in __. Belongingness and esteem needs arise in __. The need for self-actualization does not arise until __.

Infancy; Adolescence; Midlife


The motivation of self-actualizers, which involves maximizing personal potential rather than striving for a particular goal object

(distinct type of motivation for self-actualizers, sometimes called B-motivation or Being)


The motivation of people who are not self-actualizers; involves striving for something specific to make up for something that is lacking within us

D-motivation / Deficiency


States of growth or being toward which self-actualizers evolve; e.g. goodness, uniqueness and perfection



A thwarting of self-development related to failure to satisfy the metaneeds



Identify Maslow's metaneeds

Truth; Goodness; Beauty; Unity, wholeness; Dichotomy-transcendence; Aliveness, process; Uniqueness; Perfection; Necessity; Completion, finality; Justice; Order; Simplicity; Richness, totality, comprehensiveness; Effortlessness; Playfulness; Self-sufficiency; Meaningfulness


Maslow's research on __people formed the basis of his personality theory. He did not find many examples of self-actualizers; he estimated that they constitute __ % or less of the population.

Emotionally healthy; 1%


Identify the common characteristics of self-actualizing people as concluded by Maslow

-Clear perception of reality
-Acceptance of self, others and nature
-Spontaneity, simplicity and naturalness
-Dedication to a cause
-Independence and need for privacy
-Freshness of appreciation
-Peak experiences
-Social interest
-Deep interpersonal relationships
-Tolerance and acceptance of others
-Creativeness and originality
-Resistance to social pressures


A moment of intense ecstasy, similar to a religious or mystical experience, during which the self is transcended

Peak Experience
(person feels supremely powerful, confident and decisive)


As the highest need, __ is the least potent. Thus, it can easily be __.

Self-Actualization; Inhibited


To Maslow, the ideal situation in childhood is a balance of __ and __.

Permisiveness; Regulation


The fear that maximizing our potential will lead to a situation which we will be unable to cope

Jonah Complex


To Maslow, wickedness was not an inherited trait but rather the result of __

Inappropriate environment


Maslow started his investigation out of curiosity about these two people who impressed him

Ruth Benedict
Max Wertheimer


Identify the techniques used by Maslow to assess the personalities of historical figures and living subjects

For historical figures, biographical material (analyzing written records)
For living subjects, interviews, free associations and projective tests


A self-report questionnaire developed by Everett Shostrom to measure the values and behaviors of self-actualizing people; 2 major scales (Time competence and Inner directedness and 10 subscales)

Personal Orientation Inventory (POI)


Describe the research method of Maslow

Maslow did not use case studies nor experimental or correlational methods in research. He believed that self-actualization could not be studied by accepted scientific procedures, the alternative was to wait until appropriate techniques were developed or not to study the issue at all.
He stated that he did not have enough time to perform careful experiments. He referred to his program as consisting of pilot studies only.


A self-report questionnaire designed to measure how well a person satisfies Maslow's needs

Need Satisfaction Inventory


A contemporary outgrowth of the spirit or essence of Maslow's self-actualization theory which suggests that people have an innate tendency to express their interests, exercise and develop their capabilities and potentials, and overcome challenges

Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan)


Self-determination is facilitated by a person's focus on __ motivation.



Identify the three basic needs required to reach a state of well-being according to the Self-Determination Theory

Competence (need to feel that one can master difficult tasks)
Autonomy (freedom to base one's course of action on one's own interests, needs and values)
Relatedness (need to fee a close connection with other people)


Considered the third force in psychology or the fourth force in personality



Assumes that the whole person is constantly being motivated by one need or another and that people have the potential to grow toward psychological health

Maslow's Holistic-Dynamic Theory
(also called humanistic theory, transpersonal theory, needs theory and self-actualization theory)


Perhaps suffered the most lonely and miserable childhood of any personality theorist discussed; learned to hate and mistrust religion and become a committed atheist; scored 195 on Thorndike's intelligence test

Abraham Maslow


Identify Maslow's basic assumptions regarding motivation

-The whole person, not any single part or function, is motivated (holistic approach)
-Motivation is usually complex, a person's behavior may spring from several separate motives
-People are continually motivated by one need or another
-All people everywhere are motivated by the same basic needs
-Needs can be arranged on a hierarchy


Maslow's concept which assumes that lower level needs must be satisfied or at least relatively satisfied before higher level needs become motivators

Hierarchy of Needs


The five needs composing this hierarchy are __ needs, meaning that they have a striving or motivational character.

(often referred to as basic needs)


The only needs that can be completely satisfied or even overly satisfied; possess a recurring nature

Physiological Needs


Needs that cannot be overly satisfied; adults who spend far more energy than do healthy people trying to satisfy these needs suffer from basic anxiety when they are not successful in their attempts

Safety Needs


People who have had these needs adequately satisfied from early years do not panic when denied later on; people who have never experienced these needs are incapable of giving the same to others; people who have received these needs in small doses have stronger of these needs

Love and Belongingness Needs


Identify the two levels of esteem needs

Reputation (perception of the prestige, recognition, or fame a person has achieved in the eyes of others)
Self-Esteem (person's own feelings of worth and confidence)


According to Maslow, why some people step over the threshold from esteem to self-actualization and others do not is a matter of whether or not they embrace the __.



Needs which includes self-fulfillment, the realization of all one's potential and a desire to become creative in the full sense of the word

Self-Actualization Needs


Identify three other categories of needs that Maslow identified in addition to conative needs

Aesthetic Needs (need for beauty and aesthetically pleasing experiences)
Cognitive Needs (desire to know, to solve mysteries, to understand and to be curious)
Neurotic Needs (frustration of needs that lead to stagnation and pathology)


When people do not satisfy these needs, among other things, may develop pathology in the form of skepticism, disillusionment and cynicism

Cognitive Needs


They serve as compensation for unsatisfied basic needs; usually reactive

Neurotic Needs


Behavior which is not caused by needs but by other factors such as conditioned reflexes, maturation or drugs; often an end in itself and serves no other purpose than to be

Expressive Behavior
(no goals or aim but is merely the person's mode of expression; ex. gait, gestures, voice, smile)


Behavior that is conscious, effortful, learned and determined by the external environment; serves some aim or goal, although not always conscious to the person, and it is always motivated by some deficit attempt

Coping Behavior
(involves the individual's attempts to cope with the environment)


Pathology arising from the deprivation of self-actualization needs (or B-values); the absence of values, the lack of fulfillment and the loss of meaning in life



Term for the needs innately determined even though they can be modified by learning

Instinctoid Needs


Identify the differences between instinctoid and noninstinctoid needs

-Thwarting of instinctoid needs produces pathology, whereas the frustration of noninstinctoid needs does not
-Instinctoid needs are persistent and their satisfaction leads to psychological health; noninstinctoid needs are usually temporary and satisfaction is not a prerequisite to health
-Instinctoid needs are species-specific
-Instinctoid needs can be molded, inhibited or altered by environmental influences though difficult to change


Compare higher level (love, esteem, self-actualization) and lower level (physiological, safety) needs

-Higher level needs are later on the phylogenetic or evolutionary scale / higher needs appear later during the course of individual development
-Higher level needs produce more happiness and more peak experiences


A person who has reached the level of __ would have no motivation to return to a lower stage of development



Maslow's earlier term for the self-actualizing person

"Good Human Being"


To Maslow, the ultimate level of needs

B-values (Being) / Metaneeds


Characterized by expressive rather than coping behavior and is associated with the B-values

(motivation of self-actualizing people)


Identify Maslow's 14 B-values

Truth; Goodness; Beauty; Wholeness; Aliveness; Uniqueness; Perfection; Completion; Justice; Simplicity; Totality; Effortlessness; Humor; Autonomy


Maslow hypothesized that when people's metaneeds are not met, they experience __ illness.



Concept originated by Maslow which refers to the type of science that lacks emotion, joy, wonder, awe and rapture

(observed by Maslow when he attended medical school)


A 15-item scale that borrows items from the POI that are most strongly correlated; developed to overcome the practical limitations of the POI

Short Index of Self-Actualization (Jones & Crandall)


Measure of self-actualization which yields four factors: Core Self-Actualization, Autonomy, Openness to Experience and Comfort with Solitude

Brief Index of Self-Actualization (Sumerlin & Bundrick)


An obstacle that often blocks people's growth toward self-actualization; fear of being one's best

Jonah Complex


Identify the aim of Maslow's psychotherapy

For clients to embrace the Being-values
(to accomplish this, clients must be free from their dependency on others)


A relatively new field of psychology that combines an emphasis on hope, optimism and well-being with scientific research and assessment

Positive Psychology


TRUE OR FALSE: To Maslow, self-actualizing people are not ordinary people with something added, but rather as ordinary people with nothing taken away.



Maslow assumed that __ affects the whole person; it is complete, often unconscious, continual and applicable to all people.



People are motivated by four dimensions of needs: __ (willful striving), __ (the need for order and beauty), __ (the need for curiosity and knowledge), and __ (an unproductive pattern of relating to other people).

Conative; Aesthetic; Cognitive; Neurotic


Occasionally, needs on the hierarchy can be __, and they are frequently unconscious.



__ is motivated and is directed toward the satisfaction of basic needs.

Coping behavior


__ has a cause but is not motivated; it is simply one's way of expressing oneself.

Expressive behavior


Conative needs, including self-actualization, are __; that is, their deprivation leads to pathology.



The frustration of self-actualization needs results in __ and a rejection of the B-values.



Acceptance of the __ is the criterion that separates self-actualizing people from those who are merely healthy but mired at the level of esteem.



Identify the characteristics of self-actualizers according to Maslow

1. More efficient perception of reality
2. Acceptance of self, others and nature
3. Spontaneity, simplicity and naturalness
4. Problem-centered approach to life
5. Need for privacy
6. Autonomy
7. Freshness of appreciation
8. Peak experiences
9. Social interest
10. Profound interpersonal relations
11. Democratic attitude
12. Ability to discriminate means from ends
13. Philosophical sense of humor
14. Creativeness
15. Resistance to enculturation


In his philosophy of science, Maslow argued for a __ attitude, one that is noninterfering, passive, receptive and subjective



Psychotherapy should be directed at the need level currently being thwarted, in most cases __ needs.

Love and belongingness


To Maslow, love for the essence of another person