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Flashcards in Horney's Social Psychoanalysis Deck (54):

Horney believed that __ forces in childhood, not biological forces, influence personality development.



A higher-level need for security and freedom from fear according to Horney

Safety Need
To Horney, whether the infant experiences a feeling of security and an absence of fear is decisive in determining the normality of his or her personality development.


A pervasive feeling of loneliness and helplessness; the foundation of neurosis

Basic Anxiety


According to Horney, how do we protect/defend ourselves against basic anxiety?

Securing affection and love
Being submissive
Attaining power


Ten irrational defenses against anxiety that become a permanent part of personality and that affect behavior

Neurotic Needs
(irrational solutions to one's problems; these needs encompass the 4 ways of protecting ourselves against anxiety)


Enumerate the 10 neurotic needs organized under the 4 ways of protecting ourselves against anxiety

Securing affection and love: 1. Affection and approval
Being submissive: 2. A dominant partner
Attaining power: 3. Power; 4. Exploitation; 5. Prestige; 6. Admiration; 7. Achievement or Ambition
Withdrawing: 8. Self-sufficiency; 9. Perfection; 10. Narrow limits to life


The categories of behaviors and attitudes toward oneself and others that express a person's needs; Horney's revision of the concept of neurotic needs

Neurotic Trends


Identify the neurotic trends

1. Movement toward other people
2. Movement against other people
3. Movement away from other people


Behaviors and attitudes associated with the neurotic trend of moving toward people, such as a need for affection and approval

Compliant Personality
Individuals seem unusually considerate, appreciative, responsive, understanding and sensitive to the needs of others.


Behaviors and attitudes associated with the neurotic trend of moving against people, such as a domineering and controlling manner

Aggressive Personality
Individuals act tough and domineering and have no regard for others; they are likely to argue, criticize, demand, and do whatever is necessary to achieve and retain superiority and power.


Behaviors and attitudes associated with the neurotic trend of moving away from people, such as an intense need for privacy

Detached Personality
Individuals have an almost desperate desire for privacy; need independence; tend to avoid long-term commitments; place great stress on reason, logic and intelligence


To Horney, the basic incompatibility of the neurotic trends and the core of neurosis



According to Horney, the normal person is __ in behaviors and attitudes and can __ to changing situations

Flexible; Adapt


Described the idealized self-image of normal people vs neurotics

Normal people: self-image is an idealized picture of oneself built on a flexible, realistic assessment of one's abilities
Neurotics: self-image is based on an inflexible, unrealistic self-appraisal


An attempt to realize an unattainable idealized self-image by denying the true self and behaving in terms of what we think we should be doing

Tyranny of the Shoulds


A way to defend against the conflict caused by the discrepancy between an idealized and a real self-image by projecting the conflict onto the outside world



To Horney, a revision of psychoanalysis to encompass the psychological conflicts inherent in the traditional ideal of womanhood and women's roles

Feminine Psychology


The envy a male feels toward a female because she can bear children and he cannot

Womb Envy
Horney's response to Freud's concept of penis envy in females


As a result of feelings of inferiority, woman may choose to deny their feminity and to wish, unconsciously, that they were men. Horney referred to this as the __, a condition that can lead to sexual inhibitions.

Flight from Womanhood


To Horney, __ is our ultimate and necessary goal in life.



Unlike Freud, in using this technique, Horney focused on her patient's visible emotional reactions toward her, believing that these could explain her patient's attitudes toward other people.

Free Association


Horney believed that __ could reveal a person's true self, and they represented attempts to solve problems, in either a constructive or a neurotic way.

Dream Analysis


Enumerate tests devised to evaluated Horney's neurotic trends

Compliant, Aggressive and Detached (CAD)
Horney-Coolidge Type Indicator


An indiscriminate need to win at all costs

Neurotic Competitiveness


Built on the assumption that social and cultural conditions, especially childhood experiences, are largely responsible for shaping personality

Built on the assumption that social and cultural conditions, especially childhood experiences, are largely responsible for shaping personality


Identify Horney's 3 fundamental styles of relating to others, which she called the neurotic trends

1. Moving toward people
2. Moving against people
3. Moving away from people


Explain the consequences of compulsive behavior of neurotic people according to Horney

Compulsive behavior arises from neurotic people's tendency to rigidly rely on one style of relating to others and this generates intrapsychic conflict which may take the form of either Idealized Self-image(neurotic search for glory, neurotic claims or neurotic pride) or Self-Hatred (self-contempt or alienation from self).


According to Horney, man is ruled by these 2 guiding principles

Safety and Satisfaction


Horney repeatedly emphasized __ influences as the primary bases for both neurotic and normal personality development.



Horney contended that modern culture is based on __ among individuals. Competitiveness and the __ it spawns result in feelings of __.

Competition; Basic Hostility; Isolation


Horney believed that neurotic conflict can stem from almost any developmental stage, but __ is the age from which the vast majority of problems arise. Debilitating experiences can be traced to lack of __ and __.

Childhood; Genuine Warmth and Affection


According to Horney, if parents do not satisfy the child's needs for safety and satisfaction, the child develops feelings of __ toward the parents.

Basic Hostility


A feeling of being isolated and helpless in a world conceived as potentially hostile

Basic Anxiety


Identify Horney's 4 general ways that people protect themselves against basic anxiety or the feeling of being alone in a potentially hostile world

1. Affection
2. Submissiveness
3. Power
4. Withdrawal


To Horney, __ is the salient or important characteristic of all neurotic drives.



These are more specific needs, stated by Horney, that characterize neurotics in their attempts to combat basic anxiety; they describe the 4 basic protective strategies stated by Horney earlier

Neurotic Needs


Identify Horney's 10 neurotic needs

1. Affection and Approval
2. Powerful Partner
3. Restrict One's Life Within Narrow Borders
4. Power
5. Exploit Others
6. Social Recognition or Prestige
7. Personal Admiration
8. Ambition and Personal Achievement
9. Self-Sufficiency and Independence
10. Perfection and Unassailability


Compare and contrast the personality of normal people vs. neurotic people in terms of the 3 neurotic trends

Moving toward people: Normal people (friendly, loving personality) vs. Neurotic people (compliant personality)
Moving against people: Normal people (survivor in a competitive society) vs. neurotic people (aggressive personality)
Moving away from people: Normal people (autonomous, serene personality) vs. Neurotic people (detached personality)


To Horney, an intrapsychic conflict which is an attempt to solve conflicts by painting a godlike picture of oneself; an extravagantly positive view of themselves that exists only in ther personal belief system

Idealized Self-Image
Compliant (good and saintly)
Aggressive (strong, heroic, omnipotent)
Detached (wise, self-sufficient, independent)


To Horney, an intrapsychic conflict which is an irrational and powerful tendency to despise one's real self



Identify the 3 aspects of the idealized image

Neurotic search for glory
Neurotic claims
Neurotic pride


To Horney, it is one aspect of the idealized image which refers to the comprehensive drive toward actualizing the ideal self

Neurotic search for glory
Has 3 elements: Need for perfection, Neurotic ambition, Drive toward a vindictive triumph


To Horney, one aspect of the idealized image where neurotics build a fantasy world and proclaimed they are special and entitled to be treated in accordance with their idealized view of themselves

Neurotic Claims


To Horney, another aspect of the idealized image which is a false pride based not on a realistic view of true self but on a spurious image of the idealized self

Neurotic Pride


To Horney, an intrapsychic conflict of neurotic people who realize that their real self does not match the insatiable demands of their idealized self so they begin to despise themselves



Identify the 6 major ways in which people express self-hatred according to Horney

Relentless demands on the self (tyranny of the should)
Merciless self-accusation (berate themselves)
Self-contempt (belittling or ridiculing oneself)
Self-frustration (shackled by taboos against enjoyment)
Self-torment (inflict harm or suffering on themselves)
Self-destructive actions and impulses (overeating, abusing alcohol and drugs)


Horney believed that the __ is found only in some people and is an expression of the neurotic need for love.

Oedipus complex


Horney believed that psychic differences between men and women are not the result of anatomy but rather of __ and __.

Cultural and Social Expectations


Identify the favorable or positive counterparts of Horney's 3 neurotic trends

Love (moving toward people)
Mastery (moving against people)
Freedom (moving away from people)


Aim of Horneyian therapy and the techniques used

Grow in the direction of self-realization or actualization of the real self
Dream interpretation and Free Association


Horney's perspective on dream interpretation and free association

Horney saw dreams as attempts to solve conflicts, but the solutions can be either neurotic or healthy. Together with free association, they eventually reveal patients' idealized self-image and persistent but unsuccessful attempts at accomplishing it.


Horney is known for her lucid portrayal of the __ personality.



The inability of people to use different tactics in their relationships with others generates __; that is, the incompatible tendency to move toward, against and away from people

Basic Conflict


Composed of Horney, Fromm, Fromm-Reichmann, Sullivan, Thompson and others, which is an informal organization that met regularly over drinks to discuss old and new ideas in psychiatry and the related social science

Zodiac Group