Flashcards in BCHP PT 1 - CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY Deck (38):
What are Atoms?
Ultramicroscopic building blocks of matter
What are Molecules?
Two or more atoms sharing electrons to form a structure
What is a Compound?
Substance made of DIFFERENT atoms
What is a Element?
Substance made of SAME atoms
What is a Ion?
Atom with a POSITIVE and NEGATIVE charge
What is Free Radical?
A charge atom with UNPAIRED electron
The BUILDING phase of metabolism - Consumption of energy
The BREAKDOWN phase of metabolism- Production of energy
What is the chemical reaction if you break a bond?
Energy is released - used to form other bonds
What is Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)?
A form of energy used by all cells. "Energy Currency"
ATP is "earned" through ________ reactions, and is "spent" through ________ reactions.
Catabolic / Anabolic
Describe 'Breaking ATP'.
ATP is broken to release energy
Describe 'Reforming ATP'.
Energy used to reform ADP to ATP
What are Energy Substates?
Substances used to reform/make ATP
Define Cellular Respiration.
Reactions that transfer energy from food to ATP
What is Anaerobic?
Cellular respiration WITHOUT oxygen
What is Aerobic?
Cellular respiration WITH oxygen
Describe Carbohydrate (Glucose) Metabolism.
Preferred energy substrate to reform ATP using glycogen or blood glucose
Describe the process of Glycolysis?
Making ATP from glucose in the cell cytoplasm - broken into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid and 2 ATP
Describe Carbohydrate/Glucose Metabolism (Aerobic).
Pyruvic acid ENTERS MITOCHONDRIA producing 26-28 more ATP
Describe Carbohydrate/Glucose Metabolism (Anaerobic).
Pyruvic acid CONVERTED into lactic acid/lactate - which diffuses into blood
Describe Fat Metabolism ability to generate ATP.
Generates ATP only aerobically
What is Lipolysis?
Breakdown of stored fat into glycerol and fatty acid to make ATP
What is the function of Hepatocytes (Liver Cells)?
Create Ketone Bodies to make ATP
Describe Protein Metabolism.
Broken down into amino acids to generate ATP
In a ________, a substance (________) dissolves another substance (________)
Solution / Solvent / Solute
A Acid dissociates into?
Hydrogen ions (H+)
A Base dissociates into?
Hydroxide ions (OH-)
A Salt dissociates into?
Neither H+ or OH-
Determines the acidity or alkalinity level of a solution
More Hydrogen Ions in a solution makes it more...?
More Hydroxide Ions in a solutions makes it more...?
Which organic compound functions as the primary energy substrates, using glycogen to generate ATP?
What are 'Triglycerides'?
Storage form of excess calories
(T or F) Fatty acid is not an energy substrate.
Explain the function of DNA.
Genetic material controls cell activities
Explain the function of RNA.
Relays genetic instruction to guide protein synthesis