BCHP PT 1 - CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY Flashcards Preview

T1 PHYSIOLOGY > BCHP PT 1 - CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY > Flashcards

Flashcards in BCHP PT 1 - CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY Deck (38):
1

What are Atoms?

Ultramicroscopic building blocks of matter

2

What are Molecules?

Two or more atoms sharing electrons to form a structure

3

What is a Compound?

Substance made of DIFFERENT atoms

4

What is a Element?

Substance made of SAME atoms

5

What is a Ion?

Atom with a POSITIVE and NEGATIVE charge

6

What is Free Radical?

A charge atom with UNPAIRED electron

7

Define Anabolism.

The BUILDING phase of metabolism - Consumption of energy

8

Define Catabolism.

The BREAKDOWN phase of metabolism- Production of energy

9

What is the chemical reaction if you break a bond?

Energy is released - used to form other bonds

10

What is Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)?

A form of energy used by all cells. "Energy Currency"

11

ATP is "earned" through ________ reactions, and is "spent" through ________ reactions.

Catabolic / Anabolic

12

Describe 'Breaking ATP'.

ATP is broken to release energy

13

Describe 'Reforming ATP'.

Energy used to reform ADP to ATP

14

What are Energy Substates?

Substances used to reform/make ATP

15

Define Cellular Respiration.

Reactions that transfer energy from food to ATP

16

What is Anaerobic?

Cellular respiration WITHOUT oxygen

17

What is Aerobic?

Cellular respiration WITH oxygen

18

Describe Carbohydrate (Glucose) Metabolism.

Preferred energy substrate to reform ATP using glycogen or blood glucose

19

Describe the process of Glycolysis?

Making ATP from glucose in the cell cytoplasm - broken into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid and 2 ATP

20

Describe Carbohydrate/Glucose Metabolism (Aerobic).

Pyruvic acid ENTERS MITOCHONDRIA producing 26-28 more ATP

21

Describe Carbohydrate/Glucose Metabolism (Anaerobic).

Pyruvic acid CONVERTED into lactic acid/lactate - which diffuses into blood

22

Describe Fat Metabolism ability to generate ATP.

Generates ATP only aerobically

23

What is Lipolysis?

Breakdown of stored fat into glycerol and fatty acid to make ATP

24

What is the function of Hepatocytes (Liver Cells)?

Create Ketone Bodies to make ATP

25

Describe Protein Metabolism.

Broken down into amino acids to generate ATP

26

In a ________, a substance (________) dissolves another substance (________)

Solution / Solvent / Solute

27

A Acid dissociates into?

Hydrogen ions (H+)

28

A Base dissociates into?

Hydroxide ions (OH-)

29

A Salt dissociates into?

Neither H+ or OH-

30

Define pH.

Determines the acidity or alkalinity level of a solution

31

More Hydrogen Ions in a solution makes it more...?

Acidic

32

More Hydroxide Ions in a solutions makes it more...?

Alkaline

33

Which organic compound functions as the primary energy substrates, using glycogen to generate ATP?

Carbohydrates

34

What are 'Triglycerides'?

Storage form of excess calories

35

(T or F) Fatty acid is not an energy substrate.

F

36

Explain the function of DNA.

Genetic material controls cell activities

37

Explain the function of RNA.

Relays genetic instruction to guide protein synthesis

38

What is the function of catalytic proteins?

Regulate biochemical reactions