GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM Flashcards Preview

T1 PHYSIOLOGY > GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM > Flashcards

Flashcards in GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM Deck (55):
1

What are the two types of Digestion?

Mechanical and Chemical Digestion

2

Describe Mechanical Digestion.

Tongue, teeth, stomach, and sm. intestine mix/cut/churn food

3

Describe Chemical Digestion.

Enzymes secreted from salivary glands, tongue, stomach, pancreas, and sm. intestine breakdown nutrients

4

Mastication means?

Chewing

5

Deglutition means?

Swallowing

6

Emesis means?

Vomiting

7

Gustation means?

Taste

8

Where is the Parotid Gland located?

Inferior-anterior to ear. Between skin and masseter.

9

Where is the Submandibular Glands located?

Floor of mouth

10

Where is the Sublingual Glands located?

Beneath tongue

11

What is Bolus?

Soft, flexible mass (chewed food)

12

Describe the function of the Pharynx (Throat)?

Contractions moves bolus from mouth, to pharynx, to esophagus

13

Describe the structure and function of Esophagus.

Collapsible tube running from pharynx, through diaphragm, to stomach. - secrets mucous and moves bolus

14

What is the 'Esophageal Hiatus'?

A hole in the Diaphragm where the Esophagus runs through

15

Define Peristalsis.

Wave-like contractions moving bolus from esophagus to anus

16

What are the structures controlling food passage in the Upper Esophageal Sphincter?

Pharynx into Esophagus

17

What are the structures controlling food passage in the Lower Esophageal Sphincter?

Esophagus into Stomach

18

The GI Tract extend from ____________ to __________.

Lower Esophagus to Anal Canal

19

List the layers of the GI Tract walls. (deep to superficial)

Mucosa
Submucosa
Muscularis
Serosa

20

Describe the Mucosa layer of GI Tract.

Mucous membrane consisting of:
- Epithelium (secrets)
- Lamina Propria (absorbs)
- Muscularis Musoca (contraction)

21

Describe the Submucosa layer of GI Tract.

- Nutrient transport with blood/lymph vessels
- GI control from Enteric N.S

22

Describe the Muscularis layer of GI Tract.

Contain Circular and Longitudinal Fibres causing contractions controlled by Enteric N.S

23

Describe the Serosa/Visceral Peritoneum layer of GI Tract.

Outermost layer of organs in abdominal cavity

24

Describe the Peritoneum.

Large folds that bind organs to one another and to the walls of the abdominal cavity

25

What are the two layers of Peritoneum?

- Visceral Peritoneum/Serosa
- Parietal Layer

26

What is the space in between the Peritoneum layers?

Peritoneal Cavity

27

What are Retroperitoneal?

Peritoneum layer covering organs on the anterior side

28

Where is the Stomach located?

Below Diaphagrm - Runs from esophagus to sm.intestine

29

Define Chyme.

Soupy mix of food in the stomach

30

Where do food particles pass through once they are small enough?

Pyloric Sphincter into Sm.Intestine

31

What do Mucous Neck cells in the stomach secret?

Mucous

32

What do Parietal cells in the stomach secret?

Intrinsic factor and HCI

33

What do Chief cells in the stomach secret?

Pepsinogen and gastric lipase

34

What do G Cells in the stomach secret?

Gastrin

35

What is the function of Gastrin?

- Gastrin juice production
- LES contractions
- Increase stomach peristalsis
- Relaxes pyloric sphincter

36

What additional layer does the stomach have to facilitate mixing?

Oblique layer of smooth muscle

37

List the order of the 3 regions of the Sm.Intestine.

Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum

38

What are the Circular Folds in the Sm.Intestine?

Ridges in Mucosa/Submucosa increasing surface area

39

Define Villi.

Finger-like projection covered in epithelium, increasing surface area

40

What is the function of Absorptive cells?

Digestion/Absorption

41

What is the function of Goblet cells?

Mucous

42

What is the function of Paneth cells?

Kill bacteria

43

What is the function of Enteroendocrine?

Secrete hormones

44

Define Microvilli.

Brush border found in Absorptive cells

45

What does each Villus contain?

Arteriole / Venule / Lacteal

46

What is Chyme mixed with in the Sm.Intestine?

Intestinal and Pancreatic Juices

47

Where do absorbed nutrients in the Sm.Intestine pass into?

Blood stream to Liver
Lymphatics (lipids) via Lacteal
Ileocecal Valve/Sphincter to Lg.Intestine

48

What are the two functions of the Pancreas?

Endocrine and Exocrine

49

Define the Exocrine function.

Secretes Pancreatic Juices into Duodenal Lumen

50

Pancreatic Juice are secreted into the Duodenum via 2 main ducts:

- Common Duct formed by Pancreatic Duct joining Bile Duct
- Accessory Duct

51

What passes through the Hepatic Artery?

Oxygenated blood

52

What passes through the Hepatic Portal Vein?

Deoxygenated blood containing nutrients, medications, microbes and toxins

53

What is the function of Hepatocyte (Liver Cells).

- Absorb oxygen/nutrients/toxins
- Release nutrients
- Make/secrete bile

54

If low blood pressure is present, hepatocytes will...

Breakdown glycogen and release into blood

55

If high blood pressure is present, hepatocytes will...

Remove glucose from blood and store it