MUSCULAR SYSTEM PT 1 (UNFINISHED) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MUSCULAR SYSTEM PT 1 (UNFINISHED) Deck (58):
1

Define Electrical Excitability of muscle tissue.

Muscle tissue responds to stimuli by PRODUCING APs

2

Define Contractility of muscle tissue.

GENERATE TENSION when stimulated by an AP

3

Define Extensibility of muscle tissue.

STRETCH (LENGTHEN) WTHOUT DAMAGE

4

Define Elasticity of muscle tissue.

RETURN ORIGINAL SHAPE after contraction or stretch

5

List the order of the Hierarchy of Skeletal Organization.

Muscle
Fascicle
Muscle Fibre (Muscle Cell)
Myofibril

6

What are the characteristics fro Skeletal/Striated Muscle?

- Alternating light and dark bands
- Voluntary/conscious control

7

A Muscle is subdivided into?

Bundles of fascicles

8

Describe a Fascicle.

Measured in MM. Made up of many muscle fibres

9

Describe a Muscle Fibre/Muscle Cell.

Cylindrical in shape and filled with Myofibrils

10

What is 'Sarcolemma'?

PLASMA MEMBRANE of muscle cell

11

What are Transverse Tubules (T-tubules)?

Tiny TUNNELS in from the sarcolemma towards the centre of muscle fibre.

12

What is 'Sarcoplasm'?

The cytoplasm of the muscle fibres, containing glycogen

13

Describe a Myoglobin.

A protein binding oxygen that diffuses into muscle fibres and delivers it to the mitochondria.

14

What are Myofibrils?

CONTRACTILE ORGANELLES of the muscle cell

15

What is the function of Cytoskeletal Proteins in Myofibrils?

Holds Myofibrils in place

16

What is Sarcoplasmic Reticulum?

SACS/TUBES surrounding each myofibril storing and releasing CALCIUM into cell

17

Define a Sarcomere.

Functional units of a myofibril (contractions)

18

What is an Actin?

Makes up THIN filaments

19

What is an Myosin?

Makes up THICK filaments

20

What generates force/contractions of a Myofibril?

The overlap and interaction of thick and thin filaments

21

What are Myofilaments?

2 contractile proteins of the Sarcomere: Actin and Myosin

22

Explain the PROCESS of the Neurological Control of muscle tissue.

1. Axons reaches muscle using Axon Terminals
2. Axon Terminals form junction with Sarcolemma
3. Axons release Acetylcholine (ACh) over the synaptic cleft

23

What is a Motor Neuron?

A nerve cell that conducts APs to muscle cells

24

What is a Motor Unit?

The motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibres it innervates

25

Precise movements require _______ changes in muscle contraction

Small

26

Imprecise movements require _______ amounts of tension.

Large

27

Muscles that perform ______ movements are made up of small motor units.

Fine

28

Muscles that perform _______ movements are made up of large motor units.

Gross

29

Explain Motor Unit Recruitment.

AP travels down motor neuron to muscle fibres which will generate force in that motor unit

30

What are the 3 types of Skeletal Muscle Fibres?

- Slow Oxidative
- Fast Oxidative-Glycolytic
- Fast Glycolytic

31

Explain the characteristics of Slow Oxidative Fibres/Type l.

- Fatigue resistant
- Endurance-type functions
- Lots of energy substrates
- Generates ATP via aerobic cellular respiration

32

Explain the characteristics of Fast Oxidative-Glycolytic Fibres/Type lla.

- High resistance to fatigue
- Endurance and shorter-duration functions
- Intermediate amounts of energy substrates
- Generates ATP via aerobic/anaerobic pathways

33

Explain the characteristics of Fast Glycolytic Fibres/Type llx.

- Low resistance to fatigue
- High intensity,short duration functions
- Low amounts of energy substrates
- Generates ATP via anaerobic pathways

34

What is the Length-Tension Relationship?

Ability to generate force depends on the length of the sarcomeres within a muscle

35

Define Isotonic.

Muscle contracts against a resistance that is not changing

36

Define Concentric.

Shortening contraction

37

Define Eccentric.

Lengthening contraction

38

Define Isometric.

Muscle contracts which length of muscle does not visibly change

39

Define a Variable Resistance.

Muscle contraction that varies the resistance to match the strength curve.

40

Define Isokinetic.

Muscle contraction in a range that keeps movement constant

41

What is a Twitch Contraction?

A brief contraction to a single AP in its motor neuron

42

Define Muscle Resting Tone.

A small amount of tension generated in the muscles

43

Define Flaccidity.

Lace of tone from nerve being damaged or cut

44

What is Hypertrophy?

An INCREASE in muscle size

45

What is Atrophy?

A DECREASE in muscle size

46

Which muscle connective tissue surrounds the 'entire muscle'?

Epimysium

47

Which muscle connective tissue surrounds the 'fascicles'?

Perimysium

48

Which muscle connective tissue surrounds the 'muscle fibres'?

Endomysium

49

What is the Musculotendinous Junction?

Connection of muscle to tendon

50

What is the Tendonperiosteal Junction?

Connection of tendon to periosteum

51

What is Aponeurosis?

Broad, flat, tendon

52

What is a Tendon Sheath?

Tube surrounding tendon for protection

53

What is the function of Satellite Cells?

Muscle repair and regeneration

54

Define Autorhythmicity.

Heart cells that act as a pacemaker

55

Describe the characteristics of Smooth Muscle.

- Spindle shape
- Involuntary control
- Found in walls of hollow tubes
- Contractions slow but long

56

Explain a Single Unit Smooth Muscle Tissue.

One AP supplies several smooth muscle fibres

57

Explain a Multiunit Smooth Muscle Tissue.

One motor neuron terminal supplies one smooth muscle fibre

58

Describe the characteristics of Cardiac Muscle.

- Branched fibres
- Involuntary control
- Anchoring junctions with Intercalated Discs