Flashcards in RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Deck (48):
Define the Respiration.
Gas exchange between atmosphere, blood, and body cells
Air flow INTO lungs
Air flow OUT of lungs
What is Pulmonary Respiration?
Gas exchange between RESPIRATORY MEMBRANE
What is Tissue Respiration?
Gas exchange between BLOOD and TISSUE CELLS
What is Cellular Respiration?
Metabolic reaction of O2 and CO2 exchange in the production of ATP
Which 2 structures are involved in the Upper Respiratory System?
Which 4 structures are involved in the Lower Respiratory System?
Larynx (Voice box)
Which 7 structures are involved in the Conducting Zone?
Larynx (Voice box)
What is the function of the Conducting Zone?
Filters/moisten air for lungs
Receive olfactory stimuli
Which 4 structures are involved in the Respiratory Zone?
What is the function of the Respiratory Zone?
What is the function of Ciliated Cells in the Nose?
Moves mucous down to the Pharynx for digestion
Describe the structure and location of the Pharynx (Throat).
Funnelled tube behind Nasal Cavity and above Larynx
What are the functions of the Pharynx (Throat)?
Passageway for air and food
Chamber for sounds
Inferior to the Pharynx, it opens into the _________ posteriorly, and the ________ anteriorly.
Esophagus / Larynx
Where is the Larynx located?
Where the Pharynx divides
What is the Epiglottis?
Flap protecting top of Larynx
What structure is inferior to the larynx?
Describe the structure of the Trachea (Windpipe).
Hyaline cartilage c-shaped rings lined with mucous membrane
What is the function of Cilia Cells in the Trachea?
Sweeps particulate down Pharynx
The Bronchi starts at ____ dividing into right and left primary bronchi, which travels into ______________.
T5 / L and R lungs
What is a Carina.
Sensitive area where Trachea divides which causes a cough reflex
Describe the Mediastinum.
A region in thoracic cavity between Lungs
What structures are the borders of the Mediastinum?
Ant. - Sternum
Pos. - Vertebrae
Sup. - Clavicle
Inf. - 1st Rib
Each Bronchus divides into smaller units, which are:
Secondary Bronchi (3 R/2L)
What is the function of Alveolar Cells?
Gas exchange and keep cells moist (fluid secretion)
What is the function of Surfactant in Alveolar Cells?
Reduces fluid tension of fluid and reduces Alveoli to collapse
What do Alveolar Macrophages do?
What does Fibroblast make?
Reticular and Elastic Fibres
Oxygen from the _____ goes into the blood
Carbon Dioxide from the ______ goes into the air
Gas exchange happen through _______ diffusion across the ________ and __________, which form the respiratory membrane
Simple / Alveolar / Capillary Walls
Most of the oxygen is carried from the lungs to the body tissue bound to ___________ (Hb)
Most of the carbon dioxide is carried in the blood in the form of ___________ (HCO2). Some is carried attached to ___________.
Bicarbonate / Carboxyhemoglobin
What is the Pleural Membrane?
A double layer serous membrane protecting Lungs
What is the Visceral Pleura?
Membrane covering Lungs
What is the Parietal Pleura?
Membrane covering inside of Thoracic Cavity
What is the Pleural Cavity?
Space between Pleural Membranes containing lubricating fluid
To inhale, the thoracic volume _______ and the thoracic pressure ________
Increases / Decreases
To exhale, the thoracic volume _______ and the thoracic pressure ________
Decreases / Increases
Explain a Forced Vital Capacity (FVC)
Largest volume of air inhaled into Lungs
Explain Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV)
Volume of air exhaled in 1 sec, after max inhale
Explain Tidal Volume
Volume of air in one regular breath
Which part of the Brain controls the rhythm and rate of breathing?
Explain the Central Chemoreceptors.
Detects rising CO2 and H+, by increasing ventilation
Explain the Peripheral Chemoreceptors.
Respond to rising CO2 and H+ concentrations and dropping O2 concentrations, by increasing ventilation