RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Flashcards Preview

T1 PHYSIOLOGY > RESPIRATORY SYSTEM > Flashcards

Flashcards in RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Deck (48):
1

Define the Respiration.

Gas exchange between atmosphere, blood, and body cells

2

Inhalation/Inspiration means?

Air flow INTO lungs

3

Exhalation/Expiration means?

Air flow OUT of lungs

4

What is Pulmonary Respiration?

Gas exchange between RESPIRATORY MEMBRANE

5

What is Tissue Respiration?

Gas exchange between BLOOD and TISSUE CELLS

6

What is Cellular Respiration?

Metabolic reaction of O2 and CO2 exchange in the production of ATP

7

Which 2 structures are involved in the Upper Respiratory System?

Nose
Pharynx (Throat)

8

Which 4 structures are involved in the Lower Respiratory System?

Larynx (Voice box)
Trachea (Windpipe)
Bronchi
Lungs

9

Which 7 structures are involved in the Conducting Zone?

Nose
Pharynx (Throat)
Larynx (Voice box)
Trachea (Windpipe)
Bronchi
Bronchioles
Terminal Bronchioles

10

What is the function of the Conducting Zone?

Filters/moisten air for lungs
Receive olfactory stimuli
Generate sound

11

Which 4 structures are involved in the Respiratory Zone?

Respiratory Bronchioles
Alveolar Ducts
Alveoli
Alveolar Sacs

12

What is the function of the Respiratory Zone?

Gas exchange

13

What is the function of Ciliated Cells in the Nose?

Moves mucous down to the Pharynx for digestion

14

Describe the structure and location of the Pharynx (Throat).

Funnelled tube behind Nasal Cavity and above Larynx

15

What are the functions of the Pharynx (Throat)?

Passageway for air and food
Chamber for sounds
Houses tonsils

16

Inferior to the Pharynx, it opens into the _________ posteriorly, and the ________ anteriorly.

Esophagus / Larynx

17

Where is the Larynx located?

Where the Pharynx divides

18

What is the Epiglottis?

Flap protecting top of Larynx

19

What structure is inferior to the larynx?

Trachea (Windpipe)

20

Describe the structure of the Trachea (Windpipe).

Hyaline cartilage c-shaped rings lined with mucous membrane

21

What is the function of Cilia Cells in the Trachea?

Sweeps particulate down Pharynx

22

The Bronchi starts at ____ dividing into right and left primary bronchi, which travels into ______________.

T5 / L and R lungs

23

What is a Carina.

Sensitive area where Trachea divides which causes a cough reflex

24

Describe the Mediastinum.

A region in thoracic cavity between Lungs

25

What structures are the borders of the Mediastinum?

Ant. - Sternum
Pos. - Vertebrae
Sup. - Clavicle
Inf. - 1st Rib

26

Each Bronchus divides into smaller units, which are:

Secondary Bronchi (3 R/2L)
Tertiary Bronchi
Bronchioles
Terminal Bronchioles

27

What is the function of Alveolar Cells?

Gas exchange and keep cells moist (fluid secretion)

28

What is the function of Surfactant in Alveolar Cells?

Reduces fluid tension of fluid and reduces Alveoli to collapse

29

What do Alveolar Macrophages do?

Remove dust

30

What does Fibroblast make?

Reticular and Elastic Fibres

31

Oxygen from the _____ goes into the blood

Air

32

Carbon Dioxide from the ______ goes into the air

Blood

33

Gas exchange happen through _______ diffusion across the ________ and __________, which form the respiratory membrane

Simple / Alveolar / Capillary Walls

34

Most of the oxygen is carried from the lungs to the body tissue bound to ___________ (Hb)

Hemoglobin

35

Most of the carbon dioxide is carried in the blood in the form of ___________ (HCO2). Some is carried attached to ___________.

Bicarbonate / Carboxyhemoglobin

36

What is the Pleural Membrane?

A double layer serous membrane protecting Lungs

37

What is the Visceral Pleura?

Membrane covering Lungs

38

What is the Parietal Pleura?

Membrane covering inside of Thoracic Cavity

39

What is the Pleural Cavity?

Space between Pleural Membranes containing lubricating fluid

40

To inhale, the thoracic volume _______ and the thoracic pressure ________

Increases / Decreases

41

To exhale, the thoracic volume _______ and the thoracic pressure ________

Decreases / Increases

42

Explain a Forced Vital Capacity (FVC)

Largest volume of air inhaled into Lungs

43

Explain Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV)

Volume of air exhaled in 1 sec, after max inhale

44

Explain Tidal Volume

Volume of air in one regular breath

45

Which part of the Brain controls the rhythm and rate of breathing?

Brain Stem

46

Explain the Central Chemoreceptors.

Detects rising CO2 and H+, by increasing ventilation

47

Explain the Peripheral Chemoreceptors.

Respond to rising CO2 and H+ concentrations and dropping O2 concentrations, by increasing ventilation

48

Where are Peripheral Chemoreceptors located in the Brain?

The Carotid Arteries and Arch of the Aorta