Bio I Evolution 4.1-4.2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bio I Evolution 4.1-4.2 Deck (28):
1

Fitness is...

The ability to survive and reproduce in specific environment

2

What is struggle for existence?

Members of species compete against each other for resources

3

What is a cladogram

Branching diagram which shows relationship between species

4

What are the 4 sources of evidence for evolution?

1. Fossil record
2. Geographic distribution of organisms
3. Comparative anatomy
4. Biochemistry

5

Why can't fossil records be fully reliable?

Don't have fossils for everything

6

What does fossil record show?

How earth has changed over time

7

What is the study of an organism before birth?

Embryology

8

Homologous structures have...

Same structure, different function

9

Analogous structures have...

Different structure, same functions

10

An insect wing and a bird wing are...

Analogous structures

11

A bat wing and a human arm are...

Homologous structures

12

What are vestigial structures?

Structures that serve no useful function

13

How do vestigial structures provide evolution evidence?

They were once used in a common ancester

14

What is biochemistry?

Comparing proteins in different organisms

15

What is comparing proteins in different organisms?

Biochemistry

16

Organization of classification in taxonomy...

Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

17

What is a gene pool?

All genes present in a population

18

What are the three main sources of variation?

Mutations, genetic recombination in sexual reproduction, and lateral gene transfer in asexual reproduction

19

What is the original source of genetic variation?

Mutations

20

Why does genetic recombination occur?

Crossing over during meiosis
Random fertilization
Two parents

21

What three things affect genetic variation?

1. Genetic drift
2. Gene flow
3. Natural selection

22

Bottle neck effect

Natural disaster changes population gene pool

23

Founder effect

New population established results in loss of genetic variation

24

What is gene flow?

Migration of individuals between populations

25

Speciation?

Formation of a new species

26

What are the three types of isolation mechanisms?

1. Behavioral
2. Geographical
3. Temporal

27

List and explain the types of selection (think bell graph)

- directional: one of the extremes selected for, other against
- stabilizing: middle trait selected for
- disruptive selection: extremes selected for, middle against

28

Darwin's 6 theories for evolution by natural selection:

1. Struggle for existence
2. Variation and adaptation
3. Survival of the fittest
4. Fitness
5. Adaptation
6. Common descent