Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (63):
4 classes of organic compounds?
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
Long molecule consisting of monomers
Water molecule is lost to bond two monomers
Macromolecules that speed up the dehydration process
Reverse of dehydration; water molecule added to break up bond of two monomers
How does the process of digestion use hydrolysis and dehydration?
1. Polymer enters body too big, enzymes attack polymers to quicken hydrolysis
2. Monomers absorbed into blood for distribution to cells
3. Can be assembled back to polymers for usage
What are carbohydrate macromolecules?
Monosaccharide molecular formula?
How are monosaccharides classified by?
1. Location of carbonyl group (makes sugar either aldose or ketose)
2. Number of carbons in the carbon skeleton
In monosaccharides, the location of the carbonyl group makes the sugar either _____ or a ______
aldose or a ketose
How do carbohydrates help body?
Major fuel for cells and raw material for building molecules
Bond between carbohydrate monomers is called a ________
_____ is a storage polysaccharide in plants, and _____ is a storage poly in animals
Starch and glycogen are completely composed of ____
Where do plants store starch?
Where do humans store glycogen?
Liver and muscle cells
The polysaccharide ___ is a major component of the tough wall of plant cells
Why are starch/glycogen and cellulose different?
Has B glucose linkages, while starch has A glucose linkages, making them helical
What makes a glucose different from b glucose?
A - hydroxyl always below plane
B - hydroxyl switching after each plane
Cellulose cannot be broken down in humans because...
There are no enzymes to hydrolyze b linkages of cellulose
How do plants use cellulose? How is it beneficial to humans?
How do cows digest cellulose?
Have symbiotic relationship with microbes that hydrolyze b linkages in cellulose
How are lipids different from other large biological molecules?
Has little/no affinity for water
Why are lipids hydrophobic?
Consist mostly of hydrocarbons, which form nonpolar covalent bonds
Most important lipids are...
Fats, phospholipids, and steroids
What are fats constructed from?
1 glycerol connected to 3 fatty acids
The linkage between glycerol and fatty acids in fats is called ____
Saturated fatty acids vs unsaturated fatty acids
-Saturated: max number of hydrogen atoms, no double bonds
-Unsaturated: 1 or more double bonds
Which type of fat is solid at room temperature?
Process of cenverting unsaturated fats to saturated by adding hydrogen
Hydrogenation creats what kind of fat?
Functions of fat?
Energy story, organ cushion, body insulation
Difference between structure of phospholipids and fats?
P: 1 phosphate group, 2 fatty acids
F: 1 glycerol, 3 fatty acids
Difference between characteristics of phospholipids and fats?
Phospholipids have a hydrophilic tail
Cholesterol is a lipid, more specifically a ____
If phospholipids are added to oil, what would happen?
They would form a single layer where hydrophobic tails contact with hydrocarbon regions of oil
Functions of protein?
Structural support, storage, transport, etc.
All chemical reactions taking place inside organisms
What are the polymers created from amino acids?
What does a protein consist of?
One or more polypeptides
How do amino acids differ in properties?
Due to differing R groups
4 parts of amino acid?
amino group, carboxyl group, hydrogen atom, variable group
Amino acids are linked together by ____
Sequence of amino acids determines what of protein?
4 levels of protein structure
-Primary: sequence of amino acids
-Secondary: coils and folds in polypeptide chain
-Tertiary: overall shape of polypeptide determined by R group interactions
-Quaternary: overall protein strucutre resulting from aggregation of polypeptide subunits
Sickle-cell disease arises from an amino acid substituition in protein ____
Loss of a protein's native structure due to pH change, salt concentration, or temperature
Protein molecules that assist the proper folding of other proteins
The amino acid sequence of a polypeptide is programmed by ___
Genes are made of ____
Two types of nucleic acids
-Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
-Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Functions of DNA
-DIrections for replication
-Directs synthesis of mRNA
-Through mRNA, controls protein synthesis
Where does protein synthesis occur?
________ determine protein's _____, and ______ determine this ______
Families of nitrogenous bases
-Pyrimidines: cytosine, thymine, uracil
-Purines: adenine, guanine
Sugar in DNA and RNA
Nitrogenous bases in DNA vs RNA
Arrangement when DNA double helix splits to create two backbones with 5' and 3' directions
Why are carbs used as a source of quick energy rather than fat?
-Less energy to break down
-Easier to access
Hair is chemically straightened; which levels of protein structure are affected by this?
3 to 4