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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (63):
1

4 classes of organic compounds?

Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids

2

Polymer

Long molecule consisting of monomers

3

Condensation/dehydration reaction

Water molecule is lost to bond two monomers

4

Enzymes

Macromolecules that speed up the dehydration process

5

Hydrolysis

Reverse of dehydration; water molecule added to break up bond of two monomers

6

How does the process of digestion use hydrolysis and dehydration?

1. Polymer enters body too big, enzymes attack polymers to quicken hydrolysis
2. Monomers absorbed into blood for distribution to cells
3. Can be assembled back to polymers for usage

7

Carbohydrates include...

sugars

8

Simplest carbs

Monosaccharides

9

What are carbohydrate macromolecules?

Polysaccharides

10

Monosaccharide molecular formula?

CH20

11

How are monosaccharides classified by?

1. Location of carbonyl group (makes sugar either aldose or ketose)
2. Number of carbons in the carbon skeleton

12

In monosaccharides, the location of the carbonyl group makes the sugar either _____ or a ______

aldose or a ketose

13

How do carbohydrates help body?

Major fuel for cells and raw material for building molecules

14

Bond between carbohydrate monomers is called a ________

glycosidic linkage

15

_____ is a storage polysaccharide in plants, and _____ is a storage poly in animals

-starch
-glycogen

16

Starch and glycogen are completely composed of ____

glucose

17

Where do plants store starch?

Chloroplasts

18

Where do humans store glycogen?

Liver and muscle cells

19

The polysaccharide ___ is a major component of the tough wall of plant cells

cellulose

20

Why are starch/glycogen and cellulose different?

Has B glucose linkages, while starch has A glucose linkages, making them helical

21

What makes a glucose different from b glucose?

A - hydroxyl always below plane
B - hydroxyl switching after each plane

22

Cellulose cannot be broken down in humans because...

There are no enzymes to hydrolyze b linkages of cellulose

23

How do plants use cellulose? How is it beneficial to humans?

-Walls
-In paper

24

How do cows digest cellulose?

Have symbiotic relationship with microbes that hydrolyze b linkages in cellulose

25

How are lipids different from other large biological molecules?

Has little/no affinity for water

26

Why are lipids hydrophobic?

Consist mostly of hydrocarbons, which form nonpolar covalent bonds

27

Most important lipids are...

Fats, phospholipids, and steroids

28

What are fats constructed from?

1 glycerol connected to 3 fatty acids

29

The linkage between glycerol and fatty acids in fats is called ____

Ester linkage

30

Saturated fatty acids vs unsaturated fatty acids

-Saturated: max number of hydrogen atoms, no double bonds
-Unsaturated: 1 or more double bonds

31

Which type of fat is solid at room temperature?

Saturated

32

Hydrogenation

Process of cenverting unsaturated fats to saturated by adding hydrogen

33

Hydrogenation creats what kind of fat?

Trans fat

34

Functions of fat?

Energy story, organ cushion, body insulation

35

Difference between structure of phospholipids and fats?

P: 1 phosphate group, 2 fatty acids
F: 1 glycerol, 3 fatty acids

36

Difference between characteristics of phospholipids and fats?

Phospholipids have a hydrophilic tail

37

Cholesterol is a lipid, more specifically a ____

steroid

38

If phospholipids are added to oil, what would happen?

They would form a single layer where hydrophobic tails contact with hydrocarbon regions of oil

39

Functions of protein?

Structural support, storage, transport, etc.

40

Metabolism

All chemical reactions taking place inside organisms

41

What are the polymers created from amino acids?

Polypeptides

42

What does a protein consist of?

One or more polypeptides

43

How do amino acids differ in properties?

Due to differing R groups

44

4 parts of amino acid?

amino group, carboxyl group, hydrogen atom, variable group

45

Amino acids are linked together by ____

peptide bonds

46

Sequence of amino acids determines what of protein?

Structure

47

4 levels of protein structure

-Primary: sequence of amino acids
-Secondary: coils and folds in polypeptide chain
-Tertiary: overall shape of polypeptide determined by R group interactions
-Quaternary: overall protein strucutre resulting from aggregation of polypeptide subunits

48

Sickle-cell disease arises from an amino acid substituition in protein ____

hemoglobin

49

Denaturation

Loss of a protein's native structure due to pH change, salt concentration, or temperature

50

Chaperonins

Protein molecules that assist the proper folding of other proteins

51

The amino acid sequence of a polypeptide is programmed by ___

genes

52

Genes are made of ____

DNA

53

Two types of nucleic acids

-Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
-Ribonucleic acid (RNA)

54

Functions of DNA

-DIrections for replication
-Directs synthesis of mRNA
-Through mRNA, controls protein synthesis

55

Where does protein synthesis occur?

In ribosomes

56

________ determine protein's _____, and ______ determine this ______

-Primary structure/polypeptides
-shape
-genes
-primary structure

57

Families of nitrogenous bases

-Pyrimidines: cytosine, thymine, uracil
-Purines: adenine, guanine

58

Sugar in DNA and RNA

DNA: deoxyribose
RNA: ribose

59

Nitrogenous bases in DNA vs RNA

DNA: thymine
RNA: uracile

60

Antiparallel

Arrangement when DNA double helix splits to create two backbones with 5' and 3' directions

61

Why are carbs used as a source of quick energy rather than fat?

-Less energy to break down
-Easier to access

62

Hair is chemically straightened; which levels of protein structure are affected by this?

3 to 4

63

Why are human sex hormones considered lipids?

They are steroids