Chapter 2.4 - Carbohydrates Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2.4 - Carbohydrates Deck (28):
1

How many groups of carbs are there?

3

2

Monosaccharides are made up of ____

A single sugar molecule

3

Sugar molecules have this formula...

(CH2O)n

4

Glucose formula

C6 H12 O6

5

Fructose formula

C6 H12 O6

6

Difference between glucose and fructose monosaccharides?

Placement of carbon

7

How do the a-glucose and b-glucose monosaccharides differ?

Reversal of H and OH on first carbon

8

Disaccharide

2 sugar molecules joined by glycosidic linkage

9

In a disaccharide, molecules are joined by ____

a glycosidic linkage

10

Glucose and fructose come together to form _____ with equation ____

-sucrose
-C12 H22 O11

Remember that water molecule (H2O) is lost during linkage. Glucose and fructose each have formula C12 H24 O12 and then subtract H2 O

11

What is condensation reaction?

Chemical reaction where 2 molecules join by glycosidic linkage and small molecule is lost

12

What is dehydration reaction?

Where water molecule is lost in condensation reaction

13

Difference between condensation reaction and dehydration reaction?

C: any small molecule is lost
D: water molecule is lost

14

What is hydrolysis?

Molecule splits to form 2 molecules by addition of water

15

What is the reverse reaction of a dehydration reaction?

Hydrolysis

16

Polysaccharide

Series of connected monosaccharides

17

Polysaccharides are ______

polymers

18

Why are polysaccharides polymers?

Because it's a repeating unit of monosaccharides

19

What are the 2 polymers of a-glucose molecules? 2 polymers of b-glucose molecules?

-Starch and glycogen
-Cellulose and chitin

20

Starch is used as...

The principal energy storage molecule in plant cells

21

How are carbs divided into groups?

Depending on number of saccharides (sugars) present

22

Glycogen is used as...

The principal energy storage molecule in animal cells

23

Cellulose is used as...

Structural molecule in plant cell walls, and major component of wood

24

Chitin is used as...

Structural molecule in fungus cell walls and in exoskeletons of insects, anthropods, and mollusks

25

Difference between structure of cellulose and chitin?

Chitin has a nitrogen-containing group attached to the ring

26

How can the a-glycosidic linkages in starch be broken down?

By human digestion

27

Who can break down the b-glycosidic links in cellulose bonds?

Only specialized organisms can break them down

28

Difference between structure of starch and cellulose?

In cellulose polymer, each monosaccharide rotates 180 degrees