Flashcards in Chapter 2.4 - Carbohydrates Deck (28):
How many groups of carbs are there?
Monosaccharides are made up of ____
A single sugar molecule
Sugar molecules have this formula...
C6 H12 O6
C6 H12 O6
Difference between glucose and fructose monosaccharides?
Placement of carbon
How do the a-glucose and b-glucose monosaccharides differ?
Reversal of H and OH on first carbon
2 sugar molecules joined by glycosidic linkage
In a disaccharide, molecules are joined by ____
a glycosidic linkage
Glucose and fructose come together to form _____ with equation ____
-C12 H22 O11
Remember that water molecule (H2O) is lost during linkage. Glucose and fructose each have formula C12 H24 O12 and then subtract H2 O
What is condensation reaction?
Chemical reaction where 2 molecules join by glycosidic linkage and small molecule is lost
What is dehydration reaction?
Where water molecule is lost in condensation reaction
Difference between condensation reaction and dehydration reaction?
C: any small molecule is lost
D: water molecule is lost
What is hydrolysis?
Molecule splits to form 2 molecules by addition of water
What is the reverse reaction of a dehydration reaction?
Series of connected monosaccharides
Polysaccharides are ______
Why are polysaccharides polymers?
Because it's a repeating unit of monosaccharides
What are the 2 polymers of a-glucose molecules? 2 polymers of b-glucose molecules?
-Starch and glycogen
-Cellulose and chitin
Starch is used as...
The principal energy storage molecule in plant cells
How are carbs divided into groups?
Depending on number of saccharides (sugars) present
Glycogen is used as...
The principal energy storage molecule in animal cells
Cellulose is used as...
Structural molecule in plant cell walls, and major component of wood
Chitin is used as...
Structural molecule in fungus cell walls and in exoskeletons of insects, anthropods, and mollusks
Difference between structure of cellulose and chitin?
Chitin has a nitrogen-containing group attached to the ring
How can the a-glycosidic linkages in starch be broken down?
By human digestion
Who can break down the b-glycosidic links in cellulose bonds?
Only specialized organisms can break them down